A banquet is a formal large meal or feast involving main courses and desserts. The meal tends to serve a purpose such as a charitable gathering, a ceremony, or a celebration involved either preceding or following speeches in honor of the topic or guest of honour. Despite the controversy surrounding the origins of feasting, numerous theories have been suggested. According to archaeologist Brian Hayden, feasts were an important social event either facilitated by or featuring the surplus of food, resulting in the experience gaining social and political ties and a competitive element to display one's own wealth. Whilst Bendall suggests the importance of luxury foods, Hayden argues the likelihood that animal meat and rice were part of these luxury goods. Banqueting, as a notion, has manifested itself in a variety of forms throughout history. In Ancient Greece, symposia, an early kind of banquet, formed a routine part of life involving the celebratory drinking of wine and performances of poetry and music.
Banquets persisted in popularity over the years including Belshazzar's Feast, Last Supper, Manchu Han Imperial Feast, Mead halls. By the Middle Ages, the event had become more structured, with comprehensive ritualised elements were involved in the traditional three-course menu, which could have up to 25 dishes in each course; the structure was altered to two courses, with the pre-existing third course changed to the serving of fruit and nuts. Banqueting rooms varied with location, but tended to be on an intimate scale, either in a garden room, banquet hall or inside such as the small banqueting turrets in Longleat House. A contemporary banquet may serve many purposes to formal business dinners. Business banquets are a popular way to strengthen bonds between their partners, it is common. A luau is one variety of banquet used in Hawaii; the Nei Mongol provincial government in China levies a tax on banquets. Banquet hall Beefsteak List of dining events Party Albala, Ken; the banquet: Dining in the Great Courts of late Renaissance Europe.
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The kids' meal or children's meal is a fast food combination meal tailored to and marketed to children. Most kids' meals come in colourful bags or cardboard boxes with depictions of activities on the bag or box and a plastic toy inside; the standard kids' meal comprises a burger or chicken nuggets, a side item, a soft drink. The first kids' meal, emerged at Burger Chef in 1973 and succeeded. Discerning the popularity of the kids' meal, McDonald's introduced its Happy Meal in 1978, other fast food corporations, including Burger King, followed suit with their own kids' meals; some fast food corporations considered youngsters their "most important" customers, owing to the success of the kids' meal. Their effectiveness has been ascribed to the fact that the patronage of youngsters means the patronage of a family and to the allure of the toys, which are in collectable series. In 2006, $360 million of the expenditures of fast food corporations was for toys in kids' meals, which numbered over 1.2 billion.
In recent years, the popularity of the kids' meal has receded, with a study by NPD Group indicating that there was a 6% decrease in kids' meals sales in 2011. Explanations include parents' realization that kids' meals are unhealthy, parents' desire to save money, as well as kids' outgrowing the meals earlier than before. Youngsters have "become more sophisticated in their palates" and seek items from the regular menu but in smaller servings. Kids' meal toys are no longer appealing to the technology-oriented youth, who prefer video games; the kids meal toys of Wendy's and Chick-Fil-A are no longer appealing to ages 8–12. Kids' meals have evolved in response to offering healthier selections and greater variety. In 2011, nineteen food chains participating in the Kids Live Well initiative—including Burger King, Denny's, IHOP, Chili's, Friendly's, Chevy's, El Pollo Loco—pledged to "offer at least one children's meal that has fewer than 600 calories, no soft drinks and at least two items from the following food groups: fruits, whole grains, lean proteins or low-fat dairy".
There have been concerns from food critics about the nutritional value of the kids' meal. A 2010 study by the Rudd Center for Food Policy and Obesity inspecting the kids' meals of twelve US food chains concluded that of 3,039 entrée combinations, twelve satisfied the advised levels of fat and calories for preschool kids and fifteen those for older kids. Burger King has run kids meal promotions featuring toys of characters from PG-13 films at least four times, such as Small Soldiers in 1998, Star Wars: Episode III – Revenge of the Sith in 2005, the Simpsons movie in 2007, One of the McDonald's toys featuring Minions characters in 2015 has caused controversy because parents have confused the gibberish talking minion with profanity; this was said to have taught young children an invalid language. As a result, the minion toys promotion was ended early, in July 2015. In the United States, kids' meals have been blamed for ingraining unhealthy dietary habits in youngsters and augmenting child obesity.
In 2010, Santa Clara County, California implemented a ban on toys accompanying kids' meals that fail nutritional standards. San Francisco County enacted the same ban, similar ones have been proposed or considered in other cities or states across the country. Conversely, legislators in Arizona prohibited such restrictions, Florida state senators proposed the same. Outside the United States and Brazil have considered such measures. Chile has banned toys in kids' meals altogether. List of restaurant terminology
Dinner refers to the most significant meal of the day, which can be at noon or in the evening. However, the term "dinner" can have different meanings depending on culture, as it may mean a meal of any size eaten at any time of day, it referred to the first meal of the day eaten around noon, is still sometimes used for a noon-time meal if it is a large or main meal. In many parts of the Western world, dinner is taken as the evening meal; the word is from the Old French disner, meaning "dine", from the stem of Gallo-Romance desjunare, from Latin dis- + Late Latin ieiunare, from Latin ieiunus. The Romanian word dejun and the French déjeuner retain this etymology and to some extent the meaning; the term shifted to referring to the heavy main meal of the day if it had been preceded by a breakfast meal. In Europe, the fashionable hour for dinner began to be incrementally postponed during the 18th century, to two and three in the afternoon, until at the time of the First French Empire an English traveler to Paris remarked upon the "abominable habit of dining as late as seven in the evening".
Dinners in the evening became more common in the 1700s, due to developments in work practices, financial status, cultural changes. In many modern usages, the term dinner refers to the evening meal, now the most significant meal of the day in English-speaking cultures; when this meaning is used, the preceding meals are referred to as breakfast and tea. The divide between different meanings of "dinner" is not cut-and-dried based on either geography or socioeconomic class. However, the use of the term dinner for the midday meal is strongest among working-class people in the English Midlands, North of England and the central belt of Scotland. In systems in which dinner is the meal eaten at the end of the day, an individual dinner may still refer to a main or more sophisticated meal at any time in the day, such as a banquet, feast, or a special meal eaten on a Sunday or holiday, such as Christmas dinner or Thanksgiving dinner. At such a dinner, the people who dine together may be formally dressed and consume food with an array of utensils.
These dinners are divided into three or more courses. Appetizers consisting of options such as soup or salad, precede the main course, followed by the dessert. A survey by Jacob's Creek, an Australian winemaker, found the average evening meal time in the U. K. to be 7:47pm. A dinner party is a social gathering. During the times of Ancient Rome, a dinner party was referred to as a convivia, was a significant event for Roman emperors and senators to congregate and discuss their relations; the Romans ate and were very fond of fish sauce called liquamen during said parties. In greater London, dinner parties were sometimes formal occasions that included printed invitations and formal RSVPs; the food served at these parties ranged from large, extravagant food displays and several meal courses to more simple fare and food service. Activities sometimes included poetry reciting, among others. "Dinner" definition from Cambridge.org Wikibooks Cookbook BBC article on history of dinner
Outline of food preparation
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to food preparation: Food preparation – art form and applied science that includes but is not limited to cooking. Art – an art, one of the arts, is a creative endeavor or discipline. Culinary art – art of preparing and cooking foods. Skill – learned capacity to carry out pre-determined results with the minimum outlay of time, energy, or both. Meal preparation – the process of planning meals. Chef – a person who cooks professionally for other people. Although over time the term has come to describe any person who cooks for a living, traditionally it refers to a skilled professional, proficient in all aspects of food preparation. Cooking – act of preparing food for eating, it encompasses a vast range of methods and combinations of ingredients to improve the flavour or digestibility of food. It requires the selection and combining of ingredients in an ordered procedure in an effort to achieve the desired result. Cuisine – specific set of cooking traditions and practices associated with a specific culture.
It is named after the region or place where its underlying culture is present. A cuisine is influenced by the ingredients that are available locally or through trade. Baking – the technique of prolonged cooking of food by dry heat acting by convection in an oven, but can be done in hot ashes or on hot stones. Appliances like Rotimatic allow automatic baking. Blind-baking – baking pastry before adding a filling. Boiling – the rapid vaporization of a liquid, which occurs when a liquid is heated to its boiling point, the temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid is equal to the pressure exerted on the liquid by the surrounding environmental pressure. Blanching – cooking technique which food substance a vegetable or fruit, is plunged into boiling water, removed after a brief, timed interval, plunged into iced water or placed under cold running water to halt the cooking process. Braising – combination cooking method using both moist and dry heat. Coddling – food is heated in water kept just below the boiling point.
Infusion – going to a health cafe and ordering tea without the milk or sugar. Pressure cooking – cooking in a sealed vessel that does not permit air or liquids to escape below a preset pressure, which allows the liquid in the pot to rise to a higher temperature before boiling. Simmering – foods are cooked in hot liquids kept at or just below the boiling point of water, but higher than poaching temperature. Poaching – process of simmering food in liquid milk, stock or wine. Steaming – boiling water continuously so it vaporizes into steam and carries heat to the food being steamed, thus cooking the food. Double steaming – Chinese cooking technique in which food is covered with water and put in a covered ceramic jar and the jar is steamed for several hours. Steeping – saturation of a food in a liquid solvent to extract a soluble ingredient into the solvent. E.g. A cup of tea is made by steeping tea leaves in a cup of hot water. Stewing – food is cooked in liquid and served in the resultant gravy. Vacuum flask cooking – Grilling – a form of cooking that involves dry heat applied to the surface of food from above or below.
Frying – cooking food in oil or another fat, a technique that originated in ancient Egypt around 2500 BC. Deep frying – food is submerged in hot oil or fat; this is performed with a deep fryer or chip pan. Hot salt frying – Pan frying – cooking food in a pan using a small amount of cooking oil or fat as a heat transfer agent and to keep the food from sticking. Pressure frying – Sautéing – Stir frying – Microwave oven – type of oven that heats foods and efficiently using microwaves. However, unlike conventional ovens, a microwave oven does not brown bake food; this makes microwave ovens unsuitable for cooking certain foods and unable to achieve certain culinary effects. Additional kinds of heat sources can be added into microwave ovens or microwave packaging so as to add these additional effects. Roasting – cooking method that uses dry heat, whether an open flame, oven, or other heat source. Roasting causes caramelization or Maillard browning of the surface of the food, considered by some as a flavor enhancement.
Barbecuing – method of cooking meat and fish with the heat and hot smoke of a fire, smoking wood, or hot coals of charcoal. Grilling – applying dry heat to the surface of food, by cooking it on a grill, a grill pan, or griddle. Rotisserie – meat is skewered on a spit - a long solid rod used to hold food while it is being cooked over a fire in a fireplace or over a campfire, or while being roasted in an oven. Searing – technique used in grilling, braising, sautéing, etc. in which the surface of the food is cooked at high temperature so a caramelized crust forms. Smoking – the process of flavoring, cooking, or preserving food by exposing it to the smoke from burning or smoldering plant materials, most wood. Hot smoking will flavor the food, while cold smoking only flavors the food. Brining –Brining is a process similar to marination in which meat or poultry is soaked in brine before cooking Ceviche – Drying – Fermentation – Marinating –SaikyoyakiPickling – Salting – Seasoning – Souring – Sprouting – Sugaring – Basting – Cutting Dicing –cutting into cubes Grating – The use of a grater to mash vegetables.
Julienning –cutting into thin pieces such as the thin carrots in store bought salad mix Mincing –cutting into ver
Full course dinner
A full-course dinner is a dinner consisting of multiple dishes, or courses. In its simplest form, it can consist of three or four courses, first course, a main course and dessert. A multicourse meal or full-course dinner is a meal of multiple courses invariably eaten in the evening or afternoon. Most Western-world multicourse meals follow a standard sequence, influenced by traditional French haute cuisine; each course is supposed to be designed with a particular size and genre that befits its place in the sequence. There are variations depending on custom; the following is a common sequence for multicourse meals: The meal begins with an entrée, a small serving that does not include red meat. In Italian custom, antipasto is served finger food that does not contain pasta or any starch; this may be followed by a variety including a possible fish course or other light fare. The number and size of these intermittent courses is dependent on local custom. Following these is the main course; this is the most important course and is the largest.
Next comes the salad course, although salad may refer to a cooked vegetable, rather than the greens most people associate with the word. Note that in America since around 1960, the salad course is served at some point before the main course. Sometimes, the salad accompanies the cheese course; the meal may carry on with a cheese selection, accompanied by an appropriate selection of wine. In many countries cheeses will be served before the meal, in the United States between the main course and dessert, just like in most European countries. In the UK, more the cheese course will follow dessert. Nuts are a popular after-meal selection; the meal will culminate with a dessert, either hot or cold, sometimes followed with a final serving of hot or cold fruit and accompanied by a suitable dessert wine. Meals like this are very formal as well as expensive. In formal dining, a full-course dinner can consist of 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, or 16 courses, and, in its extreme form, has been known to have 21 courses. In these more formalized dining events, the courses are planned to complement each other gastronomically.
The courses are smaller and spread out over a long evening, up to four or five hours. They follow conventions of menu planning. Most courses in the most formal full-course dinners are paired with a different wine, liqueur, or other spirit. In service à la russe, courses are brought to the table in sequence. Only empty plates are set in front of each guest. Courses are served on platters, guests make selections from a variety of dishes and fill their own plate. Food presentation is skillfully focused on the platters. A filled plate is never placed in front of a guest. Guests are expected to eat as much as they want. In service à la française, food is served "family-style", with all courses on the table at the same time. Guests serve. Alternatively, buffet style is a variation of the French service where all food is available at the correct temperature in a serving space other than the dining table. Guests commute to the buffet to be served or sometimes serve themselves and carry their plates back to the table.
In an American formal dining course, each course is served sequentially. Guests are served plates filled with food in individual portions. Guests have an opportunity to choose between vegetarian or meat entrées. There is no opportunity to ask for more than a single serving. Table settings can be elaborate. More formal settings sometimes include all silverware and glassware that will be needed for the entire meal, lay out the silverware so that the outermost tools are used for the dishes appearing earliest on the menu. In this scheme, when diners are served the first course, they can depend on finding the correct implement at the outermost edge of the arrangement. An alternative scheme arranges the place setting so that only the implements needed for the first one or two courses appear in the table setting; as the dinner progresses and new courses arrive, used implements are removed with the dishes, new silverware is placed next to the plates. This scheme is used when dinners are offered à la carte, so that the most appropriate implement is selected for a given course.
For example, some diners may order clear, thin soups and others may order creamy soups. As each of these soups has its own unique spoon, it would be considered improper and impractical to lay out a spoon that may not be needed. Main course Soup or Salad for Lunch/Dinner Main courseor Main course Dessert Soup/Salad Main Course Dessert Soup/Salad Main Dish Accompaniment Dessert Soup Fish Main course Dessert Cheese Hors d'oeuvres Soup Fish Main Course Salad Dessertor Amuse-bouche Soup Hors d'oeuvres Main course Salad Dessert The first class passengers aboard the ill-fated ocean liner R. M. S. Titanic were served the following eleven course meal in the first class dining saloon on the night of April 14, 1912:First course—hors d'oeuvre Canapés à l'Amiral Oysters à la Russe White Bordeaux, white Burgundy or chablis Second course—soups Consommé Olga Cream of barley soup Madeira or sherryThird course—fish Poached salmon with mousseline sauce Dry Rhine or moselleFourth course—entrées Filets mignon lili Chicken lyonnaise Vegetable marrow farci Red BordeauxFifth course—removes Lamb with
Regional cuisine is cuisine based upon national, state or local regions. Regional cuisines may vary based upon food availability and trade, varying climates, cooking traditions and practices, cultural differences. One noteworthy definition is based upon traditional cuisine: "A traditional cuisine is a coherent tradition of food preparation that rises from the daily lives and kitchens of a people over an extended period in a specific region of a country, or a specific country, which, when localized, has notable distinctions from the cuisine of the country as a whole." Regional food preparation traditions and ingredients combine to create dishes unique to a particular region. Regional cuisines are named after the geographic areas or regions that they originate from. Hawaii regional cuisine Japanese regional cuisine List of regional dishes of the United States List of street foods around the world Fusion cuisine National dish eNotes - Encyclopedia of Food and Culture The Global Gastronomer - Cuisines of the World
Culture is the social behavior and norms found in human societies. Culture is considered a central concept in anthropology, encompassing the range of phenomena that are transmitted through social learning in human societies. Cultural universals are found in all human societies; the concept of material culture covers the physical expressions of culture, such as technology and art, whereas the immaterial aspects of culture such as principles of social organization, philosophy and science comprise the intangible cultural heritage of a society. In the humanities, one sense of culture as an attribute of the individual has been the degree to which they have cultivated a particular level of sophistication in the arts, education, or manners; the level of cultural sophistication has sometimes been seen to distinguish civilizations from less complex societies. Such hierarchical perspectives on culture are found in class-based distinctions between a high culture of the social elite and a low culture, popular culture, or folk culture of the lower classes, distinguished by the stratified access to cultural capital.
In common parlance, culture is used to refer to the symbolic markers used by ethnic groups to distinguish themselves visibly from each other such as body modification, clothing or jewelry. Mass culture refers to the mass-produced and mass mediated forms of consumer culture that emerged in the 20th century; some schools of philosophy, such as Marxism and critical theory, have argued that culture is used politically as a tool of the elites to manipulate the lower classes and create a false consciousness, such perspectives are common in the discipline of cultural studies. In the wider social sciences, the theoretical perspective of cultural materialism holds that human symbolic culture arises from the material conditions of human life, as humans create the conditions for physical survival, that the basis of culture is found in evolved biological dispositions; when used as a count noun, a "culture" is the set of customs and values of a society or community, such as an ethnic group or nation. Culture is the set of knowledge acquired over time.
In this sense, multiculturalism values the peaceful coexistence and mutual respect between different cultures inhabiting the same planet. Sometimes "culture" is used to describe specific practices within a subgroup of a society, a subculture, or a counterculture. Within cultural anthropology, the ideology and analytical stance of cultural relativism holds that cultures cannot be objectively ranked or evaluated because any evaluation is situated within the value system of a given culture; the modern term "culture" is based on a term used by the Ancient Roman orator Cicero in his Tusculanae Disputationes, where he wrote of a cultivation of the soul or "cultura animi," using an agricultural metaphor for the development of a philosophical soul, understood teleologically as the highest possible ideal for human development. Samuel Pufendorf took over this metaphor in a modern context, meaning something similar, but no longer assuming that philosophy was man's natural perfection, his use, that of many writers after him, "refers to all the ways in which human beings overcome their original barbarism, through artifice, become human."In 1986, philosopher Edward S.
Casey wrote, "The word culture meant'place tilled' in Middle English, the same word goes back to Latin colere,'to inhabit, care for, worship' and cultus,'A cult a religious one.' To be cultural, to have a culture, is to inhabit a place sufficiently intensive to cultivate it—to be responsible for it, to respond to it, to attend to it caringly." Culture described by Richard Velkley:... meant the cultivation of the soul or mind, acquires most of its modern meaning in the writings of the 18th-century German thinkers, who were on various levels developing Rousseau's criticism of "modern liberalism and Enlightenment". Thus a contrast between "culture" and "civilization" is implied in these authors when not expressed as such. In the words of anthropologist E. B. Tylor, it is "that complex whole which includes knowledge, art, law and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society." Alternatively, in a contemporary variant, "Culture is defined as a social domain that emphasizes the practices and material expressions, over time, express the continuities and discontinuities of social meaning of a life held in common.
The Cambridge English Dictionary states that culture is "the way of life the general customs and beliefs, of a particular group of people at a particular time." Terror management theory posits that culture is a series of activities and worldviews that provide humans with the basis for perceiving themselves as "person of worth within the world of meaning"—raising themselves above the physical aspects of existence, in order to deny the animal insignificance and death that Homo sapiens became aware of when they acquired a larger brain. The word is used in a general sense as the evolved ability to categorize and represent experiences with symbols and to act imaginatively and creatively; this ability arose with the evolution of behavioral modernity in humans around 50,000 years ago, is thought to be unique to humans, although some other species have demonstrated similar, though much less complex, abilities for social learning. It is used to denote the co