Opposition Party (Northern U.S.)
The Opposition Party was a party identification under which Northern, anti-slavery politicians members of the Democratic and Whig parties ran in the 1850s. This was in response to the expansion of slavery into the new territories, it was one of the movements which arose from the political chaos in the decade before the Civil War in the wake of the Compromise of 1850. The movement arose before and was subsumed by the coalescence of the Republican Party in 1856. During the fragmenting of the Second Party System of Jackson Democrats and Clay Whigs, the Democratic efforts to expand slavery into western territories Kansas, led to organized political opposition, which coalesced in Congress as the "Opposition Party." As the Whig Party disintegrated, many local and regional parties grew up, some ideological, some geographic. When they realized their numbers in Congress, they began to caucus in the same way US political parties had arisen before the Jacksonian national party conventions. Scholars such as Kenneth C.
Martis have adopted a convention to explain the Congressional coordination of anti-Pierce and anti-Buchanan factions as the "Opposition Party". In the Congressional election of 1854 for the 34th United States Congress, the new Republican Party was not formed, significant numbers of politicians former Whigs, ran for office under the Opposition label; the administration of Democratic President Franklin Pierce had been marred by Bleeding Kansas. Northerners began to coalesce around resistance to Kansas entering the Union as a slave state; the ongoing violence made any election results from that territory suspect by standards of democracy. The Opposition Party was the name adopted by several former Whig politicians in the period 1854–1858. In 1860, the party was encouraged by the remaining Whig leadership to merge with the Constitutional Union Party, it represented a brief but significant transitional period in American politics from 1854 to 1858. Since independence, a major political issue had been conflict, whether open or structural, between the pro-slavery and anti-slavery factions in the United States, fought more on the basis of regional and class affiliations than along party lines.
Passage of the Kansas–Nebraska Act in 1854 both did major short-term political damage to Northern Democrats and fractured the Whig Party on the slavery issue, driving the formation of the anti-slavery Republican Party. During that transitional period, the Opposition Party served as a successor to, or a continuation of, the imploding Whig Party; the party was seen as offering a compromise position between the Southern Democrats and Northern Republicans. The Whig name had been critically weakened, but former Whigs still needed to advertise that they were opposed to the Democrats; the Know Nothings had found that their appeals to anti-immigrant prejudice were faltering and their secrecy was made suspect, so they sought more open and more inclusive appeals to broaden a candidate's chances at the polls. The "confounding party labels among all those who opposed the Democrats" have led to scholars of U. S. political parties in Congress to adopt the convention "Opposition Party" for the 34th and 35th Congresses.
This term encompasses Independent, Know Nothing, Anti-Nebraska, Anti-Administration, Free Soil and Unionist. Following the 1854 election, the Opposition Party was the largest party in the U. S. House of Representatives. In the resulting 34th United States Congress, the U. S. House's 234 Representatives were made up of 100 Oppositionists, 83 Democrats, 51 Americans; that was a dramatic shift from the makeup of the 33rd United States Congress. As a provisional coalition more united by what it opposed and not yet having agreed on what it stood for, being the largest party did not lead to control of Congress; the new Speaker of the House, elected by plurality, was Nathaniel Prentice Banks of Massachusetts, a former Democrat who campaigned as a Know Nothing in 1854 and as a Republican in 1856. By the 1856 elections, the Republican Party had formally organized, while the Democrats enjoyed a fleeting political recovery from damage done by the Kansas–Nebraska Act; the 35th United States Congress comprised 132 Democrats, 90 Republicans, 14 Americans, 1 Independent Democrat.
The American Party Anti-Nebraska movement Bleeding Kansas Dred Scott v. Sandford Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 History of the United States Democratic Party History of the United States Republican Party Timeline of events leading to the American Civil War Uncle Tom's Cabin Whig Party
The Federalist Party, referred to as the Pro-Administration party until the 3rd United States Congress as opposed to their opponents in the Anti-Administration party, was the first American political party. It existed from the early 1790s to the 1820s, with their last presidential candidate being fielded in 1816, they appealed to business and to conservatives who favored banks, national over state government and preferred Britain and opposed the French Revolution. The Federalists called for a strong national government that promoted economic growth and fostered friendly relationships with Great Britain as well as opposition to Revolutionary France; the party controlled the federal government until 1801, when it was overwhelmed by the Democratic-Republican opposition led by Thomas Jefferson. The Federalist Party came into being between 1792 and 1794 as a national coalition of bankers and businessmen in support of Alexander Hamilton's fiscal policies; these supporters developed into the organized Federalist Party, committed to a fiscally sound and nationalistic government.
The only Federalist President was John Adams. George Washington was broadly sympathetic to the Federalist program, but he remained non-partisan during his entire presidency. Federalist policies called for a national bank and good relations with Great Britain as expressed in the Jay Treaty negotiated in 1794. Hamilton developed the concept of implied powers and argued the adoption of that interpretation of the United States Constitution, their political opponents, the Democratic-Republicans led by Thomas Jefferson, denounced most of the Federalist policies the bank and implied powers. The Jay Treaty passed and the Federalists won most of the major legislative battles in the 1790s, they held a strong base in New England. After the Democratic-Republicans, whose base was in the rural South, won the hard-fought presidential election of 1800, the Federalists never returned to power, they recovered some strength through their intense opposition to the War of 1812, but they vanished during the Era of Good Feelings that followed the end of the war in 1815.
The Federalists left a lasting legacy in the form of a strong Federal government with a sound financial base. After losing executive power, they decisively shaped Supreme Court policy for another three decades through the person of Chief Justice John Marshall. On taking office in 1789, President Washington nominated New York lawyer Alexander Hamilton to the office of Secretary of the Treasury. Hamilton wanted a strong national government with financial credibility. Hamilton proposed the ambitious Hamiltonian economic program that involved assumption of the state debts incurred during the American Revolution, creating a national debt and the means to pay it off and setting up a national bank, along with creating tariffs. James Madison was Hamilton's ally in the fight to ratify the new Constitution, but Madison and Thomas Jefferson opposed Hamilton's programs by 1791. Political parties had not been anticipated when the Constitution was drafted in 1787 and ratified in 1788 though both Hamilton and Madison played major roles.
Parties were considered to be harmful to republicanism. No similar parties existed anywhere in the world. By 1790, Hamilton started building a nationwide coalition. Realizing the need for vocal political support in the states, he formed connections with like-minded nationalists and used his network of treasury agents to link together friends of the government merchants and bankers, in the new nation's dozen major cities, his attempts to manage politics in the national capital to get his plans through Congress "brought strong" responses across the country. In the process, what began as a capital faction soon assumed status as a national faction and as the new Federalist Party; the Federalist Party supported Hamilton's vision of a strong centralized government and agreed with his proposals for a national bank and heavy government subsidies. In foreign affairs, they supported neutrality in the war between Great Britain; the majority of the Founding Fathers were Federalists. Alexander Hamilton, James Madison and many others can all be considered Federalists.
These Federalists felt that the Articles of Confederation had been too weak to sustain a working government and had decided that a new form of government was needed. Hamilton was made Secretary of the Treasury and when he came up with the idea of funding the debt he created a split in the original Federalist group. Madison disagreed with Hamilton not just on this issue, but on many others as well and he and John J. Beckley created the Anti-Federalist faction; these men would form the Republican party under Thomas Jefferson. By the early 1790s, newspapers started calling Hamilton supporters "Federalists" and their opponents "Democrats", "Republicans", "Jeffersonians", or—much later—"Democratic-Republicans". Jefferson's supporters called themselves "Republicans" and their party the "Republican Party"; the Federalist Party became popular with businessmen and New Englanders as Republicans were farmers who opposed a strong central government. Cities were Federalist strongholds whereas frontier regions were Republican.
However, these are generalizations as there are special cases such as the Presbyterians of upland North Carolina, who had immigrated just before the Revolution and been Tories, became Federalists. The Congregationalists of New England and the Episcopalians in the larger cities supported the Federalists while other minority denominations tended toward the Republican camp. Catholics
115th United States Congress
The One Hundred Fifteenth United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, composed of the Senate and the House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D. C. from January 3, 2017, to January 3, 2019, during the final weeks of Barack Obama's presidency and the first two years of Donald Trump's presidency. Several political scientists described the legislative accomplishments of this Congress as modest, considering that both Congress and the Presidency were under unified Republican Party control. According to a contemporary study, "House and Senate GOP majorities struggled to legislate: GOP fissures and an undisciplined, unpopular president undermined the Republican agenda. Most notably, clashes within and between the two parties strained old ways of doing business." January 5, 2017: House of Representatives condemned United Nations Security Council Resolution 2334. January 6, 2017: Joint session counted and certified the electoral votes of the 2016 presidential election.
January 11–12, 2017: Senate, in an all-night session, took first steps to repeal the Affordable Care Act. The final vote was 51 to 48 to approve a budget resolution to allow "broad swaths of the Affordable Care Act to be repealed through a process known as budget reconciliation." January 20, 2017: Inauguration of President Donald Trump. February 7, 2017: Vice President Mike Pence cast the tie-breaking vote to confirm Betsy DeVos as Secretary of Education; this was the first time in United States history that a cabinet confirmation was tied in the Senate and required a tie-breaking vote. February 28, 2017: President's speech to a Joint Session. April 6, 2017: Senate invoked the "nuclear option" to weaken Supreme Court filibusters. Nominee Neil Gorsuch was confirmed the next day. June 14, 2017: Majority Whip Steve Scalise and several staffers were shot during the 2017 Congressional baseball shooting, they were practicing for the annual Congressional Baseball Game. September 1, 2017: The Parliamentarian of the United States Senate decreed that the Senate had until the end of the month to pass ACA repeal via the reconciliation process, or the option would no longer be viable.
October 24 – December 14, 2017: 2017 United States political sexual scandals from the "Me too" movement: Allegations that Congressman Ruben Kihuen sexually harassed a campaign staffer led some in congressional leadership to call for his resignation. Kihuen announced he would not seek another term in office. Senator Al Franken announced he would resign "in the coming weeks" after photographs were made public suggesting that he sexually assaulted a Los Angeles-based radio personality during a USO tour in Iraq in 2006, he was accused by multiple female constituents of groping at various Minnesota fair appearances that he attended. Three members of Congress either announced their impeding resignations. Allegations that President Donald Trump raped and sexually harassed at least nineteen women, one girl, Miss Teen USA contestants resulted in calls by members of Congress for him to resign. Allegations that Republican Alabama Senate candidate Roy Moore raped and sexually harassed at least eight women and one girl contributed to his defeat by Democrat Doug Jones in a special Senate election to replace Attorney General Jeff Sessions.
Allegations that Representative Blake Farenthold sexually harassed a former staffer resulted in the commencement of an investigation by the House Ethics Committee and his announcement he would not seek re-election in 2018. He subsequently resigned on April 6, 2018. January 20–22, 2018: United States federal government shutdown of January 2018 January 30, 2018: 2018 State of the Union Address February 9, 2018: United States federal government funding gap October 6, 2018: Senate confirms Brett Kavanaugh's nomination to the U. S. Supreme Court. November 28, 2018: Senate discharges from committee and calendars S. J. Res. 54, bill that ends US intervention in the Yemeni Civil War. December 22, 2018 – January 25, 2019: 2018–19 United States federal government shutdown May 5, 2017: Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2017, H. R. 244, Pub. L. 115–31 August 2, 2017: Countering America's Adversaries Through Sanctions Act, H. R. 3364, Pub. L. 115–44 December 12, 2017: National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2018, H.
R. 2810, Pub. L. 115–91 December 22, 2017: Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017, H. R. 1, Pub. L. 115–97 February 9, 2018: Bipartisan Budget Act of 2018, H. R. 1892, Pub. L. 115–123 March 23, 2018: Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2018, H. R. 1625, Pub. L. 115–141 April 11, 2018: Stop Enabling Sex Traffickers Act, H. R. 1865, Pub. L. 115–164 May 24, 2018: Economic Growth, Regulatory Relief and Consumer Protection Act, S. 2155, Pub. L. 115–174 May 30, 2018: Trickett Wendler, Frank Mongiello, Jordan McLinn, Matthew Bellina Right to Try Act of 2017, S. 204, Pub. L. 115–176 August 13, 2018: National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2019, H. R. 5515, Pub. L. 115–232 October 5, 2018: FAA Reauthorization Act of 2018, H. R. 302, Pub. L. 115–254 October 11, 2018: Music Modernization Act, H. R. 1551, Pub. L. 115–264 October 23, 2018: America's Water Infrastructure Act of 2018, S. 3021, Pub. L. 115–270 October 24, 2018: SUPPORT for Patients and Communities Act, H. R. 6, Pub. L. 115–271 December 20, 2018: Agriculture Improvement Act of 2018, H.
R. 2, Pub. L. 115–334 December 21, 2018: FIRST STEP Act, S. 756, Pub. L. 115–391 May 4, 2017: American Health Care Act, passed House May 4, 2017 June 8, 2017: Financial CHOICE Act, passed House June 8, 2017 Resignations and new members are discussed in the "Changes in membership" section, below. Section contents: Senate: Majority, Minority • House: Majority, Minority President: Joe Biden
The Greenback Party was an American political party with an anti-monopoly ideology, active between 1874 and 1889. The party ran candidates in three presidential elections—in the elections of 1876, 1880, 1884, before fading away; the party's name referred to the non-gold backed paper money known as "greenbacks", issued by the North during the American Civil War and shortly afterward. The party opposed the deflationary lowering of prices paid to producers entailed by a return to a bullion-based monetary system, the policy favored by the Republican and Democratic Parties. Continued use of unbacked currency, it was believed, would better foster business and assist farmers by raising prices and making debts easier to pay. An agrarian organization associated with the policies of the Grange, from 1878 the organization took the name Greenback Labor Party and attempted to forge a farmer–labor alliance, adding industrial reforms to its agenda, such as support of the 8-hour day and opposition to the use of state or private force to suppress union strikes.
The organization faded into oblivion in the second half of the 1880s, with its basic program reborn shortly under the aegis of the People's Party known as the "Populists". During the beginning of the twentieth century, the agenda from both of these parties were accomplished, in part, by the Progressives; the American Civil War of 1861 to 1865 affected the financial system of the United States of America, creating vast new war-related expenditures while disrupting the flow of tax revenue from the Southern United States, organized as the Confederate States of America. The act of Southern secession prompted a brief and severe business panic in the North and a crisis of public confidence in the Federal government; the government's initial illusions of a quick military victory proved ephemeral and in the wake of Southern victories the federal government found it difficult to sell the government bonds necessary to finance the war effort. Two 1861 bond sales of $50 million each conducted through private banks went without a hitch, but bankers found the market for the 7.3% securities soft for a third bond issue.
A general fear arose that the country's gold supply was inadequate and that the nation would soon leave the gold standard. In December runs on deposits began in New York City, forcing banks there to disburse a substantial part of their hard metal reserves. On December 30, 1861, New York banks suspended the redemption of their banknotes with gold; this spontaneous action was followed shortly by banks in other states suspending payment on their own banknotes and the U. S. Treasury itself suspending redemption of its own Treasury notes; the gold standard was thus suspended. United States Secretary of the Treasury Salmon P. Chase had anticipated the coming financial crisis, proposing to Congress the establishment of a system of national banks, each empowered to issue banknotes backed not with gold but with federal bonds; this December 1861 proposal was ignored by Congress, which in February 1862 decided instead to pass the First Legal Tender Act, authorizing the production of not more than $150 million of these legal tender United States Notes.
Two additional issues were deemed necessary, approved in June 1862 and January 1863, so that by the end of the war some $450 million of this non-gold-backed currency was in circulation. The new United States Notes were popularly known as "greenbacks" due to the vibrant green ink used on the reverse side of the bill. A dual currency system emerged in which this fiat money circulated side by side with ostensibly gold-backed currency and gold coin, with the value of the former bearing a discount in trade; the greatest differential in value of these currencies came in 1864, when the value of a gold dollar equaled $1.85 in greenback currency. Congress enacted Treasury Secretary Chase's National Bank plan in January 1863, creating a yet another form of currency backed by government bonds rather than gold and redeemable in United States Notes; this non-gold-based currency became the functional equivalent of greenbacks in circulation, further expanding the money supply. With the production of consumer goods impacted by the conversion of factories to wartime production and the expansion of the money supply, the United States of America experienced a period of protracted inflation during the Civil War.
Between the years 1860 and 1865, the cost of living nearly doubled. As is the case in all inflationary periods, there were winners and losers created by the significant fall in currency value, with banks and creditors receiving less real value from the loans repaid by debtors. Pressure began to build in the financial industry for a rectification of the weak currency situation. A change of heads at the Treasury Department in March 1865 proved the occasion for a change of course in American monetary policy. New Secretary of the Treasury Hugh McCulloch not only declared himself sympathetic to the banking industry's desire for restoration of a gold-based currency, but he declared the resumption of gold payments to be his primary aim. In December 1865 McCulloch formally sought approval from Congress to retire the greenback currency from circulation, a necessary first step towards restoration of the gold standard. In response, Congress passed the Contraction Act, calling for the withdrawal of $10 million in United States Notes within the first 6 months and an addition $4 million per month thereafter.
Substantial contraction of the physical money supply followed. About $44 million in greenback currency was withdrawn from circulation before a recession in 1867 helped fuel opposition in Congress to the de
112th United States Congress
The One Hundred Twelfth United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, from January 3, 2011, until January 3, 2013. It convened in Washington, D. C. on January 3, 2011, ended on January 3, 2013, 17 days before the end of the presidential term to which Barack Obama was elected in 2008. Senators elected to regular terms in 2006 completed those terms in this Congress; this Congress included the last House of Representatives elected from congressional districts that were apportioned based on the 2000 census. In the 2010 midterm elections, the Republican Party won the majority in the House of Representatives. While the Democrats kept their Senate majority, it was reduced from the previous Congress; this was the first Congress in which the House and Senate were controlled by different parties since the 107th Congress, the first Congress to begin that way since the 99th Congress. It was the first Congress since the 36th Congress, over 150 years, in which the Republican Party held the House but not the Senate.
In this Congress, the House of Representatives had the largest number of Republican members, 242, since the 80th Congress. January 6, 2011: On the second day of the 112th Congress, the House of Representatives read a modified version of the U. S. Constitution, a first. January 8, 2011: 2011 Tucson shooting: Representative Gabrielle Giffords and nineteen other people were shot by a gunman in Tucson, Arizona. Six of them, including a federal judge and a congressional aide, died. Votes on the House floor were suspended for one week. January 25, 2011: 2011 State of the Union Address March 19, 2011: The United States initiated Operation Odyssey Dawn as part of the international military intervention in the Libyan Civil War; the intervention continued under the auspices of NATO as Operation Unified Protector until the end of military operations in October 2011. May 2, 2011: Navy Seals killed al-Qaeda leader Osama Bin Laden in Operation Neptune Spear. April 9, 2011: A last-minute deal between both parties averts a partial shutdown of the federal government.
August 2, 2011: The 2011 debt-ceiling crisis ends with the Budget Control Act of 2011. December 18, 2011: The United States completed its withdrawal of troops from Iraq, formally ending the Iraq War. January 24, 2012: 2012 State of the Union Address June 28, 2012: In National Federation of Independent Business v. Sebelius, the Supreme Court upheld the Affordable Care Act's constitutionality but found the expansion of Medicaid unconstitutionally coercive on the states. November 6, 2012: 2012 general elections, including: United States House of Representatives elections, 2012, in which Democrats gained eight seats, but not enough to retake the majority United States Senate elections, 2012, in which Democrats gained two seats in their majority United States presidential election, 2012, in which Barack Obama was re-elected to a second term December 14, 2012: The Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting leaves 28 dead, prompts debate on gun control in the United States. January 1, 2013: United States fiscal cliff avoided.
A failure to pass a 2011 federal budget nearly led to a shutdown of non-essential government services on April 9, 2011, with the furlough of 800,000 government employees appearing imminent. President Obama met Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid and House Speaker John Boehner in the days preceding the deadline but was unable to come to an agreement to pass a budget. A one-week budget was proposed to allow more time for negotiations. Obama said; this was backed by Senate Democrats who objected to such cuts as that of Planned Parenthood. However, an agreement was reached between the two parties for a one-week budget to allow for more time to negotiate after Republicans dropped their stance on the Planned Parenthood issue; the two parties agreed on a 2011 federal budget the following week. There were many reactions to the possible shutdown with some saying the economy could be hurt during a fragile recovery and others saying the lack of an unnecessary bureaucracy would not be noticed. There was criticism that while senators and representatives would continue to get paid others such as the police and military personnel would either not be paid for their work or have their payments deferred.
On August 2, 2011, the United States public debt was projected to reach its statutory maximum. Without an increase in that limit the U. S. Treasury would be unable to borrow money to pay its bills. Although previous statutory increases have been routine, conservative members of the House refused to allow an increase without drastically reducing government spending. Over several weeks and months, negotiators from both parties, both houses, the White House worked to forge a compromise; the compromise bill, the Budget Control Act of 2011, was enacted on August 2. April 15, 2011: 2011 United States federal budget, Pub. L. 112–10 August 2, 2011: Budget Control Act of 2011, Pub. L. 112–25 September 16, 2011: Leahy-Smith America Invents Act, Pub. L. 112–29 October 21, 2011: United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement Implementation Act, Pub. L. 112–41 October 21, 2011: United States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement Implementation Act, Pub. L. 112–42 October 21, 2011: United States-Panama Trade Promotion Agreement Implementation Act, Pub.
L. 112–43 December 31, 2011: National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2012, Pub. L. 112–81 February 22, 2012: Middle Class Tax Relief and Job Creation Act of 2012, Pub. L. 112–96 March 8, 2012: Fed
100th United States Congress
The One Hundredth United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, composed of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D. C. from January 3, 1987, to January 3, 1989, during the last two years of Ronald Reagan's presidency. The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the Twentieth Census of the United States in 1980. Both chambers had a Democratic majority. October 19, 1987: Black Monday: Stocks fell on Wall Street and around the world October 23, 1987: The Senate rejected the nomination of Robert H. Bork to the United States Supreme Court on a vote of 42-58 November 18, 1987: Iran–Contra affair: Senate and House panels released reports charging President Reagan with'ultimate responsibility' for the affair January 25, 1988: 1988 State of the Union AddressNovember 8, 1988: United States presidential election, 1988: George Bush was elected over Michael Dukakis.
L. 100–17, 101 Stat. 132 July 22, 1987: McKinney–Vento Homeless Assistance Act, Pub. L. 100–77, 101 Stat. 482 August 20, 1987: Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Improvement Act of 1987, Pub. L. 100–107, 101 Stat. 724 September 29, 1987: Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Reaffirmation Act of 1987, Pub. L. 100–119, title I January 7, 1988: Computer Security Act of 1987, Pub. L. 100–235, 101 Stat. 1724 March 22, 1988: Civil Rights Restoration Act of 1987 Pub. L. 100–259 June 27, 1988: Supreme Court Case Selections Act of 1988, Pub. L. 100–352, 102 Stat. 662 July 1, 1988: Medicare Catastrophic Coverage Act, Pub. L. 100–360, 102 Stat. 683 August 4, 1988: Worker Adjustment and Retraining Notification Act, Pub. L. 100–379, 102 Stat. 890 August 10, 1988: Civil Liberties Act of 1988, Pub. L. 100–383, title I, 101 Stat. 904 October 13, 1988: Family Support Act, Pub. L. 100–485, 102 Stat. 2343 October 17, 1988: Indian Gaming Regulatory Act, Pub. L. 100–497, 102 Stat. 2467 October 24, 1988: Health Maintenance Organization Amendments of 1988, Pub.
L. 100–517, 102 Stat. 2578 October 25, 1988: Department of Veterans Affairs Act, Pub. L. 100–527, 102 Stat. 2635 November 4, 1988: AIDS amendments of 1988, Pub. L. 100–607, 102 Stat. 3048 November 17, 1988: Water Resources Development Act of 1988, Pub. L. 100–676 November 18, 1988: Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1988, Pub. L. 100–690, including Child Protection and Obscenity Enforcement Act and Alcoholic Beverage Labeling Act May 27, 1988: Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty May 6, 1987: Iran–Contra affair hearings began October 23, 1987: Robert Bork Supreme Court nomination: Senate rejected Robert Bork's nomination 42–58 to the Supreme Court of the United States February 3, 1988: Senate approved Anthony Kennedy's nomination 97–0 to the Supreme Court of the United States President: George Bush President pro tempore: John Stennis Deputy President pro tempore: George J. Mitchell Majority Leader, Democratic Conference Chairman, Democratic Policy Committee Chairman: Robert Byrd Majority Whip: Alan Cranston Democratic Campaign Committee Chairman: John Kerry Caucus Secretary: Daniel Inouye Minority Leader: Bob Dole Minority Whip: Alan Simpson Republican Conference Chairman: John Chafee Republican Conference Secretary: Thad Cochran Republican Policy Committee Chairman: William L. Armstrong Republican Campaign Committee Chairman: Rudy Boschwitz Speaker: Jim Wright Majority Leader: Tom Foley Majority Whip: Tony Coelho Chief Deputy Majority Whip: David E. Bonior Democratic Caucus Chairman: Dick Gephardt Caucus Vice-Chairman: Mary Rose Oakar Democratic Campaign Committee Chairman: Beryl Anthony Jr.
Minority Leader: Robert H. Michel Minority Whip: Trent Lott Chief Deputy Whip: Edward Rell Madigan Republican Conference Chairman: Dick Cheney Conference Vice-Chair: Lynn Morley Martin Conference Secretary: Robert J. Lagomarsino Policy Committee Chairman: Jerry Lewis Campaign Committee Chairman: Guy Vander Jagt Congressional Arts Caucus Congressional Automotive Caucus Congressional Black Caucus Congressional Fire Services Caucus Congressional Friends of Ireland Caucus Congressional Hispanic Caucus Congressional Pediatric & Adult Hydrocephalus Caucus Congressional Travel & Tourism Caucus Congresswomen's Caucus House Democratic Caucus Senate Democratic Caucus This list is arranged by chamber by state. Senators are listed by class, Representatives are listed by district. Senators are popularly elected statewide every two years, with one-third beginning new six-year terms with each Congress, In this Congress, Class 1 meant their term ended with this Congress, facing re-election in 1988. Lists of committees and their party leaders, for members of the committees and their assignments, go into the Official Congressional Directory at the bottom of the article and click on the link, in the directory after the pages of terms of service, you will see the committees of the Senate and Joint and after the committee pages, you will see the House/Senate committee assignments in the directory, on the committees section of the House and Senate in the Official Congressional Directory, the committee's members on the first row on the left side shows the chairman of the committee and on the right side shows the ranking member of the committee.
Aging Agriculture and Forestry Agricultural Credit Agricultural Product
Non-voting members of the United States House of Representatives
Non-voting members of the United States House of Representatives are representatives of their territory in the House of Representatives, who do not have a right to vote on proposed legislation in the full House but have floor privileges and are able to participate in certain other House functions. Non-voting members may vote in a House committee of which they are a member and introduce legislation. There are six non-voting members: a delegate representing the federal district of Washington D. C. a resident commissioner representing Puerto Rico, one delegate for each of the other four permanently inhabited US Territories: American Samoa, the Northern Mariana Islands, the US Virgin Islands. As with voting members, non-voting delegates are elected every two years, the Resident Commissioner of Puerto Rico is elected every four years. Non voting members serve in the House of Representatives—not the Senate. All delegates serve a term of two years, they receive compensation and franking privileges similar to full House members.
Since 1993, the rules governing the rights of a non-voting member have changed three times, current delegates—along with the resident commissioner—enjoy privileges that they did not have previously. Territorial delegates existed before the ratification of the United States Constitution; the Northwest Ordinance of 1787 allowed for a territory with "five thousand free male inhabitants of full age" to elect a non-voting delegate to the Continental Congress. After the ratification of the Constitution, the first United States Congress reenacted the Ordinance and extended it to include the territories south of the Ohio River. In 1790, the state of North Carolina—having ratified the constitution, becoming the 12th state—sent its congressional delegation to what was the federal capital at New York City. Among them was former State of Franklin Governor John Sevier, whose district comprised the "counties beyond the Alleghenies", he took office June 16, 1790, the government of North Carolina had ceded his district to the federal government on February 25, 1790 and it was organized into a territory on August 7, 1790.
He remained a member of the House until March 3, 1791 when he was appointed brigadier general of the militia. On September 3, 1794, James White was elected by the Southwest Territory, which contained Sevier's former district, to be their delegate to Congress. A resolution was put forth in the House to admit him to Congress, but as a delegate was not a position stated in the Constitution, the House debated what, if any, privileges White would have; as the Northwest Ordinance had only stated that a delegate is to sit "in Congress" the first debate was which chamber a delegate would sit in. Resolutions that he sit in both chambers and that his right to debate be limited to territorial matters were defeated; the House voted to allow him a non-voting seat in the House. Following his placement, representatives debated. Representative James Madison stated "The proper definition of Mr. White is to be found in the Laws and Rules of the Constitution, he is not a member of Congress, so cannot be directed to take an oath, unless he chooses to do it voluntarily."
As he was not a Member, he was not directed to take the oath, though every delegate after him has done so. He was extended franking privileges, which allowed him to send official mail free of charge, compensation at the same rate as members. In 1802 Congress passed a law that extended franking privileges and pay to delegates. An act passed in 1817 codified the term and privileges of delegates: n every territory of the United States in which a temporary government has been, or hereafter shall be established...shall have the right to send a delegate to Congress, such delegate shall be elected every second year, for the same term of two years for which members of the House of Representatives of the United States are elected. Similar to delegates are resident commissioners, who represented the large areas acquired during the Spanish–American War, for much of the 20th century were considered colonies, not territories and unlike the acquired areas which would become the contiguous U. S. or Alaska and Hawaii, did not have residents with the rights of, or to U.
S. citizenship. Unlike incorporated territories, they have the right to secede from the Union, in the case of the Philippines, they have. Puerto Rico, a U. S. Commonwealth, has been represented by a non-voting Resident Commissioner since 1901; the resident commissioner holds a status similar to that of a delegate within the House, but serves a four-year term. The resident commissioner is the only individual elected to the House. From 1907 until 1937, while it was a U. S. territory, the Philippines elected two non-voting resident commissioners to serve in the U. S. House of Representatives. From 1937 until 1946, while it was a U. S. Commonwealth, the Philippines sent one non-voting resident commissioner to the House. Upon independence in 1946, the Philippines ceased to be represented in Congress. In the mid-1960s, a number of small territories which had no prospects of becoming states began to petition for representation in Congress. Starting in 1970, the House of Representatives started to grant representation to these territories, but with limited voting rights.
American Samoa, an insular area since 1929, first elected a delegate, A. U. Fuimaono, in 1970. However, A