The Century of the Self
The Century of the Self is a 2002 British television documentary series by filmmaker Adam Curtis. It focuses on the work of psychoanalysts Sigmund Freud and Anna Freud, PR consultant Edward Bernays. In episode one, Curtis says, "This series is about how those in power have used Freud's theories to try and control the dangerous crowd in an age of mass democracy." "Happiness Machines" "The Engineering of Consent" "There is a Policeman Inside All Our Heads. The documentary explores the various ways that governments and corporations have used Freud's theories. Freud and his nephew Edward Bernays, the first to use psychological techniques in public relations, are discussed in part one, his daughter Anna Freud, a pioneer of child psychology, is mentioned in part two. Wilhelm Reich, an opponent of Freud's theories, is discussed in part three. Along these lines, The Century of the Self asks deeper questions about the roots and methods of consumerism and commodification and their implications, it questions the modern way people see themselves, the attitudes to fashion, superficiality.
The business and political worlds use psychological techniques to read and fulfill the desires of the public, to make their products and speeches as pleasing as possible to consumers and voters. Curtis questions the intentions and origins of this new approach to engaging the public. Where once the political process was about engaging people's rational, conscious minds, as well as facilitating their needs as a group, Stuart Ewen, a historian of public relations, argues that politicians now appeal to primitive impulses that have little bearing on issues outside the narrow self-interests of a consumer society; the words of Paul Mazur, a leading Wall Street banker working for Lehman Brothers in 1927, are cited: "We must shift America from a needs- to a desires-culture. People must be trained to desire, to want new things before the old have been consumed. Man's desires must overshadow his needs."In part four the main subjects are Philip Gould, a political strategist, Matthew Freud, a PR consultant and the great-grandson of Sigmund Freud.
In the 1990s, they were instrumental to bringing the Democratic Party in the US and New Labour in the United Kingdom back into power through use of the focus group invented by psychoanalysts employed by US corporations to allow consumers to express their feelings and needs, just as patients do in psychotherapy. Curtis ends by saying that, "Although we feel we are free, in reality, we—like the politicians—have become the slaves of our own desires," and compares Britain and America to'Democracity', an exhibit at the 1939 New York World's Fair created by Edward Bernays. Aaron Copland: Billy the Kid Arvo Pärt: Spiegel im Spiegel, Für Alina Dmitri Shostakovich: 24 Preludes and Fugues, Prelude 1 Johannes Brahms: Symphony No. 3 in F major, Op. 90, beginning of the third movement Kano: She's a Star Louis Armstrong: What a Wonderful World Ralph Vaughan Williams: Fantasia on a Theme by Thomas Tallis Raymond Scott: Portofino 2 The Gold Diggers' Song Ennio Morricone: Quelle foto Felix Slatkin: The Green Leaves of Summer The John Barry Seven: Hit and Miss Best Documentary Series, Broadcast Awards Historical Film Of The Year, Longman-History Today AwardsNominated for: Best Documentary Series, Royal Television Society Best Documentary Series, Grierson Documentary Awards Best Documentary, Indie Awards The Century of the Self on IMDb The Century of the Self – BBC Documentary by Dan Haggard in Reviews In Depth, 25 January 2010 Episode guide: Happiness Machines at BBC Online The Engineering of Consent at BBC Online There is a Policeman Inside All Our Heads: He Must Be Destroyed at BBC Online Eight People Sipping Wine in Kettering at BBC Online
The Trap (TV series)
The Trap: What Happened to Our Dream of Freedom is a BBC television documentary series by English filmmaker Adam Curtis, well known for other documentaries including The Century of the Self and The Power of Nightmares. It aired in the United Kingdom on BBC Two in March 2007; the series consists of three 60-minute programmes which explore the modern concept and definition of freedom "how a simplistic model of human beings as self-seeking robotic, creatures led to today's idea of freedom." The series was to be called Cold Cold Heart and was scheduled for broadcast in 2006. Although it is not known what caused the delay in transmission, nor the change in title, it is known that a DVD release of Curtis's previous series The Power of Nightmares had been delayed due to problems with copyright clearance due to the large quantity of archive material used in Curtis's montage technique. Another documentary series based on similar lines—"examining the world economy during the 1990s"—was to have been Curtis's first BBC TV project upon moving to the BBC's Current Affairs unit in 2002, shortly after producing Century of the Self.
In part one, Curtis examines the rise of game theory during the Cold War and the way in which its mathematical models of human behaviour filtered into economic thought. The programme traces the development of game theory, with particular reference to the work of John Nash, who believed that all humans are inherently suspicious and selfish creatures that strategize constantly. Building on his theory, Nash constructed logically consistent and mathematically verifiable models, for which he won the Bank of Sweden Prize in Economic Sciences referred to as the Nobel Prize in Economics, he invented system games that reflected his beliefs about human behaviour, including one he called'Fuck You Buddy', in which the only way to win was to betray your playing partner, it is from this game that the episode's title is taken. These games were internally coherent and worked as long as the players obeyed the ground rules that they should behave selfishly and try to outwit their opponents, but when RAND's analysts tried the games on their own secretaries, they were surprised to find that instead betraying each other, the secretaries cooperated every time.
This did not, in the eyes of the analysts, discredit the models, but proved that the secretaries were unfit subjects. "This is in contrast to the proposed theoretical solution in which the two secretaries would have shared the amount g only, with the first secretary receiving m in addition. Upon inquiry, it developed that they had entered into the experiment with the prior agreement to share all proceeds equally!" It was not known at the time that Nash was suffering from paranoid schizophrenia, as a result, he was suspicious of everyone around him—including his colleagues—and was convinced that many were involved in conspiracies against him. It was this mistaken belief that led to his view of people as a whole that formed the basis for his theories. Footage of an older and wiser Nash was shown in which he acknowledges that his paranoid views of other people at the time were false. Curtis examines; because no nuclear war occurred, it was believed that game theory had been correct in dictating the creation and maintenance of a massive American nuclear arsenal—because the Soviet Union had not attacked America with its nuclear weapons, the supposed deterrent must have worked.
Game theory during the Cold War is a subject that Curtis examined in more detail in the To The Brink of Eternity part of his first series, Pandora's Box, he reuses much of the same archive material in doing so. Another strand in the documentary is the work of R. D. Laing, whose work in psychiatry led him to model familial interactions using game theory, his conclusion was that humans are inherently selfish and shrewd and spontaneously generate stratagems during everyday interactions. Laing's theories became more developed when he concluded that some forms of mental illness were artificial labels, used by the state to suppress individual suffering; this belief became a staple tenet of counter-culture in the 1960s. Reference is made to an experiment run by one of Laing's students, David Rosenhan, in which bogus patients, self-presenting at a number of American psychiatric institutions, were falsely diagnosed as having mental disorders, while institutions, informed that they were to receive bogus patients, misidentified genuine patients as imposters.
The results of the experiment were a disaster for American psychiatry, because they destroyed the idea that psychiatrists were a privileged elite, genuinely able to diagnose, therefore treat, mental illness. Curtis credits the Rosenhan experiment with the inspiration to create a computer model of mental health. Input to the program consisted of answers to a questionnaire. Curtis describes a plan of the psychiatrists to test the computer model by issuing questionnaires to "hundreds of thousands" of randomly selected Americans; the diagnostic program identified over 50% of the ordinary people tested as suffering from some kind of mental disorder. According to Dr. Jerome Wakefield, who refers to the test as "these studies", the results it found were viewed as a general conclusion that "there is a hidden epidemic." Curtis and leaders in the psychiatric field never addressed whether the computer model was being tested or used without having been validated in any way, but rather used the model to justify vastly increasing the portion of the population they were treating.
In an interview, the economist James M. Buchanan decries the notion of the
Artavazd Peleshyan is an Armenian director of film-essays, a documentarian in the history of film art, a film theorist. He is renowned for developing a style of cinematographic perspective known as distance montage, combining perception of depth with oncoming entities, such as running packs of antelope or hordes of humans; the filmmaker Sergei Parajanov referred to Peleshyan as "one of the few authentic geniuses in the world of cinema". He was named Renowned Master of the Armenian SSR Arts in 1979, his films are on the border between documentary and feature, somewhat reminiscent of the work of such avant-garde filmmakers as Bruce Conner, rather than of conventional documentaries. However, his work, unlike Maya Deren's, is not avant-garde, nor does it try to explore the absurd, it is not art for art's sake, but is acknowledged, rather, as a poetic view of life transferred onto film. He has always made extensive use of archive footage, mixed in with his own shots, with fast inter-cutting between the two.
Telephoto lenses are used to get "candid camera" shots of people engaging in mundane tasks. Most of his films are short, they feature no dialogue. However and sound effects play nearly as important a role in his films as the visual images in contributing towards the artistic whole. Nearly all of his films were shot in black-and-white, his early films, made when he was still a student at VGIK, were awarded several prizes. Twelve films by Peleshyan are known to exist; the Beginning is a cinematographical essay about the October Revolution of 1917. One of the unique visual effects used in this film is achieved by holding snippets of film still on a single frame advancing only for a second or two before again pausing on another, resulting in a stuttering visual effect. Other important films by him are We, a poetically told history of Armenia and its people, Inhabitant, a reflection on the relationship between wildlife and humans. Artavazd Peleshian's most brilliant film is considered, by many critics, to be The Seasons of the Year, shot by cinematographer Mikhail Vartanov.
It is a look at the contradiction and harmony between humans and nature and was the last collaboration between Peleshian and Vartanov, Armenia's two most important documentary auteurs, who first worked together on The Autumn Pastoral. Peleshyan is the author of a range of theoretical works, such as his 1988 book, Moyo kino. Being from a country removed from internationally significant cinema circles, Peleshyan's efforts were not well-recognized by critics of world cinema. Since the fall of the Soviet Union, he was able to make two more short films and The End, he is now living in Moscow. His most recent film was edited at the ZKM | Karlsruhe Film Institute in 2005-2006 and has not yet been released. In 1998, Peleshyan reflected, "It's about what I'm striving for, what we're all striving for - every person, humanity...the wishes and desires of the people to ascend, to transcend... I was thinking of everything. It's not the seasons of the year or of people: it's everything... Eisenstein's montage was linear, like a chain.
Distance montage creates a magnetic field around the film... Sometimes I don't call my method'montage'. I'm involved in a process of creating unity. In a sense I've eliminated montage: by creating the film through montage, I have destroyed montage. In the totality, in the wholeness of one of my films, there is no montage, no collision, so as a result montage has been destroyed. In Eisenstein every element means something. For me the individual fragments don't mean anything anymore. Only the whole film has the meaning... For me, distance montage opens up the mysteries of the movement of the universe. I can feel how everything is put together; the Autumn Pastoral Homo Sapiens Desert Vartanov, Mikhail. "Artavazd Peleshyan" Garun magazine, Armenia, 1971. Peleshian, Artavazd. "Moyo Kino" Sovetakan grokh, Armenia, 1988. IDFA - International Documentary Film Festival Amsterdam Venice Film Festival's Marco Mueller on Parajanov, Peleshian The View From Above: Films Of Artavazd Peleshian Mountain Vigil on YouTube Beginning on YouTube Us on YouTube Inhabitants on YouTube The Seasons of the Year on YouTube Our Century on YouTube The Seasons of the Year Essay]
The Power of Nightmares
The Power of Nightmares: The Rise of the Politics of Fear is a BBC television documentary series by Adam Curtis. It consists of archive footage, with Curtis narrating; the series was broadcast in the United Kingdom in 2004. It has subsequently been aired in multiple countries and shown at various film festivals, including the 2005 Cannes Film Festival; the film compares the rise of the neoconservative movement in the United States and the radical Islamist movement, drawing comparisons between their origins, remarking on similarities between the two groups. More controversially, it argues that radical Islamism as a massive, sinister organisation in the form of al-Qaeda, is a myth, or noble lie, perpetuated by leaders of many countries—and neoconservatives in the U. S.—in a renewed attempt to unite and inspire their people after the ultimate failure of utopian ideas. The Power of Nightmares was praised by film critics in the United States, its message and content have been the subject of various critiques and criticisms from conservatives and progressives.
The first part of the series explains the origins of neoconservatism. It shows Egyptian civil servant Sayyid Qutb, depicted as the founder of modern Islamist thinking, visiting the U. S. to learn about its education system becoming disgusted at what he judged as the corruption of morals and virtues in western society through individualism. When he returns to Egypt, he is disturbed by westernisation under Gamal Abdel Nasser and becomes convinced that in order to save his own society, it must be restructured along the lines of Islamic law while still using western technology, he becomes convinced that his vision can only be accomplished through use of an elite "vanguard" to lead a revolution against the established order. Qutb becomes a leader of the Muslim Brotherhood and, after being tortured in one of Nasser's jails, comes to believe that western-influenced leaders can be justifiably killed to remove their corruption. Qutb is executed in 1966, but he influences Ayman al-Zawahiri, the future mentor of Osama bin Laden, to start his own secret Islamist group.
Inspired by the 1979 Iranian revolution and his allies assassinate Egyptian president Anwar Al-Sadat in 1981 in the hopes of starting their own revolution. However, the revolution does not materialise, Zawahiri comes to believe that a majority of Muslims have been corrupted, not only by their western-inspired leaders, but Muslims themselves have been affected by jahilliyah and thus may be legitimate targets of violence if they refuse to join his cause, they continued to believe that a vanguard was necessary to rise up and overthrow the corrupt regime and replace it with a'pure' Islamist state. At the same time in the United States, a group of disillusioned liberals, including Irving Kristol and Paul Wolfowitz, look to the political thinking of Leo Strauss after the perceived failure of President Johnson's "Great Society", they conclude. They envisioned restructuring America by uniting the American people against a common evil, set about creating a mythical enemy; these factions, the neoconservatives, came to power during the 1980s under the Reagan administration, with their allies Dick Cheney and Donald Rumsfeld.
They alleged that the Soviet Union was not following the terms of a disarmament treaty between the two countries, together with the outcomes of "Team B", they built a case using dubious evidence and methods to prove it to Ronald Reagan. In the second part, Islamist factions falling under the more radical influence of Zawahiri and his rich Saudi acolyte Osama bin Laden, join the neoconservative-influenced Reagan administration to combat the Soviet Union's invasion of Afghanistan; when the Soviets pull out of Afghanistan, when the Eastern Bloc begins to collapse in 1989, both the Islamists and the neoconservatives believe they are the primary architects of the Soviet Union's demise. Curtis argues. However, the Islamists see it quite differently. In their triumph, they believe they have the power to create'pure' Islamic states in Egypt and Algeria. Attempts to create such Islamic states are blocked by force; the Islamists try to foment revolutions in Egypt and Algeria by using terrorism to scare the people into rising up against their leaders.
But the people are terrified by the violence, the Algerian government exploits that fear as a way to hang on to power. In the end, the Islamists declare the entire populations of the countries to be contaminated by western values. In Algeria, they begin to turn on each other, each believing that members of other terrorist groups are not true Muslims. In America, neoconservative aspirations to use the United States' military power to further destroy evildoers are thrown off track by the election of George H. W. Bush to the presidency, followed by the election in 1992 of Bill Clinton which left them out of power; the neoconservatives, along with their conservative Christian allies, attempt to demonize Clinton throughout his presidency with various real and fabricated stories of corruption and immorality. To their disappointment, the American people do not turn against Clinton. Meanwhile, Islamist attempts at revolution end in massive bloodshed, leaving the Islamists without popular support. Zawahiri and bin Laden declare a new strategy.
To fight Western-inspired moral decay, they must deal a blow to its source: the United States. The final part addresses the actual rise of al-Qaeda. Curtis argues that, after their failed revolutions, bin Laden and Zawahiri had little or no popular su
Exodus (1960 film)
Exodus is a 1960 American epic film on the founding of the modern State of Israel. It was distributed by United Artists. Produced and directed by Otto Preminger, the film was based on the 1958 novel Exodus by Leon Uris; the screenplay was written by Dalton Trumbo. The film features an ensemble cast, its celebrated soundtrack music was written by Ernest Gold. Characterized as a "Zionist epic", the film has been identified by many commentators as having been enormously influential in stimulating Zionism and support for Israel in the United States. While Preminger's film softened the anti-British and anti-Arab sentiment of the novel, the film remains contentious for its depiction of the Arab–Israeli conflict. Preminger hired screenwriter Dalton Trumbo, on the Hollywood blacklist for over a decade for being a communist and forced to work under assumed names. Together with Spartacus written by Trumbo, Exodus is credited with ending the practice of Blacklisting in the motion picture industry. Nurse Katherine "Kitty" Fremont is an American volunteer at the Karaolos internment camp on Cyprus, where thousands of Jews—Holocaust survivors—are being held by the British, who will not let them go to Palestine.
They anxiously wait for the day. Ari Ben Canaan, a Haganah rebel, a decorated captain in the Jewish Brigade of the British Army in the Second World War, obtains a cargo ship and smuggles 611 Jewish inmates out of the camp for an illegal voyage to Mandate Palestine before being discovered by military authorities; when the British learn the refugees are in a ship in the harbor of Famagusta, they blockade the harbor and prevent it from sailing. The refugees stage a hunger strike, during which the camp's doctor dies, Ari threatens to blow up the ship and the refugees; the British allow the Exodus safe passage. Kitty has grown fond of Karen Hansen Clement, a young Danish-Jewish girl searching for the father from whom she was separated during the war, she has taken up the Zionist cause, much to the chagrin of Kitty, who had hoped to adopt Karen and take her to America to begin a new life. During this time, opposition to the partition of Palestine into Arab and Jewish states is heating up. Karen's young beau Dov Landau proclaims his desire to join the Irgun, a radical Zionist resistance group.
Dov goes to an address given him by an Irgun recruiter, only to be caught in a police trap. After he is released, he is contacted by members of the Irgun and is interviewed by Ari Ben Canaan's uncle Akiva, the head of the Irgun. Before swearing Dov in, Akiva forces the boy to confess that he was a Sonderkommando in Auschwitz, that he was sodomized by Nazis. Due to his activities, Akiva has been disowned by Ari's father, who heads the mainstream Jewish Agency trying to create a Jewish state through political and diplomatic means, he fears that the Irgun will derail his efforts as the British have put a price on Akiva's head. Karen has gone to live at Gan Dafna, a fictional Jewish kibbutz near Mount Tabor near the moshav where Ari was raised. Kitty and Ari have fallen in love, but Kitty pulls back, feeling like an outsider after meeting Ari's family and learning of his previous love: Dafna, a young woman kidnapped and murdered by Arabs, the namesake of the Gan Dafna kibbutz. Leaving Kitty, Ari promises to help find Karen's father.
Dr. Clement is found in a mental hospital in Jerusalem, he is in a dissociative state, withdrawn to a degree. Because of the horrors he experienced in a concentration camp, he has disconnected from the outside world, he does not recognize Karen, devastated. When the Irgun bombs the King David Hotel in an act of terrorism resulting in dozens of fatalities, Akiva is arrested, imprisoned in Acre fortress, sentenced to hang. Seeking to save Akiva's life, as well as to free the Haganah and Irgun fighters imprisoned by the British, Ari organizes an escape plan for the prisoners. Dov, who eluded the soldiers who captured Akiva, turns himself in so he can use his knowledge of explosives to facilitate the Acre Prison break. All goes according to plan. Hundreds of prisoners, including Akiva, escape from the prison. Akiva is mortally wounded by British soldiers while evading a roadblock set up to catch the escapees. Ari is badly wounded, he makes his way to Gan Dafna, where Dr. Lieberman, head of the village, removes a bullet from his right lung.
With the British on Ari's trail, he is taken to Abu Yesha, an Arab village near Gan Dafna, where his lifelong friend, Taha, is the mukhtar. Kitty goes with him and provides postoperative treatment that saves his life; the romance between Ari and Kitty is rekindled as a result. Meanwhile, Dr. Lieberman is arrested by the British when they learn the camp has stored illegal weapons within the children's village. An independent Israel is now in plain view, but Arab nationals commanded by Mohammad Amin al-Husayni, the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem, plot to attack Gan Dafna and massacre the Jews, including the children. Ari receives prior warning of this attack from Taha as Taha reluctantly decides he must join the Grand Mufti in fighting the establishment of Israel. Ben Canaan spirits the younger children to safety in a nighttime evacuation as a small detachment of Palmach troops arrives to reinforce the defenses of Gan Dafna. Karen, ecstatic over the prospect of the new nation, proclaims her love for him.
Dov assures her. As Karen returns to Gan Dafna, she is murdered by a gang of Arab thugs. Dov discovers her lifeless body the following morning; the same day, the body of Taha is found hanging in his vil
Georg Henri Anton "Joris" Ivens was a Dutch documentary filmmaker. Among the notable films he directed or co-directed are A Tale of the Wind, The Spanish Earth, Rain... A Valparaiso, Misère au Borinage, 17th Parallel: Vietnam in War, The Seine Meets Paris, Far from Vietnam, Pour le Mistral and How Yukong Moved the Mountains. Born Georg Henri Anton Ivens into a wealthy family, Ivens went to work in one of his father's photo supply shops and from there developed an interest in film. Under the direction of his father, he completed his first film at 13, he met photographer Germaine Krull in Berlin in 1923, entered into a marriage of convenience with her between 1927 and 1943 so that Krull could hold a Dutch passport and could have a "veneer of married respectability without sacrificing her autonomy."Originally his work focused on technique in Rain, a 10-minute short filmed over 2 years, in The Bridge. Around this time, along with Menno ter Braak and others, he was involved in the creation of the Dutch Film League based in Amsterdam.
The League drew foreign filmmakers to the Netherlands such as Alberto Cavalcanti, René Clair, Sergei Eisenstein, Vsevolod Pudovkin, Dziga Vertov, who became his friends. In 1929, Ivens went to the Soviet Union and was invited to direct a film on a topic of his own choosing, the new industrial city of Magnitogorsk. Before commencing work, he returned to the Netherlands to make Industrial Symphony for Philips Electric, considered to be a film of great technical beauty, he returned to the Soviet Union to make the film about Magnitogorsk, Song of Heroes in 1931 with music composed by Hanns Eisler. This was the first film on which Eisler worked together, it was a propaganda film about this new industrial city where masses of forced laborers and communist youth worked for Stalin's Five Year Plan. With Henri Storck, Ivens made a documentary on life in a coal mining region. In 1943, he directed two Allied propaganda films for the National Film Board of Canada, including Action Stations, about the Royal Canadian Navy's escorting of convoys in the Battle of the Atlantic.
From 1936 to 1945, Ivens was based in the United States. For Pare Lorentz's U. S. Film Service, in the year 1940, he made a documentary film on rural electrification called Power and the Land, it focused on the Parkinsons, who ran a business providing milk for their community. The film showed the problem in the way the problem was fixed. Ivens was, known for his anti-fascist and other propaganda films, including The Spanish Earth, for the Spanish Republicans, co-written with Ernest Hemingway and music by Marc Blitzstein and Virgil Thomson. Jean Renoir did the French narration for the film and Hemingway did the English version only after Orson Welles's sounded too theatrical.. This film was financed by Archibald MacLeish, Fredric March, Florence Eldridge, Lillian Hellman, Luise Rainer, Dudley Nichols, Franchot Tone and other Hollywood movie stars and writers who composed a group known as the Contemporary Historians. Spanish Earth was shown at the White House on July 8, 1937 after Ivens, Martha Gellhorn, had had dinner with President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Eleanor Roosevelt and Harry Hopkins.
The Roosevelts said that it needed more propaganda. This 1937 documentary was considered his masterpiece. In 1938 he traveled to China; the 400 Million depicted the history of modern China and the Chinese resistance during the Second Sino-Japanese War, including dramatic shots of the Battle of Taierzhuang. Robert Capa did camerawork, Sidney Lumet worked on the film as a reader, Hanns Eisler wrote the musical score, Fredric March provided the narration. It, had been financed by the same people as those of Spanish Earth, its chief fundraiser was recipient of the best actress Oscar two years in a row. The Guomindang government censored the film, fearing that it would give too much credit to left-wing forces. Ivens was suspected of being a friend of Mao Zedong and Zhou Enlai. In early 1943, Frank Capra hired Ivens to supervise the production of Know Your Enemy: Japan for his U. S. War Department film series; the film's commentary was written by Carl Foreman. Capra fired Ivens from the project because he felt that his approach was too sympathetic toward the Japanese.
The film's release was held up because there were concerns that Emperor Hirohito was being depicted as a war criminal, there was a policy shift to portray the Emperor more favorably after the war as a means of maintaining order in post-war Japan. With the emerging "Red Scare" of the late 1940s, Ivens was forced to leave the country in the early months of the Truman administration. Ivens' leftist politics put the kibosh on his first feature film project, to have starred Greta Garbo. In fact, Walter Wanger, the film's producer, was adamant about "running him out of town." In 1946, commissioned to make a Dutch film about Indonesian'independence', Ivens resigned in protest over what he considered ongoing imperialism. Instead, Ivens filmed Indonesia Calling in secret. For around a decade Ivens lived in Eastern Europe, his position concerning Indonesia and his taking sides for the Eastern Bloc in the Cold War annoyed the Dutch government. Over a period of many years
Johannes Grenzfurthner is an Austrian artist, writer, curator, theatre director and lecturer. Grenzfurther is the founder and artistic director of monochrom, an international art and theory group. Most of his artworks are labelled monochrom. Grenzfurther is an outspoken researcher in subversive and underground culture, for example the field of sexuality and technology, one of the founders of'techno-hedonism'. Boing Boing magazine referred to Grenzfurthner as leitnerd, a wordplay with the German term Leitkultur that hints at Grenzfurthner's role in nerd/hacker/art culture. In the early 1990s, Grenzfurthner was a member of several BBS message boards. Grenzfurther used his online connections to create monochrom, a zine or alternative magazine that dealt with art and subversive cultures, his motivation was to react to the emerging conservativism in cyber-cultures of the early 1990s, to combine his political background in the Austrian punk and antifa movement with discussion of new technologies and the cultures they create.
The publication featured interviews and essays, by e.g. Bruce Sterling, HR Giger, Eric Drexler, Terry Pratchett and Bob Black, in its experimental layout style. In 1995 the group decided to cover new artistic practices and started experimenting with different media: computer games, puppet theater, short films, conferences, online activism, which Grenzfurthner calls'Urban Hacking' or more specific:'Context hacking', a term that Grenzfurthner coined. Context hacking transfers the hackers' objectives and methods to the network of social relationships in which artistic production occurs, upon which it is dependent. In a metaphoric sense, these relationships have a source code. Programs run in them, our interaction with them is structured by a user interface; when we know how a space, a niche, a scene, a subculture or a media or political practice functions, we can change it and "recode" it, deconstructing its power relationships and emancipating ourselves from its compulsions and packaging guidelines.
The group is known for working with different media and entertainment formats. Grenzfurthner calls this "looking for the best weapon of mass distribution of an idea". Grenzfurthner is head of the Arse Elektronika festival in San Francisco, an annual academic and artistic conference and anthology series that focusses on sexuality and technology; the first conference was curated by Grenzfurthner in 2007 to answer questions about the impact of sexuality on technological innovation and adoption. Grenzfurthner is hosting Roboexotica, the international Festival for Cocktail-Robotics which invites researchers and artists to build machines that serve or mix cocktails. V. Vale calls Roboexotica "an ironic attempt to criticize techno-triumphalism and to dissect technological hypes."Grenzfurthner is head of Hedonistika, a festival for artistic food tech. The first installment was presented in Montréal at the 2014'Biennale internationale d'art numérique'; the second installment was presented in Holon, near Tel Aviv, at'Print Screen Festival'.
Grenzfurthner directed theatre plays and pieces of performance and interventionist art. Grenzfurther wrote and directed short films and is the CEO of film production company monochrom Propulsion Systems, he is member of the Austrian Director's Guild and the Association of Austrian Documentary Filmmakers. The first feature film he directed was the independent fantasy comedy Die Gstettensaga: The Rise of Echsenfriedl. Grenzfurther first feature documentary was Traceroute, followed by Glossary of Broken Dreams. Grenzfurther is involved in several feature films and working on Tycho, a farcical film musical about the life and times of eccentric astronomer Tycho Brahe. Grenzfurthner and Juliana Neuhuber are co-directing the upcoming sci-fi feature comedy Je Suis Auto. Grenzfurthner lectures at art institutions and political events, teaches at universities and mentors students, he has published books and articles on contemporary art, communication processes and philosophy including Mind and Matter: Comparative Approaches Towards Complexity, Do androids sleep with electric sheep?, Of Intercourse and Intracourse: Sexuality and the Techno-Social Sphere and Pr0nnovation?: Pornography and Technological Innovation.
Grenzfurthner published the much debated pamphlet "Hacking the Spaces", that dealt with exclusionist tendencies in the hackerspaces movement. Grenzfurther extended his critique through lectures at the 2012 and 2014 Hackers on Planet Earth conferences in New York City. Grenzfurthner has taken a comedic turn and performed at various venues, e.g. Vienna's Rabenhof Theater. Parts of his comedy show "Schicksalsjahre eines Nerds" form the basis of his documentary film Traceroute. Grenzfurther is a presenter and emcee for various industry events, guest performer at events like Goldenes Brett. Grenzfurthner has had lead parts in several theater plays, he performs in Andi Haller's feature film Zero Crash and Michael J. Epstein's and Sophia Cacciola's feature film Clickbait, he portrays one of the two lead charactes in his own film Je Suis Auto. Grenzfurthner was one of the core team members in the development process of netznetz, a new kind of community-based funding system for net culture and net art together with the culture department of the city government of Vienna.
He started the "Hackbus" community. Together with Florian Hufsky, Leo Findeisen and Juxi Leitner, Grenzfurthner co-organized the first international conference of the pirate parties. Grenzfurthner conceptualized and co-built a robot i