List of current systems for electric rail traction

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This is a list of the power supply systems that are, or have been, used for tramway and railway electrification systems.

Note that the voltages are nominal and vary depending on load and distance from the substation.

Many modern trams and trains use on-board solid-state electronics to convert these supplies to run three-phase AC induction motors.

Key to the tables below[edit]

Systems using standard voltages[edit]

Voltages are defined by two standards: BS EN 50163[1] and IEC 60850.[2]

Overhead systems[edit]

600 V DC[edit]

This voltage is mostly used by older tram systems worldwide but by a few new ones as well.

Country Location Name of system Notes
Australia Australia Adelaide Adelaide Metro tramway  
Melbourne Yarra Trams  
Belgium Belgium Antwerp Antwerp Tram  
De Panne to Knokke Belgian Coast Tram  
Brussels Brussels trams  
Charleroi Charleroi Metro  
Ghent Ghent Tram  
Canada Canada Calgary Calgary Transit C-Train  
Edmonton Edmonton Transit LRT  
Toronto Toronto Transit Commission streetcars only
Croatia Croatia Zagreb Trams in Zagreb 1,000 mm (3 ft 3 38 in) metre gauge
Czech Republic Czech Republic   most tram lines negative polarity in Brno and Ostrava
Estonia Estonia Tallinn Tallinn tram  
Finland Finland Helsinki Helsinki tram  
Germany Germany Augsburg Augsburg tram tram
Hungary Hungary Budapest BKV trams and metro line M1
Debrecen DKV tram
Miskolc MVK Zrt. tram
Szeged Public transport in Szeged tram
Italy Italy   Most tram lines  
Japan Japan   Most tram lines  
Chōshi, Chiba Chōshi Electric Railway  
Kyoto, Kyoto Eizan Electric Railway  
Kanagawa Enoshima Electric Railway  
Matsuyama, Ehime Iyotetsu Takahama Line  
Shizuoka, Shizuoka Shizuoka Railway  
Tokyo Tokyu Setagaya Line  
Netherlands Netherlands Amsterdam Trams in Amsterdam including line 51 of the Amsterdam Metro south of Station Zuid
Rotterdam Trams in Rotterdam  
The Hague Trams in The Hague  
Poland Poland Bydgoszcz Trams in Bydgoszcz 1,000 mm (3 ft 3 38 in) metre gauge
Częstochowa Trams in Częstochowa Negative polarity
Elbląg Trams in Elbląg 1,000 mm (3 ft 3 38 in) metre gauge; negative polarity
Gdańsk Trams in Gdańsk
Gorzów Wielkopolski Trams in Gorzów Wielkopolski Negative polarity
Grudziądz Trams in Grudziądz 1,000 mm (3 ft 3 38 in) metre gauge; negative polarity
Kraków (Cracow) Trams in Kraków (Cracow)
Łódź plus Konstantynów Łódzki, Lutomiersk, Ozorków, Pabianice and Zgierz Suburban trams in and around Łódź (Lodz) 1,000 mm (3 ft 3 38 in) metre gauge; negative polarity
Olsztyn Trams in Olsztyn
Poznań Trams in Poznań
Szczecin Trams in Szczecin
Toruń Trams in Toruń 1,000 mm (3 ft 3 38 in) metre gauge
GOP (Upper Silesia conurbation) Silesian Interurbans
Warszawa (Warsaw) Trams in Warsaw (Warsawa)
Wrocław Trams in Wrocław
Romania Romania Arad, Arad county Trams in Arad
Arad-Ghioroc Narrow Gauge Railway
being built during Hungarian rule, the system originally uses the same standard as Hungary, Arad-Ghioroc Narrow Gauge Railway being the first electrified railway line in present-day Romania; metre gauge
Botoşani Trams in Botoşani recently lowered from Romanian standard 750 V due to massive import of second hand German trams
Craiova Trams in Craiova recently lowered from Romanian standard 750 V due to massive import of second hand German trams
Iaşi Trams in Iaşi lowered from 825 V in 2005, metre gauge
Oradea Oradea tramway system being built during Hungarian rule, the system originally uses the same standard as Hungary
Sibiu county Sibiu-Răşinari Narrow Gauge Railway part of the former Sibiu tram line
Timişoara Trams in Timişoara being built during Hungarian rule, the system originally uses the same standard as Hungary
Serbia Serbia Belgrade Trams in Belgrade 1,000 mm (3 ft 3 38 in) metre gauge
Slovakia Slovakia Trenčianska TepláTrenčianske Teplice Bratislava Košice Trenčianska elektrická železnica (TREŽ)
Tramways in Bratislava and Košice
760 mm (2 ft 5 1516 in) gauge, negative polarity in Košice
Switzerland Switzerland Basel Basel Trams (BVB)
Bern Bern Trams (Bernmobil)
Canton Bern Regionalverkehr Bern-Solothurn (RBS) tram line 6 between Bern and Worb; all other lines are electrified at 1250 V DC[3]
Geneva Geneva Trams (TPG)
Zürich Zürich Trams (VBZ)
Zürich Dolderbahn
United Kingdom United Kingdom Blackpool Blackpool Tramway  
United States United States Boston Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority • The entire MBTA Green Line streetcar/light rail system
Ashmont–Mattapan High Speed Line
• Part of the MBTA Blue Line northeast of Airport station
Cleveland, Ohio RTA Rapid Transit all three lines
Kenosha, Wisconsin Kenosha Streetcar
New Orleans RTA Streetcars in New Orleans all lines
Philadelphia, PA and suburbs SEPTA 600 V trolley wire used on trolley routes within Philadelphia and suburban routes from 69th Street Terminal
San Diego San Diego Electric Railway & San Diego Trolley The San Diego Electric Railway is defunct and is succeeded by the San Diego Trolley.
San Francisco San Francisco Muni  

750 V DC[edit]

This voltage is used for most modern tram systems.

Country Location Name of system Notes
Argentina Argentina Buenos Aires PreMetro  
Buenos Aires Tranvía del Este Closed in 2012, dismantled in 2017
Australia Australia Gold Coast G:link
Sydney Sydney light rail network  
Austria Austria Upper Austria Local lines of Stern & Hafferl also listed as having 1500  and 600 V lines
Austria Austria Switzerland Switzerland River Rhine / Lake Constance Internationale Rheinregulierungsbahn Construction railway for the regulation works of the River Rhine near its outfall into Lake Constance, now preserved. The river forms the border between Austria and Switzerland, and the railway operated in both countries.
Brazil Brazil Rio de Janeiro

São Paulo



Lines 1, 2 and 4

Lines 1, 2, 3 and 15 (monorail), 17 (future, monorail)

Canada Canada Regional Municipality of Waterloo Ion rapid transit under construction (opens 2017)
Toronto, Ontario Eglinton Crosstown line under construction (opens 2021)
Edmonton, Alberta Valley Line LRT under construction (opens 2020)
Denmark Denmark Aarhus Aarhus Light Rail
Ethiopia Ethiopia Addis Ababa Addis Ababa Light Rail Green and Blue Lines
Germany Germany Karlsruhe to Bad Herrenalb with a branch to Ittersbach Albtalbahn railway of the Upper Rhine
Cologne to Bonn and its suburbs. Cologne-Bonn Tram Both lines between Cologne and Bonn were originally heavy load train lines electrified at 1200 V; Line 18 once was 1,000 mm (3 ft 3 38 in) metre gauge; part of Line 16 is owned by Häfen- und Güterverkehr Köln (HGK) and still occasionally used by freight trains.
Greece Greece Athens Athens Tram  
Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong Light Rail (MTR)  
India India Kolkata (Calcutta) Kolkata Metro Line 1  
Bangalore Namma Metro  
Republic of Ireland Ireland Dublin LUAS
Italy Italy Genova Metropolitana di Genova
Florence Trams in Florence
Japan Japan Hamamatsu, Shizuoka Enshū Railway  
Hakone, Kanagawa Hakone Tozan Railway Line between Hakone-Yumoto and Gōra
Ehime Iyotetsu Yokogawara Line and Gunchū Line  
Yokkaichi, Mie Yokkaichi Asunarou Railway Utsube Line, Hachiōji Line  
Mie Sangi Railway Hokusei Line  
Malaysia Malaysia Kuala Lumpur Kelana Jaya Line (RapidKL Rail) between Kelana Jaya LRT station and Gombak Station
Netherlands Netherlands The Hague, Zoetermeer, Rotterdam and adjacent cities Randstadrail  
Rotterdam Rotterdam Metro North of Capelsebrug station overhead wires
Utrecht, Nieuwegein and IJsselstein Utrecht sneltram  
Niger Nigeria Lagos Lagos Rail Mass Transit (LRMT) planned to open in December 2016
Norway Norway Oslo Oslo Tramway  
Bergen Bergen Light Rail  
Philippines Philippines Metro Manila Manila LRT Line 1 (Manila Light Rail Transit System) between Baclaran to Roosevelt
Metro Manila Manila Metro Rail Transit System between North EDSA to Taft Avenue
Portugal Portugal Oporto Metro do Porto  
Almada, Seixal Metro Transportes do Sul  
Sweden Sweden Stockholm Trams in Stockholm and Saltsjöbanan  
Gothenburg Trams in Gothenburg  
Norrköping Trams in Norrköping  
Switzerland Switzerland Aargau Wynental- und Suhrentalbahn (WSB)  
Tunisia Tunisia Tunis Métro léger de Tunis   also 25kV
Turkey Turkey Adana Adana Metro  
Antalya Antalya Tram  
Bursa BurTram  
Eskişehir EsTram  
Gaziantep Gaziantep Tram  
Istanbul Istanbul Metro Line M1 only
Istanbul Istanbul Tram  
Izmir Izmir Tram  
Kayseri Kayseray  
Kocaeli Akçaray  
Konya Konya Tram  
Samsun Samsun Tram  
United Kingdom United Kingdom Edinburgh Edinburgh Trams  
Manchester Manchester Metrolink  
Birmingham to Wolverhampton Midland Metro  
Nottingham Nottingham Express Transit  
Sheffield Sheffield Supertram  
South London Tramlink  
United States United States Baltimore, MD Baltimore Light Rail light rail
Charlotte, North Carolina Lynx Rapid Transit light rail
Dallas, TX and adjacent suburbs Dallas Area Rapid Transit (DART) light rail
Denver, Colorado Denver Regional Transportation District (RTD) light rail portion
Houston, TX Houston Metrorail light rail
Hudson County, New Jersey Hudson-Bergen Light Rail light rail
Los Angeles County, California Los Angeles Metro Rail rapid transit
Minneapolis-Saint Paul METRO light rail
Newark, New Jersey Newark Light Rail light rail
Norfolk, Virginia Tide Light Rail light rail
Phoenix, AZ Valley Metro Rail [4]
Portland, Oregon MAX, TriMet light rail
Portland, Oregon Portland Streetcar tram/streetcar
Sacramento, California Sacramento Regional Transit Light Rail (RT) light rail
Salt Lake City, Utah TRAX light rail
Salt Lake City, Utah S Line (Utah Transit Authority) streetcar
San Jose, California Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority (SCVTA) light rail
Seattle, Washington South Lake Union Streetcar tram/streetcar
Tucson, Arizona SunLink tram
St Louis, Missouri St Louis Metrolink light rail
Tacoma, Washington Tacoma Link light rail

1,200 V DC[edit]

Country Location Name of system Notes
Cuba Cuba HavanaMatanzas and branches Ferrocarriles Nacionales de Cuba originally (and still known as) the Hershey Electric Railway
Estonia Estonia     (Elektriraudtee) 1924–1941 and 1946–1958, converted to 3000 V DC
Germany Germany Lusatian   900 mm (2 ft 11 716 in) gauge mining railways in the lignite district
Spain Spain Barcelona, Catalonia Barcelona Metro uses an overhead conductor rail/beam system
PalmaSóller, Majorca Sóller Railway [5]
Switzerland Switzerland Canton Bern / Canton Solothurn Aare Seeland mobil (ASm) [6][7]
Dietikon, Canton ZürichWohlen, Aargau Bremgarten-Dietikon-Bahn
ZürichEsslingen, Canton Zürich Forchbahn Forchbahn proper only; Forchbahn trains access their Zürich terminus via the Zürich tram network, which is electrified at 600 V DC. The rolling stock is equipped to run off both voltages.
Frauenfeld, ThurgauWil, Canton St. Gallen Frauenfeld-Wil-Bahn
MeiringenInnertkirchen, Canton Bern Meiringen–Innertkirchen Bahn
ZürichUetliberg, Canton Zürich Sihltal Zürich Uetliberg Bahn Uetliberg line only – uses an offset overhead line and pantograph to allow running on track shared with the AC-electrified Sihltal line[8]

1,500 V DC[edit]

Country Location Name of system Notes
Argentina Argentina Buenos Aires Buenos Aires Metro Lines A, C, D, E and H
Buenos Aires Tren de la Costa Suburban line
Australia Australia Melbourne Melbourne Suburban Railways  
Sydney Sydney Trains  
Brazil Brazil São Paulo São Paulo Metro Lines 4 and 5
China China Guangzhou Guangzhou Metro except Line 4, Line 5 and Line 6, but overhead wires installed in depots.
Shanghai Shanghai Metro except Line 16, but overhead wires installed in the depot.
Shenzhen Shenzhen Metro Except Line 3
Colombia Colombia Medellín Medellín Metro Lines A and B
Czech Republic Czech Republic Tábor-Bechyně Czech Railway Infrastructure Administration (SŽDC) Tábor-Bechyně line only
Denmark Denmark Copenhagen Copenhagen S-train  
Dominican Republic Dominican Republic Santo Domingo Santo Domingo Metro  
Egypt Egypt Cairo Cairo Metro Line 1[9][10]
France France Société Nationale des Chemins de fer (SNCF) 25 kV AC used on new high speed lines (TGV) and in the north
Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong Mass Transit Railway Corporation East Rail Line, West Rail Line, Ma On Shan Line are 25 kV AC
Hungary Hungary Budapest Budapest Cog-wheel Railway Converted from 550 V DC (city trams nominal voltage at that time) during the 1973 reconstruction.
Indonesia Indonesia Jakarta KRL Jabodetabek

Jakarta MRT

Republic of Ireland Ireland Dublin Dublin Area Rapid Transit  
Italy Italy Roma Metropolitana di Roma Line A, Line B, Line Roma-Ostia Lido
Japan Japan   Japan Railways (JR) lines most electrified lines in Kantō, Chūbu, Kansai, Chūgoku, and Shikoku (except Shinkansen and Hokuriku region)
  Most private railway lines  
  Most subway lines  
South Korea South Korea Seoul National Capital Area Seoul Subway except Korail Line 1, Line 4, Bundang
and Yongsan-Deokso Line
(see 25 kV 60 Hz below)
Busan Busan Subway  
Daegu Daegu Subway  
Daejeon Daejeon Subway  
Gwangju Gwangju Subway  
Incheon Incheon Subway  
Netherlands Netherlands Nederlandse Spoorwegen - Dutch Railways (NS) 25 kV AC used on new high speed lines and new freight line Betuweroute
New Zealand New Zealand Wellington Wellington suburban except Wairarapa Line beyond Upper Hutt. Since 2011, the nominal voltage has been 1600 V but with the same tolerances as 1500 V (i.e. 1300–1800 V), making it backwards-compatible with 1500 V rolling stock.
Philippines Philippines Metro Manila Manila MRT Line 2 (Manila Light Rail Transit System) between Santolan to Recto
Portugal Portugal Cascais to Cais do Sodré Cascais Line  
Singapore Singapore Singapore Mass Rapid Transit North East Line, operated by SBS Transit
Slovakia Slovakia   Tatra Electric Railway  
Spain Spain Cataluña Ferrocarrils de la Generalitat de Catalunya  
Madrid ADIF only Cercedilla-Cotos line
Asturias-León-Cantabria-País Vasco FEVE  
País Vasco Euskotren  
Comunidad Valenciana Ferrocarrils de la Generalitat Valenciana  
Sweden Sweden Stockholm Roslagsbanan  
Switzerland Switzerland AigleLeysin, Vaud Chemin de fer Aigle–Leysin (AL)  
Aigle, VaudChampéry, Valais Chemin de fer Aigle–Ollon–Monthey–Champéry (AOMC)  
AigleLes Diablerets, Vaud Chemin de fer Aigle–Sépey–Diablerets (ASD)  
InterlakenLauterbrunnen / Grindelwald, Canton Bern Berner Oberland Bahn (BOB)  
Canton Jura Chemins de fer du Jura (CJ) metre gauge lines only; standard gauge lines are electrified at 15 kV 16 2/3 Hz
LausanneBercher, Vaud Chemin de fer Lausanne–Échallens–Bercher (LEB)
NyonLa Cure, Vaud Chemin de fer Nyon-St-Cergue-Morez (NStCNM) converted in the 1980s from 2200 V DC
Vitznau / GoldauRigi Rigi Bahnen (VRB/ARB)
WilderswilSchynige Platte, Canton Bern Schynige Platte Bahn (SPB)  
LiestalWaldenburg, Basel-Landschaft Waldenburgerbahn (WB)  
LauterbrunnenGrindelwald, Canton Bern Wengernalpbahn (WAB)  
Turkey Turkey Bursa Bursa Metro  
Istanbul Istanbul Metro Except lines M1, M2 and M6
United Kingdom United Kingdom Newcastle, Sunderland, Gateshead and Tyneside Tyne and Wear Metro  
London (Liverpool Street) to Shenfield (then Chelmsford) Great Eastern Main Line Opened in 1949.
Converted to 6.25 kV 50 Hz AC in 1960 and later to 25 kV 50 Hz AC[11][12]
Manchester Manchester, South Junction and Altrincham Railway Opened in 1931.
Converted to 25 kV 50 Hz AC in 1971
Converted again to 750 V DC in 1991 (Metrolink).[13][14]
Manchester to Sheffield Manchester-Sheffield-Wath Operated 1949–1984. Abandoned east of Hadfield in 1981; suburban services in Manchester converted to 25 kV, 50 Hz AC as far as Hadfield and Glossop in 1984.[15]
Shildon to Newport County Durham industrial line; operated 1915–1935[16]
United States United States Chicago Metra Electric District  
Northern Indiana & Chicago South Shore Line  
Seattle Central Link light rail

3 kV DC[edit]

Country Location Name of system Note
Belgium Belgium Nationwide Belgium National Railways (SNCB) National standard. 25 kV AC used on high speed lines and some lines in the south area.
Brazil Brazil Rio de Janeiro suburban network; SuperVia Trens Urbanos;  
Canada Canada Montreal Deux-Montagnes Line built by CNoR in 1918, converted to 25 kV AC/60 Hz in 1995 by AMT
Chile Chile    
Czech Republic Czech Republic Czech Railway Infrastructure Administration (SŽDC) Northern part of network only (approx. the Děčín - Praha - Ostrava route). The system change stations are Kadaň-Prunéřov, Beroun, Benešov u Prahy, Kutná Hora hl.n., Svitavy, Nezamyslice, Nedakonice. The southern part uses 25 kV 50 Hz.
Estonia Estonia Tallinn Elektriraudtee commuter rail only
Georgia (country) Georgia Georgian Railway LLC In fact 3,300 V
Italy Italy RFI - Rete Ferroviaria Italiana (Italian Railways Network) 25 kV AC used on new high speed lines
North Korea North Korea   Korean State Railway national standard
Latvia Latvia Latvian Railways (LDz) to be converted to 25 kV AC
Luxembourg Luxembourg between Luxembourg and Arlon Chemins de fer luxembourgeois (CFL) 25 kV AC on the rest of the network
Morocco Morocco   ONCF (Office National des Chemins de Fer) national standard
Poland Poland Polish State Railways (PKP) planned new high speed lines will use 25 kV AC
Warszawa and suburbs Warszawska Kolej Dojazdowa (WKD) 600 V DC until 27 May 2016
Russia Russian Federation Russian Railways (RZD) new electrification use only 25 kV AC
Slovakia Slovakia Slovak Republic Railways (ŽSR) Northern main line (connected to Czech Republic and Poland) and eastern lines (around Košice and Prešov), conversion to 25 kV AC planned, and the broad gauge line between Košice and the Ukraine border (it will remain 3 kV until new broad gauge line construction, then convert to 25 kV AC), planned new broad gauge line is supposed to use 25 kV AC. Currently, the part north and east of the station Púchov uses 3 kV DC, the rest uses 25 kV 50 Hz.
Slovenia Slovenia Slovenian Railways (SŽ) national standard
South Africa South Africa Transnet Freight Rail (TFR); MetroRail national standard; also 25 kV AC and 50 kV AC used
Spain Spain ADIF (Administrador de Infraestructuras Ferroviarias) 25 kV AC used on high speed lines
Ukraine Ukraine Ukrainian Railways in east (Donetsk industrial zone), in west (west from L'viv – connecting to Slovakia and Poland), to be converted to 25 kV AC[17]
United States United States New Jersey, lines towards New York City Morris & Essex Lines By Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad in 1930.[18] Converted to 25 kV 60 Hz by NJT in 1984

15 kV AC, ​16 23 Hz / 16.7 Hz[edit]

Country Location Name of system Notes
Austria Austria Austrian Federal Railways national standard
Germany Germany German National Railways national standard
Norway Norway Norwegian National Rail Administration national standard
Sweden Sweden Swedish Transport Administration national standard
Switzerland Switzerland Canton Bern BLS  
Central Switzerland and Bernese Oberland Zentralbahn  
Canton Vaud Chemin de fer Bière-Apples-Morges (BAM)  
Canton Zürich Sihltal Zürich Uetliberg Bahn Sihltal line only; shares track with the 1200 V DC electrified Uetliberg line that uses an offset overhead line and pantograph to allow such sharing
Throughout the country Swiss Federal Railways  

25 kV AC, 50 Hz[edit]

Country Location Name of system Notes
Argentina Argentina Buenos Aires Roca Line Constitución - Ezeiza
Constitución - Alejandro Korn
Constitución - Claypole
Constitución - Berazategui
Australia Australia Queensland: Brisbane, North Coast Line, Coalfields Queensland Rail
Western Australia: Perth Transperth
South Australia: Adelaide Adelaide Metro to be electrified 2009–2018
Belarus Belarus      
Belgium Belgium High-speed lines and some other lines Belgium National Railways (NMBS/SNCB) the rest of the network is 3 kV DC — see rail transport in Belgium
Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina   Rail transport in Bosnia and Herzegovina  
Botswana Botswana     proposed line to Namibia
Bulgaria Bulgaria   Bulgarian State Railways BDZ  
China China   China Railway Corporation  
Republic of the Congo Congo      
Croatia Croatia Nationwide Croatian Railways (HŽ) national standard
Czech Republic Czech Republic Southern lines only (linking Karlovy Vary - Cheb - Plzeň - České Budějovice - Tábor - Jihlava - Brno - Břeclav - Slovakia) Czech Railway Infrastructure Administration (SŽDC)  
Denmark Denmark nationwide Banedanmark See rail transport in Denmark
Finland Finland Nationwide Finnish Railway network National standard
France France north and new lines French National Railways (SNCF)  
Germany Germany Harz Rübelandbahn
Greece Greece Nationwide Hellenic Railways Organisation (OSE) National standard. See Railways of Greece for details of progress.
Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong Mass Transit Railway Corporation (East Rail Line) (West Rail Line) and (Ma On Shan Line)  
Hungary Hungary   Hungarian State Railways (MÁV) and Raaberbahn (GYSEV)  
India India   Indian Railways (IR)  
Mumbai Mumbai Suburban Railway Conversion from 1.5 kV DC to the current system was completed in 2012 (for Western Line[19]) and 2015 (for Central Line[20][21][22]) respectively
Mumbai Mumbai Metro (Line 1)
Chennai (Madras) Chennai Metro  
Delhi Delhi Metro  
Iran Iran     Planned
Israel Israel   Israel Railways Construction contract awarded in December 2015.[23] Initial test runs began December 2017.
Italy Italy     new high-speed lines only
Japan Japan   JR East Tōhoku, Jōetsu, and Hokuriku Shinkansen 60 Hz in some areas, see 60 Hz overhead below.
Kazakhstan Kazakhstan      
Latvia Latvia   Latvian Railways (LDz) Eastern lines only
Lithuania Lithuania Naujoji Vilnia-Kaunas and Naujoji Vilnia-Trakai Lithuanian Railways (LG) Electrification of Naujoji Vilnia – Kena route by 2013 for Vilnius – Minsk (Belarus) is expected. Further Kaunas – Klaipeda corridor electrification will follow.
Luxembourg Luxembourg nationnwide Chemins de fer luxembourgeois (CFL) National standard, but the Luxembourg – Arlon line is electrified under 3 kV DC
Republic of Macedonia Macedonia   Macedonian Railways  
Malaysia Malaysia Sungai Gadut - Tanjung Malim / Port Klang - Batu Caves KTM Komuter Keretapi Tanah Melayu Berhad Under Construction Ipoh - Padang Besar / Sungai Gadut - Gemas
Montenegro Montenegro Belgrade - Bar railway and Nikšić–Podgorica railway Railways of Montenegro  
Namibia Namibia Proposed line to Botswana    
Netherlands Netherlands Used on new High Speed Lines and Freight Lines Dutch Railways (NS) 1.5 kV DC used on the rest of the network
New Zealand New Zealand Auckland Auckland suburban 77 km between Swanson and Papakura; first service 28 April 2014
  North Island Main Trunk Railway Central North Island section, 411 km between Palmerston North and Hamilton
Portugal Portugal   Portuguese Railways (CP) except the Cascais Line (1500 V DC)
Romania Romania   Romanian Railways (CFR)  
Russia Russian Federation   Russian Railways (RZD) National standard
Serbia Serbia nationwide Serbian Railways  
Slovakia Slovakia   Slovak Republic Railways (ŽSR) South-western lines only (around Bratislava, Kuty, Trencin, Trnava, Nove Zamky, Zvolen) and the entire network (except narrow gauge lines) to follow
Spain Spain   ADIF Alta Velocidad High-speed lines only
South Africa South Africa   Transnet Freight Rail (TFR), Gautrain  
Thailand Thailand Bangkok Suvarnabhumi Airport Link  
Tunisia Tunisia      [24]
Turkey Turkey nationwide Turkish State Railways (TCDD) National standard
United Kingdom UK Nationwide Network Rail except Southern region and Merseyside
Ukraine Ukraine   Ukrainian Railways national standard, in most of the west; also 3000 V DC in the east
Uzbekistan Uzbekistan      
Zimbabwe Zimbabwe Gweru-Harare National Railways of Zimbabwe (NRZ) de-energised in 2008

25 kV AC, 60 Hz[edit]

While 25 kV 60 Hz is not standardized by BS EN 50163 and IEC 60850; it is the logical equivalent of 25 kV 50 Hz in countries where 60 Hz is the normal grid power frequency.

Country Location Name of system Notes
Canada Canada Montreal Deux-Montagnes Line built by CNoR in 1918 as 3000 V DC, converted to 25 kV AC/60 Hz in 1995 by ARTM
Japan Japan Western Japan, Central Japan, Eastern Japan, JR Kyushu Tōkaidō-Sanyō Shinkansen
Hokuriku Shinkansen
Kyushu Shinkansen
50 Hz in eastern Japan; see 25 kV AC 50 Hz overhead above
South Korea South Korea South Korea Korail all Korail freight/passenger lines except Seoul subway Line 3 (see 1500 V DC overhead above)
Incheon, Seoul A'REX  
Mexico Mexico Mexico City Ferrocarril Suburbano de la Zona Metropolitana del Valle de México  [25]
Taiwan Taiwan Taiwan Taiwan Railways Administration
Western Taiwan Taiwan High Speed Rail
United States United States New Jersey Morris & Essex Lines, New Jersey Transit former 3,000 V DC system
Aberdeen-Matawan to Long Branch, New Jersey North Jersey Coast Line, New Jersey Transit Converted in 1978 from Pennsylvania Railroad 11 kV 25 Hz system to the 12.5 kV 25 Hz on the Rahway-Matawan ROW and 12.5 kV 60 Hz electrification extended to Long Branch in 1988. The Matawan-Long Branch voltage converted from 12.5 kV 60 Hz system to the 25 kV 60 Hz in 2002.
Washington D.C. to Boston Northeast Corridor (NEC), Amtrak electrified in 2000; see Amtrak's 60 Hz Traction Power System
Denver Denver RTD opened in 2016; separate 750 V DC system for light rail
New Mexico Navajo Mine Railroad
Texas Texas Utilities, Monticello & Martin Lake see E25B and Internet reference[26]

Conductor rail systems[edit]

600 V DC conductor[edit]

All third rail unless stated otherwise.
Used by most older US subways.

Using this type of electrification
No longer using this type of electrification
Type Country Location Name of system Notes
Top contact Argentina Argentina Buenos Aires Urquiza Line Federico Lacroze-General Lemos
Top contact Canada Canada Toronto Toronto Subway and Rapid Transit only on subway lines
Top contact Greece Greece Athens EIS/ISAP used between 1904 and 1985, now 750 V
Top contact Italy Italy Turin Superga Rack Railway  
Top contact Japan Japan Tokyo Tokyo Metro Ginza Line and Marunouchi Line  
  Japan Japan Nagoya, Aichi Nagoya Municipal Subway Higashiyama Line and Meijō Line  
Top contact Sweden Sweden Stockholm Stockholm Metro 650 V, Green and Red Lines
Top contact United Kingdom United Kingdom Glasgow Glasgow Subway  
Top contact United States United States Boston Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority Red and Orange Lines, the subway part of the Blue Line southwest of Airport Station
Top contact United States United States Chicago Chicago "L" elevated and subway lines
Top contact United States United States New York City New York City Subway  
Top contact United States United States New York City metro area PATH  
Top contact United States United States Philadelphia Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority Broad Street subway
United States United States Bay Lake, Florida Walt Disney World Monorail System

750 V DC conductor[edit]

Conductor rail systems have been separated into tables based on whether they are top, side or bottom contact. All systems are third rail unless stated otherwise.

Using this type of electrification
No longer using this type of electrification
Bottom contact[edit]
Country Location Name of system Notes
Algeria Algeria Algiers Algiers Metro  
Austria Austria Vienna Vienna U-Bahn  
Brazil Brazil São Paulo São Paulo Metro except Lines 4 and 5
Bulgaria Bulgaria Sofia Sofia Metro  
Czech Republic Czech Republic Prague Prague Metro  
Denmark Denmark Copenhagen Copenhagen Metro  
Egypt Egypt Cairo Cairo Metro Line 2 and Line 3
Finland Finland Helsinki Helsinki Metro  
Germany Germany Berlin Berlin U-Bahn Lines from U5 to U9 (large profile). Negative polarity.
Hamburg Hamburg U-Bahn  
Munich Munich U-Bahn  
Nuremberg Nuremberg U-Bahn  
India India Bangalore Namma Metro  
Kochi Kochi Metro  
South Korea South Korea Busan Busan-Gimhae Light Rail Transit  
Netherlands Netherlands Amsterdam Amsterdam Metro including line 51 north of Station Zuid
Rotterdam Rotterdam Metro North of Capelsebrug station overhead wires
Norway Norway Oslo Oslo T-bane  
Poland Poland Warsaw Warsaw Metro  
Romania Romania Bucharest Bucharest Metro  
Singapore Singapore Singapore Mass Rapid Transit North South Line, East West Line and Circle Line operated by SMRT Trains

Downtown Line operated by SBS Transit
Thomson-East Coast Line

Taiwan Taiwan Kaohsiung Kaohsiung Mass Rapid Transit
Taipei Taipei Metro
TaoyuanTaipei Taoyuan Metro
Turkey Turkey Ankara Ankara Metro  
Istanbul Istanbul Metro Lines M2 and M6 only
Izmir Izmir Metro  
United Kingdom United Kingdom London Docklands Light Railway  
United States United States New York City Metro-North Railroad  
Side contact[edit]
Country Location Name of system Notes
Canada Canada Montreal Montreal Metro (guide bars, see DC, four-rail below)
Chile Chile Santiago Santiago Metro  
France France Paris Paris Métro (Rubber tired) Positive (and sometimes negative) polarity on guide bars.
See DC, four-rail below.
Lyon Lyon Métro
Marseille Marseille Métro
Lille Lille Métro
Rennes Rennes Métro
Toulouse Toulouse Métro
Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong International Airport
Automated People Mover (APM)
Mitsubishi "Crystal Mover" system using two power rails (positive and negative) with side collection.
Japan Japan Sapporo, Hokkaido Sapporo Municipal Subway Namboku Line  
Singapore Singapore Singapore Light Rail Transit Sengkang LRT Line and Punggol LRT Line operated by SBS Transit
Singapore Sentosa Express Sentosa Express operated by SDC
United States United States Las Vegas Las Vegas Monorail  
Top contact[edit]
Country Location Name of system Notes
China China Beijing Beijing Subway  
France France Paris Paris Métro (Conventional metro)  
Germany Germany Berlin Berlin U-Bahn Lines from U1 to U4 (small profile)
Greece Greece Athens Athens Metro Line 1 was 600 V before 1985.
Hungary Hungary Budapest Budapest Metro except line M1, which is 600 V DC with overhead lines.
India India Kolkata (Calcutta) Kolkata Metro  
Japan Japan Osaka, Osaka Osaka Municipal Subway except the Sakaisuji Line, Nagahori Tsurumi-ryokuchi Line, and the Imazatosuji Line, which are 1,500 V DC with overhead lines.
Suita, Osaka
Toyonaka, Osaka
Kita-Osaka Kyuko Railway  
Higashiosaka, Osaka
Ikoma, Nara
Nara, Nara
Keihanna Line  
Yokohama, Kanagawa Yokohama Municipal Subway  
North Korea North Korea Pyongyang Pyongyang Metro based on fleet of cars from Beijing and Germany
South Korea South Korea Yongin Everline  
Portugal Portugal Lisbon Lisbon Metro  
Puerto Rico Puerto Rico San Juan Tren Urbano  
Sweden Sweden Stockholm Stockholm Metro Nominal voltage 650 V, subway 3 (blue line) 750 V. Subway 1 and 2 will change in the long term to 750 V.
United Kingdom United Kingdom Liverpool Merseyrail  
London Northern City Line access to City (Moorgate)
London LNWR Suburban Network formerly four-rail out of Euston and Broad Street, curtailed, upgraded and standardised
Southern England Southern Region of British Railways
and successors
660 V system upgraded and expanded
United States United States New York City and Long Island
East River Tunnels shared with Amtrak
Long Island Rail Road  
Philadelphia, PA PATCO Speedline  
Washington, DC Washington Metro  
within the Hudson and East River Tunnels as well as under Manhattan
Northeast Corridor
within the Hudson Tunnel into Manhattan New Jersey Transit  
Not yet determined[edit]
Type Country Location Name of system Notes
See note China China Tianjin Tianjin Metro Top contact in Line 1, bottom contact in Lines 2 and 3

1200 V DC conductor[edit]

All systems are third rail unless stated otherwise.

Using this type of electrification
No longer using this type of electrification
Side contact[edit]
Country Location Name of system Notes
Germany Germany Hamburg Hamburg S-Bahn 15 kV/16.7 Hz with overhead line in part of network.
United KingdomUK Manchester Manchester-Bury Dismantled 1991, converted to Manchester Metrolink tramway (750 V DC overhead)

Systems using non-standard voltages[edit]

Overhead systems[edit]

DC voltage[edit]

Voltage Name of system Location Country Notes
120 Seaton Tramway Seaton, Devon United Kingdom UK Half scale trams. Operated 1969-now. Substations have battery banks for back up.
250 Chicago Tunnel Company Chicago United States United States operated 1906–1959
500 Hong Kong Tramways Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong  
525 Bergbahn Lauterbrunnen-Mürren Lauterbrunnen Switzerland Switzerland  
550 Manx Electric Railway Isle of Man Isle of Man Isle of Man including Snaefell Mountain Railway
Trams in Kolkata Kolkata (Calcutta) India India  
650 Pittsburgh Light Rail Pittsburgh United States United States
Basel Trams (BVB/BLT) Basel Switzerland Switzerland
700 Chemin de fer Bex-Villars-Bretaye BexCol de Bretaye, Vaud Switzerland Switzerland
800 Szybka Kolej Miejska (Tricity) Tricity Poland Poland Operated 1951-1976. Converted to 3,000 V DC in 1976.
850 Ferrovia Monte Generoso (MG) CapolagoMonte Generoso, Ticino Switzerland Switzerland
900 Gruyere – Fribourg – Morat Fribourg Switzerland Switzerland  
Montreux-Oberland Bernois Montreux Switzerland Switzerland  
1,000 Rhätische Bahn (RhB) St Moritz, GraubundenTirano, Lombardy Switzerland Switzerland Italy Italy Bernina line only; remainder of system electrified at 11 kV AC, 16 2⁄3 Hz. The Bernina line is an international line linking Switzerland (St. Moritz) with Italy (Tirano)
Budapest Commuter Rail and Rapid Transit (BHÉV) Budapest Hungary Hungary [27]
1,100 Buenos Aires Metro (Subterráneos de Buenos Aires) Buenos Aires Argentina Argentina only Line A (converted to 1,500 V DC with La Brugeoise trains replaced by new rolling stock in 2013)
1,250 Regionalverkehr Bern-Solothurn (RBS) Canton Bern Switzerland Switzerland All lines except tram line 6 between Bern and Worb, which is electrified at 600 V DC[3]
1,350 Ferrovia Domodossola–Locarno (FART/SSIF) Domodossola, PiedmontLocarno, Ticino Italy Italy Switzerland Switzerland International railway between Italy (Domodossola) and Switzerland (Locarno)
Ferrovia Lugano–Ponte Tresa (FLP) LuganoPonte Tresa, Canton Ticino Switzerland Switzerland
2,400   Lausitzer Germany Germany work line of the Lausitzer Brown Coal AG company
PAK KWB KONIN[28] Konin Poland Poland
PAK KWB ADAMÓW[28] Turek Poland Poland
Chemin de fer de La Mure Grenoble France France −1,200 V, +1,200 V two wire system from 1903 to 1950. 2,400 V since 1950.[29]
3,500 Bury – Holcombe Brook Manchester United Kingdom UK operated 1913–1918
6,000     Russia Russia experiments in the late 1970s (3,000 V DC lines)

AC voltage[edit]

Voltage Frequency Name of system Location Country Notes
5,500 16 23 Hz Ammergau Railway Murnau Germany Germany 1905–1955, after 1955 15 kV, 16.7 Hz
6,000 50 Hz     Germany Germany factory railway of Rheinbraun AG
6,250 Great Eastern suburban lines London, Essex, Herts United Kingdom UK Great Eastern suburban lines from Liverpool Street London, 1950s–c1980 (converted to 25 kV)
Glasgow suburban lines Glasgow United Kingdom UK Sections of the North Clyde Line and Cathcart Circle Line from 1960-1970s
6,300 25 Hz Hamburg S-Bahn Hamburg Germany Germany Operated with AC 1907–1955. Used both AC and DC (1,200 V 3rd rail) 1940–1955.
6,500 Mariazellerbahn Sankt Pölten Austria Austria  
6,600 Thamshavnbanen Orkdal Norway Norway  
6,600 50 Hz Hambachbahn and Nord-Süd-Bahn Cologne Lowland Germany Germany transports lignite from open-pit mines to powerplants
8 kV 25 Hz Alb Valley Railway Karlsruhe Germany Germany 1911–1966, today using 750 V DC
10 kV Hofpleinlijn The Hague - Rotterdam Netherlands Netherlands from 1908, in 1926 converted to 1,500 DC, In 2006 replaced by 750 V DC light rail
10 kV 50 Hz Russian Railways industrial railways at quarries Russia Russia operated from 1950-s at coal and ore quarries
Ukrainian Railways Ukraine Ukraine
some private industrial railways in Kazakhstan Kazakhstan Kazakhstan
11 kV 16 23 Hz Rhätische Bahn (RhB) Graubünden Switzerland Switzerland Except the Bernina line, which is electrified at 1,000 V DC
Matterhorn-Gotthard-Bahn (MGB)   formerly Furka Oberalp Bahn (FO) and BVZ Zermatt-Bahn
25 Hz Pennsylvania Railroad
  United States United States All lines now 12.5 kV 25 Hz or 12.5 kV 60 Hz
See Railroad electrification in the United States
50 Hz Mont Blanc Tramway Saint-Gervais-les-Bains France France  
12 kV 16 23 Hz Chemin de fer du Midi lines in Pyrenees France France most converted to 1,500 V 1922–23; Villefranche-Perpignan diesel 1971, then 1,500 V 1984
12.5 kV 25 Hz Northeast Corridor (NEC), Amtrak Washington, DC - New York City United States United States 11 kV until 1978
Keystone Corridor, Amtrak Harrisburg, PA to Philadelphia, PA 11 kV until 1978
SEPTA Philadelphia Regional Rail system only; 11 kV until 1978
North Jersey Coast Line, New Jersey Transit Rahway to Aberdeen-Matawan, New Jersey 11 kV until 1978
60 Hz North Jersey Coast Line, New Jersey Transit Aberdeen-Matawan to Long Branch, New Jersey 1988-2002, today using 25 kV 60 Hz
New Haven Line, Metro-North Railroad Pelham, NY-New Haven, CT  
20 kV 50 Hz Höllentalbahn Freiburg Germany Germany Operated 1933–1960. Converted to 15 kV ​16 23 Hz.
Société Nationale des Chemins de fer (SNCF) Aix-les-BainsLa Roche-sur-Foron France France Operated 1950–1953. Converted to 25 kV 50 Hz.
most electrified JR/the third sector lines in Hokkaidō and Tōhoku JR East, JR Hokkaidō, and others Japan Japan  
60 Hz most electrified JR/the third sector lines in Kyūshū and Hokuriku region JR Kyūshū and others  
50 kV 50 Hz Sishen–Saldanha railway line Northern Cape, Western Cape South Africa South Africa opened in 1976 and hauls iron ore
60 Hz Tumbler Ridge Subdivision of BC Rail (Now Canadian National Railway) British Columbia Canada Canada Opened in 1983 to serve a coal mine in the northern Rocky Mountains. No longer in use.
Black Mesa and Lake Powell Railroad Arizona United States United States First line to use 50 kV electrification when it opened in 1973. This is an isolated coal-hauling short line.
Deseret Power Railroad Utah formerly Deseret Western Railway


Two wires[edit]
Voltage Current Name of system Location Country Notes
725 50 Hz, Gornergratbahn ZermattGornergrat, Valais Switzerland Switzerland
750 40 Hz, 3Ø Burgdorf-Thun Bahn BurgdorfThun Operated 1899–1933
converted to 15 kV ​16 23 Hz in 1933
800 60 Hz, 3Ø Corcovado Rack Railway Rio de Janeiro Brazil Brazil  
1125 50 Hz, 3Ø Jungfraubahn Interlaken Switzerland Switzerland
3000 15 Hz, 3Ø Valtellina Electrification   Italy Northern Italy 1902–1917
50 Hz, 3Ø Chemin de Fer de la Rhune Saint-Jean-de-Luz to Larrun France France  
3000 16 Hz, 3Ø   Simplon Tunnel Switzerland Switzerland, Italy Italy Simplon Bahn, 1906–1930
3600 16 23 Hz, 3Ø     Italy Italy operated 1912–1976 in Upper Italy (more info needed)
FS Porrettana railway 1927–1935
3700 16 23 Hz, 3Ø Brenner Railway Trento/Trient to Brenner Italy Italy 1929 - 1965
5200 25 Hz, 3Ø   AlmeriaGergal Spain Spain 1911–1966?
6600 25 Hz, 3Ø Great Northern Railway (U.S.) Cascade Tunnel United States United States 1909 - 1929
10 kV 45 Hz, 3Ø FS Roma - Sulmona Italy Italy 1929–1944
Three wires[edit]
Voltage Current Name of system Location Country Notes
3000 V 50 Hz Zahnradbahn Tagebau Gruhlwerk Kierberg Germany Germany rack railway (0.7 km)
operated 1927–1949
10000 V 50 Hz   Berlin-Lichterfelde (de) test track (1.8 km);
variable voltage and frequency;
trial runs 1898–1901
14 kV
(See notes)
38 Hz - 48 Hz
(See notes)
  Zossen - Marienfelde test track (23.4 km);
trial runs 1901–1904

variable voltage between 10 kV and 14 kV and frequency between 38 Hz and 48 Hz.

50 Hz   Ship elevator of Krasnoyarsk Reservoir Russia Russia length: 1.5 km, 9000 mm gauge

Conductor rail systems (all DC voltage)[edit]

Conductor rail systems have been separated into tables based on whether they are top, side or bottom contact.

Top contact systems[edit]

Voltage Type Name of system Location Country Notes
50 See notes Volk's Electric Railway Brighton United Kingdom UK Volk's Railway prior to 1884
(current fed through running rails)
110 third rail the world's oldest operational electric railway[citation needed]
160 Volk's Railway between 1884 and 1980s
100 fourth rail Monorail at National Motor Museum Beaulieu United Kingdom UK current fed by 2 contact wires
180 See notes Siemens streetcar Berlin-Lichterfelde Germany Germany Current fed through the running rails
Operated 1881–1891
200 third rail Southend Pier Railway Southend United Kingdom UK Until 1902[30]
250 Hythe Pier Railway Hythe, Hampshire  
Chicago Tunnel Company Chicago, Illinois United States USA Morgan Rack

1904, revenue service 1906–1908

400 Berchtesgaden Salt Mine Railway Berchtesgaden Germany Germany
440 Post Office Railway London United Kingdom UK disused since 2003[31]

150 V is used in station areas to limit train speed

550 Buenos Aires Metro (Subterráneos de Buenos Aires) Buenos Aires Argentina Argentina Only Line B
630 Island Line Isle of Wight United Kingdom UK  
630 4th rail London Underground (LUL) London Supplied at +420 V and -210 V (630 V total); It is proposed to increase the voltage to 750 V (+500 V and -250 V)[32]
650 See notes Euston to Watford DC Line London Third rail with fourth rail bonded to running rail

To enable London Underground trains to operate between Queens Park and Harrow & Wealdstone. Similar bonding arrangements are used on the North London Line between Richmond and Gunnersbury and South West Trains Putney Bridge to Wimbledon.

660 third rail Southern Railway & LSWR   some areas up to 1939, original standard, mostly upgraded to 750 V (except for sections that operate with LUL stock).
800 Berlin S-Bahn Berlin GermanyGermany discontinued, today 750 V
825 Pyongyang Metro Pyongyang North KoreaNorth Korea uses old 750 V Berlin U-Bahn rolling stock
1000 Bay Area Rapid Transit San Francisco United States USA [33]
1500 Culoz–Modane railway Chambéry - Modane France France used between 1925 and 1976, today overhead wire

Side contact systems[edit]

Voltage Type Name of system Location Country Notes
850 Third Rail Ligne de Saint Gervais - Vallorcine Martigny France France
1200 Third Rail Manchester-Bury Manchester United KingdomUK Dismantled 1991, converted to Manchester Metrolink tramway (750 V DC overhead)
1200 Third Rail Hamburg S-Bahn Hamburg Germany Germany Since 1940. Used both third rail DC (1200 V) and overhead line AC (6300 V 25 Hz) until 1955. Also uses German standard 15 kV, 16 2/3 Hz overhead electrification on the section between Neugraben and Stade on line S3, opened in December 2007.

Bottom contact systems[edit]

Voltage Type Name of system Location Country Notes
650 third rail SkyTrain Vancouver Canada Canada Expo Line (1985) and Millennium Line (2006)
700 third rail Metro-North Railroad New York United States United States Hudson and Harlem Lines, southern part of New Haven Line. Original New York Central Railroad electrification scheme to Grand Central Terminal.
Market-Frankford Line Philadelphia Originally 600 V, raised to 700 V
825 third rail Sofia Metro Sofia Bulgaria Bulgaria  
Moscow Metro Moscow Russia Russia Nominal voltage: 825 V; allowed range: 550 V - 975 V[34]
Saint Petersburg Metro Saint Petersburg
Novosibirsk Metro Novosibirsk
Nizhny Novgorod Metro Nizhny Novgorod
Samara Metro Samara
Yekaterinburg Metro Yekaterinburg
Kazan Metro Kazan
Kiev Metro Kiev Ukraine Ukraine FSU underground systems share the same standard[35]
Kharkiv Metro Kharkiv
Dnipro Metro Dnipro
830 third rail Mitre Line Buenos Aires Argentina Argentina Retiro - José León Suárez
Retiro - Bartolomé Mitre
Retiro - Tigre
Sarmiento Line Once - Moreno
850 third rail Ligne de Cerdagne Villefranche France France Often referred to as the "Yellow Train"
Wiener Lokalbahn Vienna Austria Austria  
900 third rail Brussels Metro Brussels Belgium Belgium
1500 third rail Guangzhou Metro Line 4, Line 5 and Line 6 Guangzhou China China Overhead wires in depots; all trains are equipped with pantographs
third rail Shenzhen Metro Line 3 Shenzhen  
third rail Shanghai Metro Line 16 Shanghai Overhead wires in depot; all trains are equipped with pantographs
third rail Beijing Subway Line 7 Beijing

Special or unusual types[edit]

DC, plough collection from conductors in conduit below track[edit]

DC, one ground-level conductor[edit]

  • Wolverhampton Corporation Tramways, England (stud contact) (1902–1921)
  • Bordeaux Tramway, France (conductor rail)
  • Sydney Light Rail (tramway)(Under construction)

DC, two-wire[edit]

  • Greenwich, England. Previously used by trams when in the vicinity of Greenwich Observatory; separate from trolleybus supply.
  • Cincinnati, Ohio, US. Tram (streetcar) system used this arrangement throughout, probably due to legal constraints on ground return currents.
  • Havana and Guanabacoa, Cuba. Tram (streetcar) systems in both cities used this arrangement.

DC, power from running rails[edit]

DC, four-rail[edit]

Voltage Type Contact system Name of system Location Country Notes
750 guide bars lateral to both guide bars (one guide connected to running rail) Paris Metro Paris France rubber-tyred lines only
Lateral (positive) and top of running rails (negative) contact Montreal Metro Montreal Canada rubber-tyred lines
Mexico City Metro Mexico City Mexico rubber-tyred lines
Third and fourth rail lateral (positive) and top (negative) contact Milan Transportation System Milan Italy metro (only line 1)
630 Top contact London Underground London UK Transport for London[36]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ BS EN 50163 (2007).
  2. ^ IEC 60850 (2007).
  3. ^ a b Schweers+Wall (2012), p. 66.
  4. ^ "page 5" (PDF). Retrieved 10 April 2018. 
  5. ^ Sóller Website
  6. ^ Schweers+Wall (2012), p. 11.
  7. ^ Schweers+Wall (2012), p. 19.
  8. ^ "Bahn S4/S10" [Railway S4/S10] (in German). SZU. Retrieved 2011-09-01. 
  9. ^ Barrow, Keith (14 March 2014). "Cairo to order new trains for metro Line 1". International Railway Journal. Simmons-Boardman Publishing Inc. Retrieved 23 January 2015. 
  10. ^ "Cairo Metro Tender for New Rolling Stock". MENA RAIL POST. MENA RAIL POST. 16 March 2014. Archived from the original on 23 January 2015. Retrieved 23 January 2015. 
  11. ^ Boddy et al. (1990), p. 139.
  12. ^ Swain (1990), p. 19.
  13. ^ Boddy et al. (1990), p. 135.
  14. ^ Dixon (1994), p. 119.
  15. ^ Boddy et al. (1990), p.101 & p.142
  16. ^ Boddy et al. (1990), p. 92–93.
  17. ^ Railway Gazette International April 2008, p 240
  18. ^ Electrified D. L. & W. Time magazine archives Retrieved 2007-08-12
  19. ^ "Western Railway sets stage for AC system - Times of India". Retrieved 10 April 2018. 
  20. ^ "From May 5, faster Central Railway with AC power - Times of India". Retrieved 10 April 2018. 
  21. ^ "Soon, faster trains on Kalyan-LTT route - Times of India". Retrieved 10 April 2018. 
  22. ^ "Central Railway plans DC/AC switch in May - Times of India". Retrieved 10 April 2018. 
  23. ^ "Israel Railways awards USD 500m electrification contract to Spanish SEMI". Think Railways. Retrieved 17 January 2016. 
  24. ^
  25. ^ "Espacio del Viajero: Conoce los Trenes" (in Spanish). Mexico City: Ferrocarriles Suburbanos. Retrieved 24 May 2011. Alimentación (Vcc. catenaria): 25000, 60Hz 
  26. ^ "TXU - Monticello Line". 1999-11-02. Retrieved 2013-04-22. 
  27. ^ "Railway Technical Info - Hungary". Retrieved 10 April 2018. 
  28. ^ a b
  29. ^ "ERS - Presentation, La Mure". Retrieved 10 April 2018. 
  30. ^ "Southend Pier Railway". 
  31. ^ Karslake, Colin. "Unofficial MailRail Website - Home". Retrieved 10 April 2018. 
  32. ^ London Underground (October 2014), New Tube for London - Feasibility Report (PDF), p. 26 
  33. ^ "BART System Facts". San Francisco Bay Area Rapid Transit District. Retrieved 2014-02-05. 
  34. ^ "Rules of technical operation of undergrounds of the Russian Federation (Правила технической эксплуатации метрополитенов Российской Федерации)" (PDF) (in Russian). International Metro Association. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-10-10. Retrieved 2017-11-30. 
  35. ^ "Structures, devices and rolling stock of underground (Сооружения, устройства и подвижной состав метрополитена)" (in Russian). Archived from the original on 2017-09-19. Retrieved 2017-11-30. 
  36. ^ "Tube | Transport for London". Retrieved 2013-04-22. 


External links[edit]