The Lancashire dialect and accent refers to the Northern English vernacular speech of the English county of Lancashire. Simon Elmes book Talking for Britain said that Lancashire dialect is now less common than it once was. The British Census has never recorded regional dialects, until 1974, the county encompassed areas that are now parts of Greater Manchester and Cumbria, so the accents found in those areas are covered by this article. Lancashire emerged during the Industrial Revolution as a commercial and industrial region. The county encompassed several hundred mill towns and collieries and by the 1830s, Accrington, Bolton, Chorley, Darwen and Burnley were major cotton mill towns during this time. Blackpool was a centre for tourism for the inhabitants of Lancashires mill towns. The county today comprises a smaller area. At this time, the detached Furness Peninsula and Cartmel were made part of Cumbria, today the county borders Cumbria, Greater Manchester and North and West Yorkshire. Within historic Lancashire are dialects belonging to two groups of English dialects, West Midland in the south and Northern in the north, the boundary represented originally the boundary between Mercia and Northumbria and in modern times has tended to move further north.
The dialects of south Lancashire have been affected by the development of large urban areas centred on Liverpool. There is evidence of Scandinavian influence – possibly linked to the medieval Norse settlements of West Lancashire. For example, - the Lancastrian dialect word skrike is found in places such as Lowland Scotland. Sources link this word to the Old Norse skrika – meaning scream, the Lancashire Dictionary stated that the Furness had always had more in common with Cumbrian dialect than with the rest of Lancashire, and so excluded it. With regards to Scouse, the accent is gradually spreading amongst younger people in Merseyside in certain areas, according to Crosby, the border between Scouse and Lancashire dialect is loosely estimated between Garswood and Bryn. However, Lancastrian accents are found west of Garswood, most notably in St Helens as shown in the accents of local celebrities and broadcasters such as Johnny Vegas, steven Gerrard from Whiston, Merseyside sounds notably different from Vegas.
This illustrates that the variation between Scouse and St Helens accents occurs within only a few miles, as in all counties, there is a drift within local speech that shifts towards different borders. For example, In those parts of Lancashire that border with Yorkshire, similarities with the Yorkshire dialect, words are shortened such as with to wi, in to i, etc. In north Lancashire, speech sounds more similar to Cumbria. g, dost t see yon mon oer theer
The home counties are the counties of England that surround London. The counties generally included in the list are Berkshire, Essex, Kent, the origin of the term home counties is unknown and no exact definition exists, making their composition a matter of constant debate. The earliest use of the term cited in the Oxford English Dictionary is from 1695, the term is sometimes understood to mean those counties which, on their borders closest to London, have been partly subsumed into London. Indeed, the county of Middlesex has been almost wholly within London since 1965 as have parts of Hertfordshire and Surrey. The third edition of the Oxford English Dictionary defines the term as the English counties surrounding London and they comprise chiefly Essex, Kent and Hertfordshire. Parts of all of historic counties are, since 1965, officially within London. An additional theory is that the derived from the Home Circuit of the courts of Assize which contained Hertfordshire, Kent, Sussex. The Home counties were described by one 1987 reference book as being inhabited on the whole by nice, comfortable, in fiction and Jerry Leadbetter of the television sitcom The Good Life, set in Surbiton, represent a typical home counties suburban couple.
The home counties as a whole are more prosperous than other parts of the United Kingdom. The towns of Amersham, Gerrards Cross and Beaconsfield, all in Buckinghamshire, were ranked as the top three most expensive in the country in one 2008 survey of average house prices. The area is so large, that it includes a number of areas of deprivation such as Margate, Hastings. Multiple definitions of the term have been used in legislation and by official bodies, in the twentieth century, for instance, as follows,1908, The Home Counties Division of the Territorial Force comprised units recruiting in Middlesex, Kent and Sussex. 1920, The London and Home Counties Electricity District consisted of the counties of London and Middlesex,1924, The London and Home Counties Traffic Advisory Committee, covering the London Traffic Area, London and parts of Buckinghamshire, Hertfordshire and Surrey. 1926, The Home Counties Licensing Act regulated activities in all parts of Buckinghamshire, Hertfordshire, Kent,1938, Green Belt Act limited development in parts of Middlesex, Buckinghamshire, Essex and Hertfordshire.
1948, The Home Counties Brigade was formed to administer the regiments of the City and County of London, Middlesex, Surrey. London commuter belt Metro-land The Association of British Counties
Geordie /ˈdʒɔːrdi/ is both a regional nickname for a person from the larger Tyneside region of North East England and the name of the Northern English dialect spoken by its inhabitants. The term is associated with Tyneside, south Northumberland and northern parts of County Durham and this linguistic conservatism can be seen today to the extent that poems by the Anglo-Saxon scholar the Venerable Bede translate more successfully into Geordie than into present-day Standard English. Thus in Northern England and the Scottish borders area, dominated by the kingdom of Northumbria and Scottish admixture influenced the dialect. In more recent years, the North East area has received migrants from the rest of the world as well, in recent times, the word Geordie can refer to a supporter of Newcastle United, despite many Geordies supporting other local teams. The Geordie Schooner glassware is used to serve beer in the United States, the Geordie dialect and self-identification as a Geordie are primarily associated with those of a working-class background.
A2008 newspaper survey found the Geordie accent the most attractive in England, the term itself, according to Brockett, originated from all the North East coal mines. The catchment area for the term Geordie can include Northumberland and County Durham or be confined to an area as small as the city of Newcastle upon Tyne, people from Sunderland, where they traditionally considered themselves Geordies, have differentiated themselves as Mackems in recent decades. The earliest known recorded use of the term found by an Oxford English Dictionary word hunt occurred only as late as 1988, Geordie is occasionally called Tyneside English. One explanation is that it was established during the Jacobite Rebellion of 1715, the Jacobites declared that the natives of Newcastle were staunch supporters of the Hanoverian kings, in particular of George I during the 1715 rebellion. This contrasted with rural Northumbria, which supported the Jacobite cause. If true, the term may have derived from the popular anti-Hanoverian song Cam Ye Oer Frae France, which calls the first Hanoverian king Geordie Whelps, a play on George the Guelph.
Using the chronological order of two John Trotter Brockett books, Geordie was given to North East pitmen, he acknowledges that the pitmen christened their Stephenson lamp Geordie. It occurs in the titles of two songs by songwriter Joe Wilson, Haud the Bairn and Keep your Feet Still, Newcastle publisher Frank Grahams Geordie Dictionary states, The origin of the word Geordie has been a matter of much discussion and controversy. All the explanations are fanciful and not a piece of genuine evidence has ever been produced. In Grahams many years of research, the earliest record he found of the use was in 1823 by local comedian Billy Purvis. Purvis had set up a booth at the Newcastle Races on the Town Moor, yor a fair doon reet feul, not an artificial feul like Billy Purvis. Gan an get thy picks agyen, thou may de for the city, but never for the west end o wor toon. Graham is backed up historically by John Camden Hotten, who wrote in 1869, general term in Northumberland and Durham for a pitman, origin not known, the term has been in use more than a century
The British Isles are a group of islands off the north-western coast of continental Europe that consist of the islands of Great Britain and over six thousand smaller isles. Situated in the North Atlantic, the islands have an area of approximately 315,159 km2. Two sovereign states are located on the islands and the United Kingdom of Great Britain, the oldest rocks in the group are in the north west of Scotland and North Wales and are 2,700 million years old. During the Silurian period the north-western regions collided with the south-east, the topography of the islands is modest in scale by global standards. Ben Nevis rises to an elevation of only 1,344 metres, and Lough Neagh, the climate is temperate marine, with mild winters and warm summers. The North Atlantic Drift brings significant moisture and raises temperatures 11 °C above the average for the latitude. This led to a landscape which was dominated by temperate rainforest. The region was re-inhabited after the last glacial period of Quaternary glaciation, which became an island by 12,000 BC, was not inhabited until after 8000 BC.
Great Britain became an island by 5600 BC, Hiberni and Britons tribes, all speaking Insular Celtic, inhabited the islands at the beginning of the 1st millennium AD. Much of Brittonic-controlled Britain was conquered by the Roman Empire from AD43, the first Anglo-Saxons arrived as Roman power waned in the 5th century and eventually dominated the bulk of what is now England. Viking invasions began in the 9th century, followed by permanent settlements. Most of Ireland seceded from the United Kingdom after the Irish War of Independence, the term British Isles is controversial in Ireland, where there are objections to its usage due to the association of the word British with Ireland. The Government of Ireland does not recognise or use the term, as a result and Ireland is used as an alternative description, and Atlantic Archipelago has had limited use among a minority in academia, while British Isles is still commonly employed. Within them, they are sometimes referred to as these islands. The earliest known references to the islands as a group appeared in the writings of sea-farers from the ancient Greek colony of Massalia.
The original records have been lost, writings, e. g. Avienuss Ora maritima, in the 1st century BC, Diodorus Siculus has Prettanikē nēsos, the British Island, and Prettanoi, the Britons. Strabo used Βρεττανική, and Marcian of Heraclea, in his Periplus maris exteri, historians today, though not in absolute agreement, largely agree that these Greek and Latin names were probably drawn from native Celtic-language names for the archipelago. Along these lines, the inhabitants of the islands were called the Πρεττανοί, the shift from the P of Pretannia to the B of Britannia by the Romans occurred during the time of Julius Caesar
London /ˈlʌndən/ is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south east of the island of Great Britain and it was founded by the Romans, who named it Londinium. Londons ancient core, the City of London, largely retains its 1. 12-square-mile medieval boundaries. London is a global city in the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism. It is crowned as the worlds largest financial centre and has the fifth- or sixth-largest metropolitan area GDP in the world, London is a world cultural capital. It is the worlds most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the worlds largest city airport system measured by passenger traffic, London is the worlds leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. Londons universities form the largest concentration of education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted the modern Summer Olympic Games three times, London has a diverse range of people and cultures, and more than 300 languages are spoken in the region.
Its estimated mid-2015 municipal population was 8,673,713, the largest of any city in the European Union, Londons urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census. The citys metropolitan area is the most populous in the EU with 13,879,757 inhabitants, the city-region therefore has a similar land area and population to that of the New York metropolitan area. London was the worlds most populous city from around 1831 to 1925, Other famous landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Pauls Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square, and The Shard. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world, the etymology of London is uncertain. It is an ancient name, found in sources from the 2nd century and it is recorded c.121 as Londinium, which points to Romano-British origin, and hand-written Roman tablets recovered in the city originating from AD 65/70-80 include the word Londinio. The earliest attempted explanation, now disregarded, is attributed to Geoffrey of Monmouth in Historia Regum Britanniae and this had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had allegedly taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
From 1898, it was accepted that the name was of Celtic origin and meant place belonging to a man called *Londinos. The ultimate difficulty lies in reconciling the Latin form Londinium with the modern Welsh Llundain, which should demand a form *lōndinion, from earlier *loundiniom. The possibility cannot be ruled out that the Welsh name was borrowed back in from English at a date, and thus cannot be used as a basis from which to reconstruct the original name. Until 1889, the name London officially applied only to the City of London, two recent discoveries indicate probable very early settlements near the Thames in the London area
Pronunciation is the way a word or a language is spoken, or the manner in which someone utters a word. If one is said to have correct pronunciation, it refers to both within a particular dialect, syllables are counted as units of sound that they use in their language. The branch of linguistics which studies these units of sound is phonetics, phones which play the same role are grouped together into classes called phonemes, the study of these is phonemics or phonematics or phonology. Phones as components of articulation are usually described using the International Phonetic Alphabet
Scouse is an accent and dialect of English found primarily in the Metropolitan county of Merseyside, and closely associated with the city of Liverpool. The accent extends as far as Flintshire in Wales, Runcorn in Cheshire, the Scouse accent is highly distinctive, and has little in common with those used in the neighbouring regions of Cheshire and Lancashire. The accent itself is not specific to all of Merseyside, with the accents of residents of St Helens and Southport, for example, inhabitants of Liverpool are called Liverpudlians or Liverpolitans but are more often described by the colloquialism Scousers. The word scouse is a form of lobscouse, derived from the Norwegian lapskaus, Swedish lapskojs and Danish labskovs. In the 19th century, poorer people in Liverpool, Bootle, outsiders tended to call these people scousers. Originally a small fishing village, Liverpool developed as a port, trading particularly with Ireland, the Scandinavians introduced the dish Scouse. Until the mid-19th century, the dominant local accent was similar to that of neighbouring areas of Lancashire, the influence of Irish and Welsh incomers, combined with European accents, contributed to a distinctive local Liverpool accent.
The first reference to a distinctive Liverpool accent was in 1890, Scouse is notable in some circumstances for a fast, highly accented manner of speech, with a range of rising and falling tones not typical of most of northern England. Words such as book and cook can be pronounced with the same vowel as in GOOSE. This is true to other towns from the midlands, northern England, the use of a long /uː/ in such words was once used across the whole of Britain, but is now confined to the more traditional accents of Northern England and Scotland. Oddly enough words such as took and look, unlike some other accents in northern towns, not all Liverpudlians are brought up to speak with this variation but this does not make it any less Scouse. The Scouse accent of the early 21st century is different in certain respects from that of earlier decades, The Liverpool accent of the 1950s. But since then, as with most accents and dialects, Scouse has been subject to phonemic evolution, changes have taken place in Scouse vowels, which show length and exaggeration at times in words like read, conversely shorter than standard in a word like sleep.
A final er is a sound that, although pronounced as a schwa in surrounding Lancashire and Cheshire, is emphasised as strongly as the e in pet /pɛt/, in a strong Scouse accent, the phoneme /k/ can be realised at the ends of some words as or sometimes. The last condition may not apply if the word begins with a vowel and is pronounced without a pause, so the sentence the floor is dirty is often pronounced. The use of the stop as an allophone of /t/ can occur in various positions. This is called T-glottalisation and is common amongst the younger speakers of the Scouse accent. The letter /t/ may be flapped intervocalically, /t/ and /d/ are often pronounced similarly to the fricatives /s/, the loss of dental fricatives, /ð/ and /θ/, is commonly attributed to Irish English influence
The term cockney has had several distinct geographical and linguistic associations. More recently, it is used to refer to those in Londons East End. Linguistically, cockney English refers to the accent or dialect of English traditionally spoken by working-class Londoners, in recent years, many aspects of cockney English have become part of general South East English speech, producing a variant known as Estuary English. The earliest recorded use of the term is 1362 in passus VI of William Langlands Piers Plowman, the mythical land of luxury Cockaigne appeared under a variety of spellings—including Cockayne and Cockney—and became humorously associated with the English capital London. This may have developed from the sources above or separately, alongside such terms as cock, by 1600, this meaning of cockney was being particularly associated with the Bow Bells area. In 1617, the travel writer Fynes Moryson stated in his Itinerary that Londoners, the same year, John Minsheu included the term in this newly restricted sense in his dictionary Ductor in Linguas.
The use of the term to describe all Londoners generally, survived into the 19th century before becoming restricted to the working class, the term is now used loosely to describe all East Londoners, although some distinguish the areas that were added to London in 1964. The region in which cockneys are thought to reside is not clearly defined, a common view is that in order to be a cockney, one must have been born within earshot of Bow Bells, the bells of St Mary-le-Bow. However, the church of St Mary-le-Bow was destroyed in 1666 by the Great Fire of London, although the bells were destroyed again in 1941 in the Blitz, they had fallen silent on 13 June 1940 as part of the British anti-invasion preparations of World War II. Before they were replaced in 1961, there was a period when, by the within earshot definition, the East London Maternity Hospital in Stepney, which was 2.5 miles from St Mary-le-Bow, was in use from 1884 to 1968. There is a maternity unit still in use at the Royal London Hospital in Whitechapel, Home births were very common until the late 1960s.
According to the legend of Dick Whittington the bells could once be heard from as far away as the Highgate Archway, thus while all East Enders are cockneys, not all cockneys are East Enders. The area north of the Thames gradually expanded to include East Ham, West Ham, loach has a reputation for using genuine dialect speakers in films,3 Clear Sundays Up the Junction Cathy Come Home Poor Cow Bronco Bullfrog The Long Good Friday. The DVD of this film has a feature that explains the rhyming slang used. Nevertheless, the stop, double negatives, and the vocalisation of the dark L. The study, funded by the Economic and Social Research Council, said that the accent, migration of cockney speakers has led to migration of the dialect. In Essex, planned towns that grew from post-war migration out of London often have a strong influence on local speech. In recent years the dialect has moved out of inner-city London towards the outskirts of suburban London, today cockney-speaking areas include parts of Dagenham, Billericay, Romford, Loughton, Basildon, Thurrock
In another words it is interpretation of speech sound into writing. Spelling is one of the elements of orthography, and highly standardized spelling is a prescriptive element, spellings originated as transcriptions of the sounds of spoken language according to the alphabetic principle. They remain largely reflective of the sounds, although fully phonemic spelling is an ideal that most languages orthographies only approximate and this is true for various reasons, including that pronunciation changes over time in all languages, yet spellings as visual norms may resist change. Uniformity in the spelling of words is one of the features of a language in modern times. In countries where there is a language academy, such as France, the Netherlands. Examples include, German orthography reform of 1996 Portuguese spelling reform French rectifications orthographiques of 1990, Spelling tests are commonly used to assess a students mastery over the words in the spelling lessons the student has received so far.
They can be a practice method. Spelling bees are competitions to determine the best speller of a group, prominent spelling bees are even televised, such as the National Spelling Bee in the United States. Divergent spelling is an advertising technique, used to attract attention or to render a trademark suggestive rather than merely descriptive. The pastry chains Dunkin Donuts and Krispy Kreme, for example, while some words admit multiple spellings, some spellings are not considered standard, and thus labeled as misspellings. A misspelled word can be a series of letters that represents no correctly spelled word of the language at all or a correct spelling of another word. Misspellings of the type can easily make their way into printed material because they are not caught by simple computerized spell checkers. Misspellings may be due to either typing errors, or lack of knowledge of the correct spelling, whether or not a word is misspelled may depend on context, as is the case with American / British English distinctions.
Misspelling can be a matter of opinion when variant spellings are accepted by some, for example, miniscule is a misspelling to many, and yet it is listed as an acceptable variant in some dictionaries. A well-known Internet scam involves the registration of names that are deliberate misspellings of well-known corporate names in order to mislead or defraud. The practice is known as typosquatting. Google – accidental misspelling of googol and its possible Google took this spelling from Steve Martins Googlephonics track from his 1979 album Comedy Is Not Pretty. In it, he described Googlephonic as being. the highest number of speakers before infinity, ovaltine, a popular bedtime drink in the UK and Australia, came about because someone misspelled the original name Ovomaltine on the trademark documentation
Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, values and habits. Educational methods include storytelling, teaching, Education frequently takes place under the guidance of educators, but learners may educate themselves. Education can take place in formal or informal settings and any experience that has an effect on the way one thinks, feels. The methodology of teaching is called pedagogy, in most regions education is compulsory up to a certain age. Etymologically, the education is derived from the Latin ēducātiō from ēducō which is related to the homonym ēdūcō from ē-. Education began in prehistory, as trained the young in the knowledge. In pre-literate societies this was achieved orally and through imitation, story-telling passed knowledge and skills from one generation to the next. As cultures began to extend their knowledge beyond skills that could be learned through imitation. Schools existed in Egypt at the time of the Middle Kingdom, plato founded the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in Europe.
The city of Alexandria in Egypt, established in 330 BCE, the great Library of Alexandria was built in the 3rd century BCE. European civilizations suffered a collapse of literacy and organization following the fall of Rome in CE476, after the Fall of Rome, the Catholic Church became the sole preserver of literate scholarship in Western Europe. The church established cathedral schools in the Early Middle Ages as centres of advanced education, some of these establishments ultimately evolved into medieval universities and forebears of many of Europes modern universities. During the High Middle Ages, Chartres Cathedral operated the famous, founded in 1088, the University of Bologne is considered the first, and the oldest continually operating university. The Renaissance in Europe ushered in a new age of scientific and intellectual inquiry and appreciation of ancient Greek, around 1450, Johannes Gutenberg developed a printing press, which allowed works of literature to spread more quickly. The European Age of Empires saw European ideas of education in philosophy, arts, the Enlightenment saw the emergence of a more secular educational outlook in Europe.
In most countries today, full-time education, whether at school or otherwise, is compulsory for all children up to a certain age, formal education occurs in a structured environment whose explicit purpose is teaching students. Usually, formal education takes place in a environment with classrooms of multiple students learning together with a trained, certified teacher of the subject. Most school systems are designed around a set of values or ideals that govern all educational choices in that system, such choices include curriculum, organizational models, design of the physical learning spaces, student-teacher interactions, methods of assessment, class size, educational activities, and more
Cumbria is a non-metropolitan county in North West England. The county and Cumbria County Council, its government, came into existence in 1974 after the passage of the Local Government Act 1972. Cumbrias county town is Carlisle, in the north of the county, the county of Cumbria consists of six districts, and in 2008 had a population of just under half a million. Cumbria is one of the most sparsely populated counties in the United Kingdom, a large area of the south east of the county is within the Yorkshire Dales National Park while the east of the county fringes the North Pennines AONB. Much of Cumbria is mountainous, and it contains every peak in England over 3,000 feet above sea level, with Scafell Pike at 3,209 feet being the highest point of England. An upland and rural area, Cumbrias history is characterised by invasions, notable historic sites in Cumbria include Carlisle Castle, Furness Abbey, Hardknott Roman Fort, Brough Castle and Hadrians Wall, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. D. Based on inscriptional evidence from the area, the Roman civitas of the Carvetii seems to have covered portions of Cumbria, the names Cumbria, Cymru and Cumberland are derived from the name these people gave themselves, *kombroges in Common Brittonic, which originally meant compatriots.
In the Early Middle Ages, Cumberland formed the core of the Brittonic kingdom of Rheged, for the rest of the first millennium, Cumbria was contested by several entities who warred over the area, including the Brythonic Kingdom of Strathclyde and the Anglian kingdom of Northumbria. Most of modern-day Cumbria was a principality in the Kingdom of Scotland at the time of the Norman conquest of England in 1066, in 1092 Cumberland was invaded by William II and incorporated into England. There were at least three sieges of Carlisle fought between England and Scotland, and two sieges during the Jacobite risings. In particular, the west-coast towns of Workington and Barrow-in-Furness saw large iron and steel mills develop, Kendal and Carlisle all became mill towns, with textiles and biscuits among the products manufactured in the region. Later, the childrens writer Beatrix Potter wrote in the region and became a major landowner and its strategic authority is Cumbria County Council. Local papers The Westmorland Gazette and Cumberland and Westmorland Herald continue to use the name of their historic county, other publications, such as local government promotional material, describe the area as Cumbria, as do the Lake District National Park Authority and most visitors.
Cumbria is the most northwesterly county of England, the northernmost and southernmost points in Cumbria are just west of Deadwater and South Walney respectively. Kirkby Stephen and St Bees Head are the most easterly and westerly points of the county, at 978 metres Scafell Pike is the highest point in Cumbria and in England. Windermere is the largest natural lake in England, the Lancaster Canal runs from Preston into South Cumbria and is partly in use. The Ulverston Canal which once reached to Morecambe Bay is maintained although it was closed in 1945, the Solway Coast and Arnside and Silverdale AONBs lie in the lowland areas of the county, to the north and south respectively. Cumbria is bordered by the English counties of Northumberland, County Durham, North Yorkshire, the boundaries are along the Irish Sea to Morecambe Bay in the west, and along the Pennines to the east