List of delegates to the Continental Congress

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The Continental Congress was initially a convention of delegates from several British American colonies at the height of the American Revolution era, who spoke and acted collectively for the people of the Thirteen colonies that ultimately became the United States of America; the term most specifically refers to the First Continental Congress of 1774 and the Second Continental Congress of 1775–81. More broadly, it also refers to the Congress of the Confederation of 1781–89, thus covering the entire period the Continental Congress served as the chief legislative and executive body of the U.S. government.

The unicameral Congress of the Confederation, officially styled "The United States in Congress Assembled," was composed of delegates elected by the legislature of the various states; the Confederation Congress was the immediate successor to the Second Continental Congress; and delegates to it were similarly chosen. Many of the delegates to the initial 1775 session of the Second Continental Congress had also attended the previous First Continental Congress. Altogether, The Biographical Directory of the United States Congress lists 343 men who served as delegates to the Continental Congress in three incarnations from 1774 to 1789; also listed are another 90 persons who were elected as delegates but never served.

Background[edit]

Convened in response to the Intolerable Acts passed by the British Parliament earlier that year, the 56 delegates to the First Continental Congress sought to help repair the frayed relationship between the British government and its American colonies, they organized an economic boycott of Great Britain in protest and petitioned the king for a redress of grievances. They also resolved to reconvene in May 1775 if necessary.

Delegates from the various colonies did indeed reconvene for a Second Continental Congress as scheduled, but by the time they gathered, the Revolutionary War had begun. Moderates in the Congress still hoped that the colonies could be reconciled with Great Britain, but a movement towards independence steadily gained ground. At this juncture Congress simultaneously sent an Olive Branch Petition to King George III, hoping for a rapprochement, and issued a Declaration of the Causes and Necessity of Taking Up Arms, which contained the words "Our cause is just. Our union is perfect... being with one mind resolved to die freemen rather than to live slaves...".

Signing of Declaration of Independence by Charles Édouard Armand-Dumaresq, c.1873

Congress functioned as a de facto national government from the outset by establishing the Continental Army, directing strategy, and appointing diplomats, it eventually adopted the Lee Resolution which established the new country on July 2, 1776, and it agreed to the Declaration of Independence two days later.

Afterward, the Congress functioned as the provisional government of the United States through March 1, 1781. During this period, in addition to successfully managing the war effort, its primary achievements included: drafting the Articles of Confederation, the first U.S. Constitution; securing diplomatic recognition and support from foreign nations; and resolving state land claims west of the Appalachian Mountains; when the Articles of Confederation came into force on March 1, 1781, after being ratified by all 13 states, the Continental Congress became the Congress of the Confederation, which helped guide the new nation through the final stages of the Revolutionary War. Under the Articles, the Confederation Congress had limited power, it could declare war, sign treaties, and settle disputes between the states. It could also borrow or print money, but did not have the power to tax; nor could it compel the individual states to comply with its decisions, it convened in eight sessions (a ninth failed to achieve a quorum) prior to being supplanted in 1789, when the United States Congress became the nation's legislative branch of government under a new Constitution.

Article V of the Articles of Confederation[edit]

Article V of the Articles of Confederation provided for the annual election of delegates to Congress by legislatures of the various states to terms that commenced on the first Monday in November, in every year; each state could send 2–7 delegates, and no person was permitted to serve as a delegate for more than three years within a span of six years. State legislatures also had the authority to recall or to replace its delegates at any time. Prior to 1781 delegates to the Continental Congress served at the pleasure of the state legislature that commissioned them, neither term limits nor specific start– / end–date of service existed.

For the most convenient management of the general interests of the United States, delegates shall be annually appointed in such manner as the legislatures of each State shall direct, to meet in Congress on the first Monday in November, in every year, with a power reserved to each State to recall its delegates, or any of them, at any time within the year, and to send others in their stead for the remainder of the year.

No State shall be represented in Congress by less than two, nor more than seven members; and no person shall be capable of being a delegate for more than three years in any term of six years; nor shall any person, being a delegate, be capable of holding any office under the United States, for which he, or another for his benefit, receives any salary, fees or emolument of any kind.

Each State shall maintain its own delegates in a meeting of the States, and while they act as members of the committee of the States.

In determining questions in the United States in Congress assembled, each State shall have one vote.

Freedom of speech and debate in Congress shall not be impeached or questioned in any court or place out of Congress, and the members of Congress shall be protected in their persons from arrests or imprisonments, during the time of their going to and from, and attendence on Congress, except for treason, felony, or breach of the peace.[1]

Elected delegates who participated[edit]

The following tables list the 343 people who served in Congress: 1st Continental, 2nd Continental, or Confederation, between 1774 and 1789, as well as the year(s) of their active participation.

Connecticut[edit]

Delegates from Connecticut
Name 1st Continental
Congress
2nd Continental
Congress
Confederation
Congress
Andrew Adams 1778
Joseph Platt Cooke 1784–1785; 1787–1788
Silas Deane 1774 1775–1776
Eliphalet Dyer 1774 1775–1779 1782–1783
Pierpont Edwards 1788
Oliver Ellsworth[2] 1778–1781 1781–1783
Titus Hosmer 1778
Benjamin Huntington 1780 1782–1783; 1788
Samuel Huntington 1776; 1778–1781 1781; 1783
William Samuel Johnson 1785–1787
Richard Law 1777 1781–1782
Stephen Mix Mitchell 1785–1788
Jesse Root 1778–1781 1781–1782
Roger Sherman[3] 1774 1775–1781 1781; 1783–1784
Joseph Spencer 1779
Jonathan Sturges 1786
James Wadsworth 1784
Jeremiah Wadsworth 1788
William Williams 1776–1777
Oliver Wolcott 1776–1778; 1781 1781–1783
 Source (unless otherwise noted):[4]

Delaware[edit]

Delegates from Delaware
Name 1st Continental
Congress
2nd Continental
Congress
Confederation
Congress
Gunning Bedford Jr. 1783–1785
John Dickinson[a] 1779
Philemon Dickinson 1782–1783
Dyre Kearney 1787–1788
Eleazer McComb 1783–1784
Thomas McKean 1774 1775–1776; 1778–1781 1781–1782
Nathaniel Mitchell 1787–1788
John Patten 1786
William Peery 1786
George Read 1774 1775–1777
Caesar Rodney 1774 1775–1776
Thomas Rodney 1781–1782; 1786
James Sykes 1777
James Tilton 1783–1784
Nicholas Van Dyke 1777–1781 1781
John Vining 1784–1785
Samuel Wharton 1782–1783
 Source (unless otherwise noted):[4]

Georgia[edit]

Delegates from Georgia
Name 1st Continental
Congress
2nd Continental
Congress
Confederation
Congress
Abraham Baldwin 1785; 1787–1788
Nathan Brownson 1777
Archibald Bulloch 1775
William Few 1780–1781 1781–1782; 1786–1788
William Gibbons 1784
Button Gwinnett 1776
John Habersham 1785
Lyman Hall 1775–1777
John Houstoun 1775
William Houstoun 1784–1786
Richard Howly 1780–1781 1781
Noble Wimberly Jones 1781–1782
Edward Langworthy 1777–1779
William Pierce 1787
Edward Telfair 1778; 1780–1781 1781–1782
George Walton 1776–1777; 1780–1781 1781
John Walton 1778
Joseph Wood 1777–1778
John Joachim Zubly 1775
 Source (unless otherwise noted):[4]

Maryland[edit]

Delegates from Maryland
Name 1st Continental
Congress
2nd Continental
Congress
Confederation
Congress
Robert Alexander 1776
William Carmichael 1778–1779
Charles Carroll ("Barrister")[5] 1776–1777
Charles Carroll ("of Carrollton")[6] 1776; 1777–1778; 1780
Daniel Carroll[7] 1781–1783
Jeremiah Chase 1783–1784
Samuel Chase[8] 1774 1775–1778 1784; 1785
Benjamin Contee 1788
James Forbes 1778–1780
Uriah Forrest 1787
Robert Goldsborough 1774 1775–1776
John Hall 1775
John Hanson[9] 1780–1781 1781–1782
William Harrison Jr. 1786
William Hemsley 1782–1783
John Henry 1778–1780 1785–1786
William Hindman 1785–1786
John Eager Howard 1788
Daniel of St. Thomas Jenifer[10] 1779; 1780–1781 1781
Thomas Johnson[11] 1774 1775–1777
Thomas Sim Lee 1783
Edward Lloyd 1783–1784
James McHenry 1783–1785
William Paca 1774 1775–1779
George Plater 1778–1780
Richard Potts 1781
Nathaniel Ramsey 1786–1787
John Rogers 1775–1776
David Ross 1787–1789
Benjamin Rumsey 1776–1777
Joshua Seney 1788
William Smith 1777
Thomas Stone 1775–1776; 1778 1784
Matthew Tilghman[12] 1774 1775–1776
Turbutt Wright 1782
 Source (unless otherwise noted):[4]

Massachusetts[edit]

Delegates from Massachusetts
Name 1st Continental
Congress
2nd Continental
Congress
Confederation
Congress
John Adams 1774 1775–1777
Samuel Adams 1774 1775–1781 1781
Thomas Cushing 1774 1775–1776
Francis Dana 1777–1778 1784
Nathan Dane 1785–1788
Elbridge Gerry 1776–1780 1783–1785
Nathaniel Gorham[13] 1782–1783; 1785–1787
John Hancock 1775–1778
Stephen Higginson 1783
Samuel Holten 1778–1780 1783–1785; 1787
Jonathan Jackson 1782
Rufus King 1784–1787
James Lovell 1777–1781 1781–1782
John Lowell 1782
Samuel Osgood 1781–1784
Samuel Allyne Otis 1787–1788
Robert Treat Paine 1774 1775–1776
George Partridge 1779–1781 1781–1785
Theodore Sedgwick 1785–1786; 1788
George Thatcher 1787–1789
Artemas Ward 1780–1781 1781
 Source (unless otherwise noted):[4]

New Hampshire[edit]

Delegates from New Hampshire
Name 1st Continental
Congress
2nd Continental
Congress
Confederation
Congress
Josiah Bartlett 1775–1776; 1778
Jonathan Blanchard 1784
Nathaniel Folsom 1774 1777–1780
Abiel Foster 1783–1785
George Frost 1777–1779
John Taylor Gilman 1782–1783
Nicholas Gilman 1787–1789
John Langdon 1775–1776 1787
Woodbury Langdon 1779
Samuel Livermore 1780–1781 1781–1782; 1785–1786
Pierse Long 1785–1786
Nathaniel Peabody 1779–1780
John Sullivan 1774 1775–1775; 1780–1781 1781
Matthew Thornton 1776–1777
John Wentworth Jr. 1778
William Whipple 1776–1779
Phillips White 1782–1783
Paine Wingate 1788
 Source (unless otherwise noted):[4]

New Jersey[edit]

Delegates from New Jersey
Name 1st Continental
Congress
2nd Continental
Congress
Confederation
Congress
John Beatty 1784–1785
Elias Boudinot 1778 1781–1783
William Burnet 1780–1781 1781
Lambert Cadwalader 1785–1787
Abraham Clark 1776–1778; 1780–1781 1781–1783; 1786–1788
Silas Condict 1781–1783
Stephen Crane 1774 1775–1776
Jonathan Dayton 1787–1788
John De Hart 1774 1775–1776
Samuel Dick 1784–1785
Jonathan Elmer 1777–1778 1781–1783; 1787–1788
John Fell 1778–1780
Frederick Frelinghuysen[14] 1778–1779 1782–1783
John Hart 1776
Francis Hopkinson 1776
Josiah Hornblower 1785–1786
William Houston 1779–1781 1784–1785
James Kinsey 1774 1775
William Livingston 1774 1775–1776
James Schureman 1786–1787
Nathaniel Scudder 1778–1779
Jonathan Sergeant 1776–1777
Richard Smith 1774 1775–1776
John Stevens 1784
Charles Stewart 1784–1785
Richard Stockton 1776
John Cleves Symmes 1785–1786
John Witherspoon 1776–1781 1781–1782
 Source (unless otherwise noted):[4]

New York[edit]

Delegates from New York
Name 1st Continental
Congress
2nd Continental
Congress
Confederation
Congress
John Alsop 1774 1775–1776
Egbert Benson 1784; 1787–1788
Simon Boerum 1774 1775
George Clinton 1775–1776
Charles DeWitt 1784
James Duane 1774 1775–1781 1781–1783
William Duer 1777–1778
William Floyd 1774 1775–1776; 1779–1781 1781–1783
Leonard Gansevoort 1788
David Gelston 1789
Alexander Hamilton 1782–1783; 1788
John Haring 1774 1785–1787
John Jay[15] 1774 1775–1778
John Lansing Jr. 1785
John Laurance 1785–1787
Francis Lewis 1775–1779
Ezra L'Hommedieu 1779–1781 1781–1783; 1788
Philip Livingston 1774[16] 1775–1778
Robert R. Livingston 1775–1776; 1779–1780 1784
Walter Livingston 1784–1785
Isaac Low 1774
Alexander McDougall 1781
Gouverneur Morris 1778–1779
Lewis Morris 1775–1777
Ephraim Paine 1784
Philip Pell 1789
Zephaniah Platt 1785–1786
Philip Schuyler 1775; 1777; 1779–1780
John Morin Scott 1780; 1782 1781–1783
Melancton Smith 1785–1787
Henry Wisner 1774[16] 1775–1776
Abraham Yates 1787–1788
Peter W. Yates 1786
 Source (unless otherwise noted):[4]

North Carolina[edit]

Delegates from North Carolina
Name 1st Continental
Congress
2nd Continental
Congress
Confederation
Congress
John B. Ashe 1787
Timothy Bloodworth 1786
William Blount 1782–1783; 1786–1787
Thomas Burke 1777–1781 1781
Robert Burton 1787
Richard Caswell 1774 1775
William Cumming 1785
Cornelius Harnett 1777–1779
Benjamin Hawkins 1781–1783; 1787
Joseph Hewes 1774 1775–1776; 1779
Whitmell Hill 1778–1780
William Hooper 1774 1775–1777
Samuel Johnston 1780–1781 1781
Allen Jones 1779–1780
Willie Jones 1780
Abner Nash 1782–1783
John Penn 1775–1780
William Sharpe 1779–1781 1781
John Sitgreaves 1785
Richard Dobbs Spaight 1783–1785
John Swann 1788
James White 1786–1788
John Williams 1778–1779
Hugh Williamson[17] 1782–1785; 1787–1788
 Source (unless otherwise noted):[4]

Pennsylvania[edit]

Delegates from Pennsylvania
Name 1st Continental
Congress
2nd Continental
Congress
Confederation
Congress
Andrew Allen[18] 1775–1776
John Armstrong Sr. 1779–1780
John Armstrong Jr. 1787–1788
Samuel John Atlee 1778–1781 1781–1782
John Bubenheim Bayard 1785–1786
Edward Biddle[19] 1774 1775
William Bingham 1786–1788
William Clingan 1777–1779
George Clymer 1776–1777; 1780–1781 1781–1782
Tench Coxe 1788–1789
John Dickinson[a] 1774 1775–1776
Thomas Fitzsimons 1782–1783
Benjamin Franklin 1775–1776
Joseph Galloway 1774
Joseph Gardner 1784–1785
Edward Hand 1783–1784
William Henry 1784–1785
Charles Humphreys 1774 1775–1776
Jared Ingersoll 1780
William Irvine 1787–1788
David Jackson[20] 1785–1786
Timothy Matlack 1780
James McLene 1779–1780
Samuel Meredith 1786–1788
Thomas Mifflin 1774 1775 1782–1784
John Montgomery 1782–1784
Joseph Montgomery 1780–1781 1781–1782
Cadwalader Morris 1783–1784
Robert Morris 1775–1778
John Morton 1774 1775–1776
Frederick Muhlenberg[21] 1779–1780
Richard Peters Jr. 1782–1783
Charles Pettit[22] 1785–1787
Joseph Reed 1778
James Randolph Reid 1787–1789
Samuel Rhoads 1774
Daniel Roberdeau 1777–1779
George Ross 1774 1775–1777
Benjamin Rush[23] 1776–1777
James Searle[24] 1778–1780
William Shippen[25] 1778–1780
James Smith 1776–1778
Jonathan Bayard Smith[26] 1778
Thomas Smith 1781–1782
Arthur St. Clair 1786–1787
George Taylor 1776
Thomas Willing 1775–1776
James Wilson[27] 1775–1777 1782–1783; 1785–1787
Henry Wynkoop 1779–1781 1781–1782
 Source (unless otherwise noted):[4]

Rhode Island[edit]

Delegates from Rhode Island
Name 1st Continental
Congress
2nd Continental
Congress
Confederation
Congress
Jonathan Arnold 1782–1783
Peleg Arnold 1787–1788
John Collins 1778–1780 1782–1783
Ezekiel Cornell 1780–1781 1781–1782
William Ellery 1776–1781 1781–1785
John Gardner 1789
Jonathan Hazard 1788
Stephen Hopkins 1774 1775–1776
David Howell 1782–1785
James Manning 1786
Henry Marchant 1777–1779
Nathan Miller 1786
Daniel Mowry Jr. 1780–1781 1781–1782
James Mitchell Varnum 1780–1781 1781; 1787
Samuel Ward 1774 1775–1776
 Source (unless otherwise noted):[4]

South Carolina[edit]

Delegates from South Carolina
Name 1st Continental
Congress
2nd Continental
Congress
Confederation
Congress
Robert Barnwell 1789
Thomas Bee 1780–1781 1781–1782
Richard Beresford 1783–1784
John Bull 1784–1787
Pierce Butler 1787
William Henry Drayton 1778–1779
Nicholas Eveleigh 1781–1782
Christopher Gadsden 1774 1775–1776
John Lewis Gervais 1782–1783
Thomas Heyward Jr. 1776–1778
Daniel Huger 1786–1788
Richard Hutson 1778–1779
Ralph Izard 1782–1783
John Kean 1785–1787
Francis Kinloch 1780
Henry Laurens 1777–1780
Thomas Lynch 1774 1775–1776
Thomas Lynch Jr. 1775–1776
John Mathews 1778–1781 1781
Arthur Middleton 1776–1777 1781–1782
Henry Middleton 1774 1775
Isaac Motte 1780–1781 1781–1782
John Parker 1786–1788
Charles Pinckney 1785–1787
David Ramsay 1782–1783, 1785–1786
Jacob Read 1783–1785
Edward Rutledge 1774 1775–1776
John Rutledge[28] 1774 1775–1776 1782–1783
Thomas Tudor Tucker 1787–1788
 Source (unless otherwise noted):[4]

Virginia[edit]

Delegates from Virginia
Name 1st Continental
Congress
2nd Continental
Congress
Confederation
Congress
Thomas Adams 1778–1779
John Banister 1778
Richard Bland 1774 1775
Theodorick Bland 1780–1781 1781–1783
Carter Braxton 1776
John Brown 1787–1788
Edward Carrington 1786–1788
John Dawson[29] 1788–1789
William Fitzhugh 1779
William Fleming 1779
William Grayson[29] 1784–1787
Cyrus Griffin 1778–1780 1787–1788
Samuel Hardy 1783–1785
Benjamin Harrison[29] 1774 1775–1778
John Harvie 1777–1778
James Henry 1780
Patrick Henry 1774 1775
Thomas Jefferson 1775–1776 1783–1784
Joseph Jones 1777; 1780–1781 1781–1783
Arthur Lee 1782–1784
Francis Lightfoot Lee 1775–1779
Henry Lee 1786–1788
Richard Henry Lee 1774 1775–1779 1784–1785; 1787
James Madison 1780–1781 1781–1783; 1787–1788
James Mercer 1779
John Francis Mercer 1783–1784
James Monroe 1783–1786
Thomas Nelson Jr. 1775–1777; 1779
Mann Page 1777
Edmund Pendleton 1774 1775
Edmund Randolph 1779 1781–1782
Peyton Randolph 1774 1775
Meriwether Smith 1778; 1780–1781 1781
John Walker 1780
George Washington 1774 1775
George Wythe 1775–1776
 Source (unless otherwise noted):[4]

Elected delegates who did not participate[edit]

The following table lists the 90 people who were elected to Congress: 1st Continental, 2nd Continental, or Confederation, between 1774 and 1789, but who did not participate, as well as the year(s) of their election.

Name State Year(s) elected
Benjamin Andrew Georgia 1780
Samuel Ashley New Hampshire 1779
George Atkinson New Hampshire 1780, 1785
John Barnwell South Carolina 1784
Gunning Bedford Sr. Delaware 1786
Benjamin Bellows New Hampshire 1781
John Blair, Jr. Virginia 1781
James Bowdoin Massachusetts 1774
William Bradford Rhode Island 1776
Ephraim Brevard North Carolina 1781
John Brown Rhode Island 1784, 1785
John Canfield Connecticut 1786
George Champlin Rhode Island 1785, 1786
Charles C. Chandler Connecticut 1784
John Chester Connecticut 1787, 1788
Matthew Clarkson Pennsylvania 1785
Joseph Clay Georgia 1778
John Cooper New Jersey 1776
Tristram Dalton Massachusetts 1783, 1784
Timothy Danielson Massachusetts 1780, 1782, 1783
Elias Dayton New Jersey 1778
Moses Dow New Hampshire 1784
Samuel Duffield Pennsylvania 1777
Timothy Edwards Massachusetts 1778
Samuel Elbert Georgia 1784
John Evans Delaware 1776
Sylvester Gardner Rhode Island 1787
Edward Giles Maryland 1782
Alexander Gillon South Carolina 1784
Isaac Grantham Delaware 1787
James Gunn Georgia 1787
Joseph Habersham Georgia 1784
John Hathorn New York 1788
Thomas Henderson New Jersey 1779
James Hillhouse Connecticut 1786, 1788
William Hillhouse Connecticut 1783, 1785
Thomas Holden Rhode Island 1788, 1789
Charles Johnson North Carolina 1781, 1784, 1785
Gabriel Jones Virginia 1779
Samuel Jones New York 1788
Henry Latimer Delaware 1784
Levi Lincoln Massachusetts 1781
Rawlins Lowndes South Carolina 1779
Nathaniel Macon North Carolina 1785
Daniel Manton Rhode Island 1787
Alexander Martin North Carolina 1786
Luther Martin Virginia 1784
George Mason Virginia 1777
Joseph McDowell North Carolina 1787
Lachlan McIntosh Georgia 1784
John McKinly Delaware 1784
William Montgomery Pennsylvania 1784
William Moore Pennsylvania 1777
William Moultrie South Carolina 1784
Paul Mumford Rhode Island 1785
John Neilson New Jersey 1778
Joseph Nicholson Maryland 1777
William O'Bryen Georgia 1789
Adlai Osborne North Carolina 1784
Henry Osborne Georgia 1786
William Paterson New Jersey 1780, 1787
Samuel Patterson Delaware 1784
Elisha Payne New Hampshire 1784
Nathaniel Pendleton Georgia 1789
Thomas Person North Carolina 1784
Peter Philips Rhode Island 1785
John Pickering New Hampshire 1787
William Pitkin Connecticut 1784
Thomas Polk North Carolina 1786
Richard Ridgely Maryland 1784, 1785
Gustavus Scott Maryland 1784
William Smallwood Maryland 1784
Benjamin Smith North Carolina 1784
John Sparhawk New Hampshire 1786
Samuel Stirk Georgia 1781
John Stokes North Carolina 1787
Caleb Strong Massachusetts 1780
Jedediah Strong Connecticut 1782, 1784, 1784
James Sullivan Massachusetts 1782, 1783
Thomas Sumter South Carolina 1783
Ebenezer Thompson New Hampshire 1778, 1783
John Treadwell Connecticut 1784, 1785, 1787
Paul Trapier South Carolina 1777
Joseph Trumbull Connecticut 1774
Timothy Walker Jr. New Hampshire 1777, 1778, 1782, 1785
James Warren Massachusetts 1782
Joshua Wentworth New York 1779
Benjamin West New Hampshire 1787
Stephen West Virginia 1780
Erastus Wolcott North Carolina 1774, 1787, 1788
 Source (unless otherwise noted):[4]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b John Dickinson served as a delegate from Pennsylvania to the 1st Continental Congress (1774). He also served twice in the 2nd Continental Congress, first as a delegate from Pennsylvania (1775–76), and then as a delegate from Delaware (1779).

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Articles of Confederation : March 1, 1781". Avalon Project. New Haven, Connecticut: Lillian Goldman Law Library, Yale Law School. Retrieved May 11, 2019.
  2. ^ "Ellsworth, Oliver". Biographical Directory of Federal Judges. Washington, D.C.: Federal Judicial Center. Retrieved May 2, 2019.
  3. ^ Wright, Robert K. Jr.; MacGregor, Morris J. Jr. (1987). "Roger Sherman". Soldier–Statesmen of the Constitution. United States Army Center of Military History. pp. 169–171. CMH Pub 71-25. Retrieved May 7, 2019.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Dodge, Andrew R.; Koed, Betty K., eds. (2005). "Delegates in the Continental Congress" (PDF). Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, 1774–2005. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. pp. 34–38. ISBN 0-16-073176-3. Retrieved May 6, 2019 – via Internet Archive, September 17, 2008.
  5. ^ "Charles Carroll, the barrister (1723-1783)". MSA Biographical Series. Annapolis, Maryland: Maryland State Archives. December 1, 2015. Retrieved May 7, 2019.
  6. ^ "Charles Carroll of Carrollton (1737-1832)". MSA Biographical Series. Annapolis, Maryland: Maryland State Archives. December 28, 2000. Retrieved May 7, 2019.
  7. ^ "Daniel Carroll (1730-1796)". MSA Biographical Series. Annapolis, Maryland: Maryland State Archives. November 25, 2012. Retrieved May 7, 2019.
  8. ^ "Chase, Samuel". Biographical Directory of Federal Judges. Washington, D.C.: Federal Judicial Center. Retrieved May 2, 2019.
  9. ^ "John Hanson (1721-1783)". MSA Biographical Series. Annapolis, Maryland: Maryland State Archives. January 24, 2003. Retrieved May 7, 2019.
  10. ^ "Daniel of St. Thomas Jenifer (1723-1790)". MSA Biographical Series. Annapolis, Maryland: Maryland State Archives. December 17, 2015. Retrieved May 7, 2019.
  11. ^ "Johnson, Thomas". Biographical Directory of Federal Judges. Washington, D.C.: Federal Judicial Center. Retrieved May 2, 2019.
  12. ^ "Matthew Tilghman (1717/18-1790)". MSA Biographical Series. Annapolis, Maryland: Maryland State Archives. October 11, 2002. Retrieved May 7, 2019.
  13. ^ Wright, Robert K. Jr.; MacGregor, Morris J. Jr. (1987). "Nathaniel Gorham". Soldier–Statesmen of the Constitution. United States Army Center of Military History. pp. 155–156. CMH Pub 71-25. Retrieved May 7, 2019.
  14. ^ "Major General Frederick Frelinghuysen". New Jersey Society of the Cincinnati. Retrieved May 4, 2019.
  15. ^ "Jay, John". Biographical Directory of Federal Judges. Washington, D.C.: Federal Judicial Center. Retrieved May 2, 2019.
  16. ^ a b "First Continental Congress: Proceedings of the First Continental Congress". ushistory.org. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Independence Hall Association. Retrieved April 30, 2019.
  17. ^ "Hugh Williamson 1735–1819". Penn People. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: University of Pennsylvania. Retrieved May 2, 2019.
  18. ^ "Andrew Allen 1740–1825". Penn People. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: University of Pennsylvania. Retrieved May 2, 2019.
  19. ^ "Edward Biddle 1738–1779". Penn People. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: University of Pennsylvania. Retrieved May 2, 2019.
  20. ^ "David Jackson 1747–1801". Penn People. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: University of Pennsylvania. Retrieved May 2, 2019.
  21. ^ "Frederick Augustus Conrad Muhlenberg 1750–1801". Penn People. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: University of Pennsylvania. Retrieved May 2, 2019.
  22. ^ "Charles Pettit 1736–1806". Penn People. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: University of Pennsylvania. Retrieved May 2, 2019.
  23. ^ "Rush, Benjamin, (1746–1813)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Washington, D.C.: House Office of History and Preservation, Senate Office of the Historian. Retrieved May 2, 2019.
  24. ^ "James Searle 1733–1797". Penn People. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: University of Pennsylvania. Retrieved May 2, 2019.
  25. ^ "William Shippen 1712–1801". Penn People. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: University of Pennsylvania. Retrieved May 2, 2019.
  26. ^ "Jonathan B. Smith 1742–1812". Penn People. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: University of Pennsylvania. Retrieved May 2, 2019.
  27. ^ "James Wilson 1742–1798". Penn People. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: University of Pennsylvania. Retrieved May 2, 2019.
  28. ^ "Rutledge, John". Biographical Directory of Federal Judges. Washington, D.C.: Federal Judicial Center. Retrieved May 2, 2019.
  29. ^ a b c "Members of the Continental Congress from Virginia". The Hornbook of Virginia History. April 16, 2012. Retrieved May 9, 2019 – via Encyclopedia Virginia. Virginia Foundation for the Humanities, December 3, 2018.

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