Richard Joseph Durbin is an American politician serving as the senior United States Senator from Illinois, a seat he was first elected to in 1996. He has been the Senate Democratic Whip since 2005, the second-highest position in the Democratic leadership in the U. S. Senate. Durbin was born in Illinois, he graduated from the Georgetown University School of Foreign Service and Georgetown University Law Center. Working in state legal counsel throughout the 1970s, he made an unsuccessful run for Lieutenant Governor of Illinois in 1978, he was elected to the United States House of Representatives in 1982, representing the Springfield-based 20th congressional district. In 1996, he won election to the U. S. Senate by an unexpected 15-point margin, he has served as Senate Democratic Whip since 2005, for a period of eight years served as the Senate Majority Whip. He is dean of the Illinois congressional delegation, as he has served in Congress since 1983 as a U. S. Representative from Illinois 20th Congressional District, from 1997 as a U.
S. Senator from Illinois. Durbin now serves as the Senate Minority Whip following the 2014 midterm elections, where the Republicans gained a majority in the U. S. Senate and when he won reelection, defeating Republican Jim Oberweis, by a margin of 53.55% to 42.69%. Durbin was born in East St. Louis, Illinois, to an Irish-American father, William Durbin, a Lithuanian-born mother, Anna, he graduated from Assumption High School in East St. Louis in 1962. During his high school years he worked at a meatpacking plant, he earned a B. S. from the School of Foreign Service at Georgetown University in 1966. He was an intern in the office of Senator Paul Douglas of Illinois during his senior year in college. Durbin earned his J. D. from Georgetown University Law Center in 1969 and was admitted to the Illinois bar that year. After graduating from law school, Durbin started a law practice in Springfield, he was legal counsel to Lieutenant Governor Paul Simon from 1969 to 1972, legal counsel to the Illinois State Senate Judiciary Committee from 1972 to 1982.
Durbin was an unsuccessful Democratic candidate for a seat in the Illinois State Senate in 1976. He ran for Lieutenant Governor in 1978 as the running mate of State Superintendent of Schools Michael Bakalis, they were defeated by Republican incumbents Jim Dave O'Neal. Durbin worked as an adjunct professor at the Southern Illinois University School of Medicine for five years while maintaining his law practice. In 1982, Durbin won the Democratic nomination for the now-eliminated 20th congressional district, which included Macon and most of Springfield, he scored a 1,400 vote victory, defeating 22-year incumbent Paul Findley, a U. S. Navy veteran, whose district lines had been redrawn to remove rural farms and add economically depressed Macon, replacing 35-percent of the voters and include more Democrats as part of the decennial redistricting. Durbin's campaign emphasized unemployment and financial difficulties facing farmers, told voters that electing him would send "a message to Washington and to President Reagan that our economic policies are not working."
Durbin benefited from donations by pro-Israel groups from around the United States, in particular, concentrated support from AIPAC supporters, that were opposed to Findley's advocacy on behalf of the Palestine Liberation Organization in the year prior to the election. Durbin was re-elected six times facing serious opposition, winning more than 55% of the vote in each election except 1994. In 1996, Durbin defeated Pat Quinn to become the Democratic Party's nominee to replace the retiring Democratic incumbent, Senator Paul Simon, a long-time friend, he faced Republican State Representative Al Salvi in the November general election. Although the election had been expected to be competitive, Durbin benefited from Bill Clinton's 18-point win in Illinois that year and was able to capture a 15-point margin over his opponent, he has since been re-elected in 2002, 2008 and 2014, each time by at least 10%. Committee on Appropriations Subcommittee on Agriculture, Rural Development and Drug Administration, Related Agencies Subcommittee on Defense Subcommittee on Financial Services and General Government Subcommittee on Labor and Human Services and Related Agencies Subcommittee on State, Foreign Operations, Related Programs Subcommittee on Transportation and Urban Development, Related Agencies Committee on the Judiciary Subcommittee on the Constitution Subcommittee on Crime and Drugs Subcommittee on Immigration and Border Security Subcommittee on Terrorism and Homeland Security Subcommittee on Human Rights and the Law Committee on Rules and Administration Bi-Cameral High-Speed & Intercity Passenger Rail Caucus Caucus on International Narcotics Control International Conservation Caucus Senate Diabetes Caucus Senate Hunger Caucus Senate Science, Technology and Math Education Caucus Sportsmen's Caucus Congressional COPD Caucus Senate Ukraine Caucus Afterschool Caucuses Congressional NextGen 9-1-1 Caucus In November 1998, Senate Minority Leader Tom Daschle appointed Durbin as his Assistant Democratic Whip.
Following the 2004 election, Durbin became the Democratic Whip in the 109th Congress. He became the first senator from Illinois to serve as a Senate Whip since Everett Dirksen did so in the late 1950s, the fifth to serve in Senate Leadership. Durbin served as Assistant Minority Leader from 2005 until 2007, when the Democrats became the Majority Party in the Senate, he assumed the role of Assistant Majority Leader, or Majority Whip. In a
Michael Richard Pence is an American politician and lawyer serving as the 48th and current vice president of the United States. He was the 50th governor of Indiana from 2013 to 2017 and a member of the United States House of Representatives from 2001 to 2013, he is the younger brother of U. S. Representative Greg Pence. Born and raised in Columbus, Pence graduated from Hanover College and earned a law degree from the Indiana University Robert H. McKinney School of Law before entering private practice. After losing two bids for a U. S. congressional seat in 1988 and 1990, he became a conservative radio and television talk show host from 1994 to 1999. Pence was elected to the United States Congress in 2000 and represented Indiana's 2nd congressional district and Indiana's 6th congressional district in the House of Representatives from 2001 to 2013, he served as the chairman of the House Republican Conference from 2009 to 2011. Pence described himself as a "principled conservative" and supporter of the Tea Party movement, stating that he was "a Christian, a conservative, a Republican, in that order."Upon becoming governor of Indiana in January 2013, Pence initiated the largest tax cut in Indiana's history and pushed for more funding for education initiatives.
Pence signed bills intended to restrict abortions, including one that prohibited abortions if the reason for the procedure was the fetus's race, gender, or disability. After Pence signed the Religious Freedom Restoration Act, he encountered fierce resistance from moderate members of his party, the business community, LGBT advocates; the backlash against the RFRA led Pence to amend the bill to prohibit discrimination based on sexual orientation, gender identity, other criteria. Pence was inaugurated as Vice President of the United States on January 20, 2017, he had withdrawn his gubernatorial reelection campaign in July to become the running mate of Republican presidential nominee Donald Trump, who went on to win the presidential election on November 8, 2016. Michael Richard Pence was born June 7, 1959, in Columbus, one of six children of Nancy Jane and Edward Joseph Pence Jr. who ran a group of gas stations. His father served in the U. S. Army during the Korean War and received the Bronze Star in 1953, which Pence displays in his office along with its commendation letter and a reception photograph.
His family were Irish Catholic Democrats. Pence was named after his grandfather, Richard Michael Cawley, who emigrated from County Sligo, Ireland, to the United States through Ellis Island, following an aunt and his brother James, became a bus driver in Chicago, Illinois, his maternal grandmother's parents were from County Clare. Pence graduated from Columbus North High School in 1977, he earned a BA degree in history from Hanover College in 1981, a JD degree from the Indiana University's Robert H. McKinney School of Law in Indianapolis in 1986. While at Hanover, Pence joined the Phi Gamma Delta fraternity, where he became the chapter president. Actor Woody Harrelson has said. After graduating from Hanover, Pence was an admissions counselor at the college from 1981 to 1983. In his childhood and early adulthood, Pence was a Democrat, he volunteered for the Bartholomew County Democratic Party in 1976 and voted for Jimmy Carter in the 1980 presidential election, has stated that he was inspired to get involved in politics by people such as John F. Kennedy and Martin Luther King Jr.
While in college, Pence became an evangelical, born-again Christian, to the great disappointment of his mother. His political views started shifting to the right during this time in his life, something which Pence attributes to the "common-sense conservatism of Ronald Reagan" that he began to identify with. After graduating from law school in 1986, Pence was an attorney in private practice, he ran unsuccessfully for a congressional seat in 1988 and in 1990. In 1991, he became the president of the Indiana Policy Review Foundation, a self-described free-market think tank and a member of the State Policy Network, a position he held until 1993. Shortly after his first congressional campaign in 1988, radio station WRCR-FM in Rushville, hired Pence to host a weekly half-hour radio show, Washington Update with Mike Pence. In 1992, Pence began hosting a daily talk show on WRCR, The Mike Pence Show, in addition to a Saturday show on WNDE in Indianapolis. Pence called himself "Rush Limbaugh on decaf" since he considered himself politically conservative while not as outspoken as Limbaugh.
Beginning on April 11, 1994, Network Indiana syndicated The Mike Pence Show statewide. With a 9 a.m. to noon time slot, the program reached as many as 18 radio stations in Indiana, including WIBC in Indianapolis. Pence ended his radio show in September 1999 to focus on his 2000 campaign for Congress, which he won. From 1995 to 1999, Pence hosted a weekend public affairs TV show titled The Mike Pence Show on Indianapolis TV station WNDY. In 1988, Pence lost, he ran against Sharp again in 1990, quitting his job in order to work full-time in the campaign, but once again was unsuccessful. During the race, Pence used "political donations to pay the mortgage on his house, his personal credit card bill, golf tournament fees and car payments for his wife." While the spending was not illegal at the time, it undermined his campaign. During the 1990 campaign, Pence ran a television advertisement in which an actor, dressed in a robe and headdress and speaking in a thick Middle Eastern accent, thanked his opponent, for doing nothing to wean the United States off imported oil as chairman of a House subcommitt
Addison Mitchell McConnell Jr. is an American politician serving as Kentucky’s senior United States Senator and as Senate Majority Leader. McConnell is the second Kentuckian to lead his party in the Senate, is the longest-serving U. S. Senator from Kentucky in history, is the longest-serving Republican U. S. Senate leader in history. A member of the Republican Party, McConnell was elected to the Senate in 1984 and has been re-elected five times since then. During the 1998 and 2000 election cycles, McConnell was chairman of the National Republican Senatorial Committee. McConnell was elected as Majority Whip in the 108th Congress and was re-elected to the post in 2004. In November 2006, McConnell was elected Senate Minority Leader. McConnell was known as a pragmatist and a moderate Republican early in his political career but veered to the right over time. McConnell led opposition to stricter campaign finance laws, culminating in the Supreme Court ruling that overturned the Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act in 2009.
During the Obama presidency, McConnell worked to withhold Republican support for major presidential initiatives. McConnell described his decision to block the Garland nomination as "the most consequential decision I've made in my entire public career." In 2015, McConnell was included in the Time 100 annual list of the most influential people in the world. McConnell endorsed Rand Paul in the 2016 Republican primaries before supporting then-presumptive nominee Donald Trump. In 2016, after being approached by U. S. intelligence community officials, McConnell refused to give a bipartisan statement with President Obama warning Russia not to interfere in the upcoming election. During the Trump presidency, Senate Republicans, under McConnell's leadership, broke records on the number of judicial nominees confirmed. McConnell's approval rating, as reflected by both national and statewide poll results, is among the lowest of all U. S. senators. McConnell is of Scots-Irish and English descent, the son of Addison Mitchell McConnell, his wife, Julia Odene "Dean".
McConnell was born on February 20, 1942, in Sheffield and grew up in nearby Athens. His ancestor had emigrated from Ireland to North Carolina. McConnell's upper left leg was paralyzed by a polio attack at the age of 2, he received treatment at the Warm Springs Institute in Georgia, which saved him from being disabled for the rest of his life. McConnell has stated; when he was eight, McConnell moved with his family from Athens to Augusta, Georgia when his father, in the Army, was stationed at Fort Gordon. In 1956, his family moved to Louisville. McConnell was elected student council president at his high school during his junior year, he graduated with honors from the University of Louisville with a B. A. in political science in 1964. McConnell was president of the Student Council of the College of Arts and Sciences and a member of the Phi Kappa Tau fraternity, he has maintained strong ties to his alma mater and is still "a rabid fan of the U of L Cardinals football and basketball teams."In 1964, at the age of 22, McConnell began interning for Senator John Sherman Cooper, his time with Cooper inspired him to run for the Senate himself.
In 1967, McConnell graduated from the University of Kentucky College of Law, where he was president of the Student Bar Association. In March 1967, shortly before the expiration of his educational draft deferment upon graduation from law school, McConnell enlisted in the U. S. Army Reserve as a private at Louisville, Kentucky; this was a coveted position because the Reserve units were kept out of combat during the Vietnam War. McConnell's first day of training at Fort Knox was July 9, 1967—two days after taking the bar exam—and his last day was August 15, 1967. Shortly after his arrival, McConnell was diagnosed with optic neuritis and was deemed medically unfit for military service as a result. After just five weeks at Fort Knox, he was honorably discharged. McConnell's brief time in service has been put at issue by his political opponents during his electoral campaigns. Although McConnell has allowed reporters to examine parts of his military record and take notes, he has refused to allow copies to be made or to disclose his entire record, despite calls by his opponents to do so.
McConnell's time in service has been the subject of criticism because his discharge was accelerated after his father placed a call to Senator John Sherman Cooper, who sent a wire to the commanding general at Fort Knox on August 10, advising that "Mitchell anxious to clear post in order to enroll in NYU." He was allowed to leave post just five days though McConnell maintains that no one helped him with his enlistment into or discharge from the reserves. According to McConnell, he struggled through the exercises at basic training and was sent to a doctor for a physical examination, which revealed McConnell's optic neuritis. McConnell did not attend NYU. From 1968 to 1970, McConnell worked as an aide to Senator Marlow Cook, managing a legislative department consisting of five members as well as assisting with speech writing and constituent services. In 1971, McConnell returned from Washington, D. C. to Louisville, where he worked for Tom Emberton's candid
Amy Jean Klobuchar is an American lawyer and politician serving as the senior United States Senator from Minnesota. A member of the Minnesota Democratic-Farmer-Labor Party, Minnesota's affiliate of the Democratic Party, she served as the Hennepin County Attorney. Born in Plymouth, Klobuchar is a graduate of Yale University and the University of Chicago Law School, she was a partner at two Minneapolis law firms before being elected county attorney for Hennepin County in 1998, making her responsible for all criminal prosecution in Minnesota's most populous county. Klobuchar was first elected to the Senate in 2006, becoming Minnesota's first elected female United States Senator, reelected in 2012 and 2018. In 2009 and 2010, she was described as a "rising star" in the Democratic Party, she is running for the Democratic nomination for President of the United States in the 2020 election. Born in Plymouth, Klobuchar is the daughter of Rose, who retired at age 70 from teaching second grade, Jim Klobuchar, an author and a retired sportswriter and columnist for the Star Tribune.
Klobuchar has Beth. Her father is of Slovene descent, her father was an alcoholic who missed family gatherings during her childhood, spent much time away due to his drinking, was arrested for driving under the influence. Her parents divorced. Klobuchar's father initiated the divorce, calling himself another "middle-aged man with wanderlust"; the divorce took a serious toll on the family causing Klobuchar's sister to drop out of high school, leave home early, struggle with personal issues for a while. Klobuchar's relationship with her father did not recover until the 1990s, when he quit drinking. Klobuchar's parents reconciled a few years after the divorce and remained best friends, her father regretted the impact the divorce had on the family. Klobuchar was valedictorian at Wayzata High School, she received her B. A. degree magna cum laude in political science in 1982 from Yale University, where she was a member of the Yale College Democrats, the Feminist Caucus, the improv troupe Suddenly Susan.
During her time at Yale, Klobuchar spent time as an intern for Vice President, former Minnesota Senator, Walter Mondale. Her senior thesis was Uncovering the Dome, a 250-page history of the ten years of politics surrounding the building of the Hubert H. Humphrey Metrodome in Minneapolis. After Yale, Klobuchar enrolled at the University of Chicago Law School, where she served as an associate editor of the University of Chicago Law Review and received her Juris Doctor degree in 1985. After law school, Klobuchar worked as a corporate lawyer. Before seeking public office, besides working as a prosecutor, Klobuchar was a partner at the Minnesota law firms Dorsey & Whitney and Gray Plant Mooty, where she specialized in "regulatory work in telecommunications law", her first foray into politics came after she gave birth and was forced to leave the hospital 24 hours a situation exacerbated by the fact that Klobuchar's daughter, was born with a condition whereby she could not swallow. That experience led Klobuchar to appear before the Minnesota State Legislature advocating for a bill that would guarantee new mothers a 48-hour hospital stay.
Minnesota passed the bill and President Clinton made the policy federal law. Klobuchar was first a candidate for public office in 1994, but she had pledged to drop out if the incumbent, Michael Freeman, got back in the race after failing to win the endorsement of the Minnesota Democratic Farmer Labor Party for governor. Klobuchar supported Freeman for re-election, he did not seek another term in 1998. Prior to her bids for office, Klobuchar was active in supporting DFL candidates, including Freeman in 1990. Klobuchar was elected Hennepin County attorney in 1998, reelected in 2002 with no opposition. African American prison admissions in 2006, Klobuchar's last full year, were 22 times higher than whites. Minnesota Lawyer named her "Attorney of the Year". Klobuchar was President of the Minnesota County Attorneys Association from November 2002 to November 2003. 2006 In early 2005 Mark Dayton announced that he would not seek reelection to the U. S. Senate, Klobuchar was recognized early as a favorite for the DFL nomination for the 2006 election.
EMILY's List endorsed Klobuchar on September 29, 2005, Klobuchar won the DFL endorsement on June 9, 2006. She gained the support of the majority of DFL state legislators in Minnesota during the primaries. A poll taken of DFL state delegates showed Klobuchar beating her closest opponent, Patty Wetterling, 66% to 15%. In January, Wetterling endorsed Klobuchar. Former Senate candidate and prominent lawyer Mike Ciresi, seen as a serious potential DFL candidate, indicated in early February that he would not enter the race. In the general election, Klobuchar faced Republican candidate Mark Kennedy, Independence Party candidate Robert Fitzgerald, Constitution candidate Ben Powers, Green Party candidate Michael Cavlan. Klobuchar led in the polls throughout the campaign, won with 58% of the vote to Kennedy's 38% and Fitzgerald's 3%, carrying all but eight of Minnesota's 87 counties, she is the first woman to be elected U. S. Senator from Mi
Democratic Party (United States)
The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party. Tracing its heritage back to Thomas Jefferson and James Madison's Democratic-Republican Party, the modern-day Democratic Party was founded around 1828 by supporters of Andrew Jackson, making it the world's oldest active political party; the Democrats' dominant worldview was once social conservatism and economic liberalism, while populism was its leading characteristic in the rural South. In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt ran as a third-party candidate in the Progressive Party, beginning a switch of political platforms between the Democratic and Republican Party over the coming decades, leading to Woodrow Wilson being elected as the first fiscally progressive Democrat. Since Franklin D. Roosevelt and his New Deal coalition in the 1930s, the Democratic Party has promoted a social liberal platform, supporting social justice. Well into the 20th century, the party had conservative pro-business and Southern conservative-populist anti-business wings.
The New Deal Coalition of 1932–1964 attracted strong support from voters of recent European extraction—many of whom were Catholics based in the cities. After Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal of the 1930s, the pro-business wing withered outside the South. After the racial turmoil of the 1960s, most Southern whites and many Northern Catholics moved into the Republican Party at the presidential level; the once-powerful labor union element became less supportive after the 1970s. White Evangelicals and Southerners became Republican at the state and local level since the 1990s. People living in metropolitan areas, women and gender minorities, college graduates, racial and ethnic minorities in the United States, such as Jewish Americans, Hispanic Americans, Asian Americans, Arab Americans and African Americans, tend to support the Democratic Party much more than they support the rival Republican Party; the Democratic Party's philosophy of modern liberalism advocates social and economic equality, along with the welfare state.
It seeks to provide government regulation in the economy. These interventions, such as the introduction of social programs, support for labor unions, affordable college tuitions, moves toward universal health care and equal opportunity, consumer protection and environmental protection form the core of the party's economic policy. Fifteen Democrats have served as President of the United States; the first was President Andrew Jackson, the seventh president and served from 1829 to 1837. The most recent was President Barack Obama, the 44th president and held office from 2009 to 2017. Following the 2018 midterm elections, the Democrats held a majority in the House of Representatives, "trifectas" in 14 states, the mayoralty of numerous major American cities, such as Boston, Los Angeles, New York City, San Francisco, Portland and Washington, D. C. Twenty-three state governors were Democrats, the Party was the minority party in the Senate and in most state legislatures; as of March 2019, four of the nine Justices of the Supreme Court had been appointed by Democratic presidents.
Democratic Party officials trace its origins to the inspiration of the Democratic-Republican Party, founded by Thomas Jefferson, James Madison and other influential opponents of the Federalists in 1792. That party inspired the Whigs and modern Republicans. Organizationally, the modern Democratic Party arose in the 1830s with the election of Andrew Jackson. Since the nomination of William Jennings Bryan in 1896, the party has positioned itself to the left of the Republican Party on economic issues, they have been more liberal on civil rights issues since 1948. On foreign policy, both parties have changed position several times; the Democratic Party evolved from the Jeffersonian Republican or Democratic-Republican Party organized by Jefferson and Madison in opposition to the Federalist Party of Alexander Hamilton and John Adams. The party favored republicanism; the Democratic-Republican Party came to power in the election of 1800. After the War of 1812, the Federalists disappeared and the only national political party left was the Democratic-Republicans.
The era of one-party rule in the United States, known as the Era of Good Feelings, lasted from 1816 until the early 1830s, when the Whig Party became a national political group to rival the Democratic-Republicans. However, the Democratic-Republican Party still had its own internal factions, they split over the choice of a successor to President James Monroe and the party faction that supported many of the old Jeffersonian principles, led by Andrew Jackson and Martin Van Buren, became the modern Democratic Party. As Norton explains the transformation in 1828: Jacksonians believed the people's will had prevailed. Through a lavishly financed coalition of state parties, political leaders, newspaper editors, a popular movement had elected the president; the Democrats became the nation's first well-organized national party and tight party organization became the hallmark of nineteenth-century American politics. Opposing factions led by Henry Clay helped form the Whig Party; the Democratic Party had a small yet decisive advantage over the Whigs until the 1850s, when the Whigs fell apart over the issue of slavery.
In 1854, angry with the Kansas–Nebraska Act, anti-slavery Dem
Charles Ellis Schumer is an American politician serving as the senior United States Senator from New York, a seat to which he was first elected in 1998. A member of the Democratic Party, he has been the Senate Minority Leader since 2017, he first defeated three-term Republican incumbent Al D'Amato before being reelected in 2004 with 71 percent of the vote, in 2010 with 66 percent of the vote, in 2016 with 70 percent of the vote. He is the current dean of New York's congressional delegation. Before his election to the Senate, Schumer served in the House of Representatives from 1981 to 1999, first representing New York's 16th congressional district before being redistricted to the 10th congressional district in 1983 and 9th congressional district in 1993. A native of Brooklyn and graduate of Harvard College and Harvard Law School, he was a three-term member of the New York State Assembly from 1975 to 1980. Schumer was chairman of the Democratic Senatorial Campaign Committee from 2005 to 2009, during which time he oversaw 14 Democratic gains in the Senate in the 2006 and 2008 elections.
He was the third-ranking Democrat in the Senate, behind Senate Minority Leader Harry Reid and Minority Whip Dick Durbin. He was elected Vice Chairman of the Democratic Caucus in the Senate in 2006. In November 2010, he was chosen to hold the additional role of chairman of the Senate Democratic Policy Committee. Schumer won his fourth term in the Senate in 2016 and was unanimously elected Minority Leader to succeed Harry Reid, retiring. Schumer was born in the son of Selma and Abraham Schumer, his father ran an exterminating business, his mother was a homemaker. He and his family are Jewish, he is a second cousin, once removed, of actress Amy Schumer, his ancestors originated from the town of Galicia, in what is now western Ukraine. He attended public schools in Brooklyn, scoring a perfect 1600 on the SAT, graduated as class valedictorian from James Madison High School, in 1967. Schumer competed for Madison High on the It's Academic television quiz show, he attended Harvard College, where he became interested in politics and campaigned for Eugene McCarthy, in 1968.
After completing his undergraduate degree, he continued to Harvard Law School, earning his Juris Doctor with honors, in 1974. Schumer passed the New York state bar in early 1975. However, he never practiced law. In 1974, Schumer ran for and was elected to the New York State Assembly, filling a seat held by Schumer's mentor Stephen Solarz. Schumer served three terms, from 1975 to 1981, sitting in the 181st, 182nd and 183rd New York State Legislatures, he has never lost an election. In 1980, 16th District Congresswoman Elizabeth Holtzman won the Democratic nomination for the Senate seat of Republican Jacob Javits. Schumer won, he was re-elected eight times from the Brooklyn and Queens-based district, which changed numbers twice in his tenure. In 1982, as a result of redistricting, Schumer faced a potential matchup with veteran Brooklyn congressman Steve Solarz, although the matchup did not materialize. In preparation, Schumer "set about making friends on Wall Street, tapping the city's top law firms and securities houses for campaign donations.'I told them I looked like I had a difficult reapportionment fight.
If I were to stand a chance of being re-elected, I needed some help,' he would tell the Associated Press."As a member of the House Judiciary Committee, Schumer was one of four congressional members who oversaw the House investigation, of the Waco siege hearings in 1995. In 1998, Schumer ran for the Senate, he won the Democratic Senate primary with 51 percent of the votes against Geraldine Ferraro and Mark Green. He received 54 percent of the vote in the general election, defeating three-term incumbent Republican Al D'Amato. In November 2001, Schumer announced hearings on the decision of President George W. Bush to try terrorists in military tribunals amid Washington concerns that Bush would skip the American legal system in regards to his handling of such cases. Schumer said the two goals of the hearings were to ascertain if Bush had the power to form a tribunal apart from an attempt at interacting with Congress, if a military tribunal was the most efficient instrument to insure a trial that would both protect national security information and guarantee fairness for the suspect.
In March 2002, as the Senate worked on a compromise to save an election reform bill that stalled due to Republicans believing it was not combative enough against voter fraud and Ron Wyden led a successful effort in protecting an amendment allowing first-time voters to be verified with only a signature. In April 2002, during a Senate speech, Schumer referred to the Middle East policy of the Bush administration as "muddled and inconsistent" and said the planned meeting between Secretary of State Colin Powell and Yasser Arafat would be against the president's stated stand against terrorists and those harboring them. In 2002, Schumer authored a provision to an industry-sponsored bill intended to harden the ease by which individuals erase their debts through bankruptcy filing; the measure had opposition from anti-abortion activists who charged it with restricting their ability to use the bankruptcy courts to write off court fines. After the bill appeared to die in May, J. Dennis Hastert spokesman John Feehery opined, "Schumer was pretty obnoxious about how this provision was going to hurt people who were pro-life and that got some of our folks
Joni Kay Ernst is an American politician serving as the junior United States Senator for Iowa since 2015. A Republican, she served in the Iowa Senate from 2011 to 2014, she served in the Iowa Army National Guard from 1993 to 2015. Ernst is the first woman to represent Iowa in the United States Congress and is the first female combat veteran elected to the United States Senate from any state, she was elected vice chair of the United States Senate Republican Conference in November 2018. Ernst was born Joni Kay Culver in Montgomery County, the daughter of Marilyn and Richard Culver, she was valedictorian of her class at Stanton High School. She earned a bachelor's degree in psychology from Iowa State University, a Master of Public Administration degree from Columbus State University. While in college, she took part in an agricultural exchange to the Soviet Union. Ernst served as a logistics officer and attained the rank of lieutenant colonel in the Iowa National Guard. Near the end of her career, she served as the commanding officer of the 185th Combat Sustainment Support Battalion at Camp Dodge, the largest battalion in the Iowa Army National Guard.
Upon her retirement from the military in 2015, Ernst had served 23 years between the Army Reserve and the Army National Guard. She spent 12 months in Kuwait in 2003–04 as the company commander of the 1168th Transportation Company during the Iraq War. Ernst was elected the Montgomery County Auditor in 2004 and re-elected in 2008. Ernst was elected to the Iowa State Senate in a special election in 2011 and re-elected in 2012, she represented District 12. Ernst was a member of the Education, Veterans Affairs and Administration and Health and Human Services committees of the Iowa State Senate. Following her election to the U. S. Senate, she resigned from the Iowa State Senate effective November 28, 2014. In July 2013, Ernst announced that she would seek the Senate seat held by retiring Democratic Senator Tom Harkin. Ernst received the endorsement of Iowa Lieutenant Governor Kim Reynolds in October 2013, she was endorsed by 23 current and former state legislators. In March the Ernst campaign was endorsed by former Massachusetts Governor Mitt Romney and former Alaska Governor Sarah Palin.
In May 2014, she was endorsed by the U. S. Chamber of Commerce. Ernst received widespread attention for a campaign advertisement she released in March 2014 where she employed a tongue-in-cheek comparison between her experience castrating pigs and her ability to cut "pork" in Congress. Many found the ad to be humorous and it was spoofed by late-night comedians including Jimmy Fallon and Stephen Colbert, Before the ad aired, Ernst had struggled in fundraising, two polls of the Republican primary taken in February 2014 had shown her in second place, several points behind opponent Mark Jacobs. After it aired, a Suffolk University poll in early April showed her with a narrow lead and a Loras College poll showed her tied with Jacobs. By May, she was being described by the media as the "strong front-runner". In an interview with the Des Moines Register on May 9, 2014, Ernst said she was "extremely offended" by comments made by Republican opponent Mark Jacobs in which she was characterized as AWOL due to missing over 100 votes in the legislative session ending April 7, 2014.
Ernst stated: ``, he would've understood what AWOL means. I have not been AWOL, I will never be AWOL." In an article in The Gazette, Ernst cited her National Guard duty to rebuff criticism about her missing votes, but The Gazette found that only 12 of the 117 missed votes came on days when she was on duty. The other 105 missed votes represented. Ernst's spokesman said that she had a better than 90 percent voting record during her career in the Senate and that she never claimed guard service was the only reason she's missed votes this session. In endorsing her for the Republican Primary nomination, the Des Moines Register stated: "Ernst is a smart, well-prepared candidate who can wrestle with the details of public policy from a conservative perspective without seeming inflexible." On October 23, Ernst cancelled a scheduled meeting with the Des Moines Register's editorial board, citing as a reason the newspaper's negative editorials about her. The newspaper's editorial board endorsed Democratic Congressman Bruce Braley.
In July 2014, Ernst's campaigning was temporarily paused while she participated in two weeks of National Guard duty. In that same month, Ernst delivered the Republican Party's weekly address, where she criticized the health care scandal at the Department of Veterans Affairs and pushed for a balanced federal budget and entitlement reform. On August 29, Ernst and Braley announced their agreement to hold three televised debates in Davenport, Des Moines, Sioux City, they were held on October 11 and 16, respectively. Ernst won the 2014 Senate race 52.2% to 43.7%. She is the first woman elected to represent Iowa in either House of Congress. Committee on Agriculture and Forestry Subcommittee on Jobs, Rural Economic Growth and Energy Innovation Subcommittee on Livestock, Poultry and Agriculture Security Subcommittee on Nutrition, Specialty Crops and Agricultural Research Committee on Armed Services Subcommittee on Airland Subcommittee on Emerging Threats and Capabilities Subcommittee on Readiness and Management Support Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs Subcommittee on Federal Spending Oversight and Emergency Management Subcommittee on Regulatory Affairs and Federal Management Committee on Small Business and Entrepreneurship Ern