Necrophilia known as necrophilism, necrocoitus and thanatophilia, is a sexual attraction or sexual act involving corpses. It is classified as a paraphilia by ICD10 published by the WHO and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of the American Psychiatric Association. Rosman and Resnick reviewed information from 34 cases of necrophilia describing the individuals' motivations for their behaviors: these individuals reported the desire to possess a non-resisting and non-rejecting partner, reunions with a romantic partner, sexual attraction to corpses, comfort or overcoming feelings of isolation, or seeking self-esteem by expressing power over a homicide victim; the term'necrophilia' is thought to have been coined by Belgian physician Joseph Guislain in his Leçons Orales sur les Phrénopathies, in a lecture given around 1850, in reference to contemporary necrophile François Bertrand: It is within the category of the destructive madmen that one needs to situate certain patients to whom I would like to give the name of necrophiliacs.
The alienists have adopted, as a new form, the case of Sergeant Bertrand, the disinterrer of cadavers on whom all the newspapers have reported. However, don't think that we are dealing here with a form of phrenopathy which appears for the first time; the ancients, in speaking about lycanthropy, have cited examples to which one can more or less relate the case which has just attracted the public attention so strongly. The term was popularized about a decade by psychiatrist Bénédict Morel, who discussed Bertrand. In the ancient world, sailors returning corpses to their home country were accused of necrophilia. Singular accounts of necrophilia in history are sporadic, though written records suggest the practice was present within Ancient Egypt. Herodotus writes in The Histories that, to discourage intercourse with a corpse, ancient Egyptians left deceased beautiful women to decay for "three or four days" before giving them to the embalmers. Herodotus alluded to suggestions that Greek tyrant Periander had defiled the corpse of his wife, employing a metaphor: "Periander baked his bread in a cold oven."
Acts of necrophilia are depicted on ceramics from the Moche culture, which reigned in northern Peru from the first to eighth century CE. A common theme in these artifacts is the masturbation of a male skeleton by a living woman. Hittite law from the 16th century BC through to the 13th century BC explicitly permitted sex with the dead. In what is now Northeast China, the ethnic Xianbei emperor Murong Xi of the Later Yan state had intercourse with the corpse of his beloved empress Fu Xunying, after the latter was cold and put into the coffin. In Renaissance Italy, following the reputed moral collapse brought about by the Black Death and before the Roman Inquisition of the Counter-Reformation, the literature was replete with sexual references. In a notorious modern example, American serial killer Jeffrey Dahmer was a necrophiliac. Dahmer wanted to create a sex slave; when his attempts failed, his male victim died, he would keep the corpse until it decomposed beyond recognition, continuously masturbating and performing sexual intercourse on the body.
In order to be aroused, he had to murder his male victims before performing sexual intercourse with them. Dahmer stated that he only killed his victims because they wanted to leave after having sex, would be angry with him for drugging them. British serial killer Dennis Nilsen is considered to have been a necrophiliac. In the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition, intense sexual interest in corpses can be diagnosed under Other Specified Paraphilic Disorder when it causes marked distress or impairment in important areas of functioning. A ten-tier classification of necrophilia exists: Role players: People who get aroused from pretending their live partner is dead during sexual activity. Romantic necrophiliacs: Bereaved people who remain attached to their dead lover's body. Necrophiliac fantasizers: People who fantasize about necrophilia, but never have sex with a corpse. Tactile necrophiliacs: People who are aroused by touching or stroking a corpse, without engaging in intercourse.
Fetishistic necrophiliacs: People who remove objects or body parts from a corpse for sexual purposes, without engaging in intercourse. Necromutilomaniacs: People who derive pleasure from mutilating a corpse while masturbating, without engaging in intercourse. Opportunistic necrophiliacs: People who have no interest in necrophilia, but take the opportunity when it arises. Regular necrophiliacs: People who preferentially have intercourse with the dead. Homicidal necrophiliacs: Necrosadists, people who commit murder in order to have sex with the victim. Exclusive necrophiliacs: People who have an exclusive interest in sex with the dead, cannot perform at all for a living partner. Additionally, criminologist Lee Mellor's typology of homicidal necrophiles consists of eight categories, is based on the combination of two behavioral axes: destructive – preservative, cold – warm; this renders four categories to which Mellor adds an additional four: Category A, e.g. Ted Bundy, Jeffrey Dahmer Category B, e.g. Gary Ridgwa
Neisseria meningitidis referred to as meningococcus, is a Gram-negative bacterium that can cause meningitis and other forms of meningococcal disease such as meningococcemia, a life-threatening sepsis. It has been reported to be transmitted through oral sex and cause urethritis in men; the bacterium is referred to as a coccus because it is round, more diplococcus because of its tendency to form pairs. About 10% of adults are carriers of the bacteria in their nasopharynx; as an human pathogen it is the main cause of bacterial meningitis in children and young adults, causing developmental impairment and death in about 10% of cases. It causes the only form of bacterial meningitis known to occur epidemically Africa and Asia, it occurs worldwide in endemic form. N. Meningitidis is spread through saliva and respiratory secretions during coughing, kissing, chewing on toys and through sharing a source of fresh water, it infects its host cells by sticking to them with long thin extensions called pili and the surface-exposed proteins Opa and Opc and has several virulence factors.
Meningococcus can cause other forms of meningococcal disease. It produces general symptoms like fatigue and headache and can progress to neck stiffness and death in 10% of cases. Symptoms of meningococcal meningitis are confused with those caused by other bacteria, such as Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Suspicion of meningitis is a medical emergency and immediate medical assessment is recommended. Current guidance in the United Kingdom is that if a case of meningococcal meningitis or septicaemia is suspected intravenous antibiotics should be given and the ill person admitted to the hospital; this means that laboratory tests may be less to confirm the presence of Neisseria meningitidis as the antibiotics will lower the number of bacteria in the body. The UK guidance is based on the idea that the reduced ability to identify the bacteria is outweighed by reduced chance of death. Septicaemia caused by Neisseria meningitidis has received much less public attention than meningococcal meningitis though septicaemia has been linked to infant deaths.
Meningococcal septicaemia causes a purpuric rash, that does not lose its color when pressed with a glass and does not cause the classical symptoms of meningitis. This means. Septicaemia carries an approximate 50% mortality rate over a few hours from initial onset. Other severe complications include Waterhouse–Friderichsen syndrome, a massive bilateral, hemorrhage into the adrenal glands caused by fulminant meningococcemia, adrenal insufficiency, disseminated intravascular coagulation. Not all instances of a purpura-like rash are due to meningococcal septicaemia. N. meningitidis is a Gram-negative diplococcus since it has an outer and inner membranes with a thin layer of peptidoglycan in between. It is 0.6–1.0 micrometers in size. It tests positive for the enzyme cytochrome c oxidase. N. meningitidis is a part of the normal nonpathogenic flora in the nasopharynx of up to 5–15% of adults. It colonizes and infects only humans, has never been isolated from other animals; this is thought to stem from the bacterium's inability to get iron from sources other than human transferrin and lactoferrin.
Disease-causing strains are classified according to the antigenic structure of their polysaccharide capsule. Serotype distribution varies markedly around the world. Among the 13 identified capsular types of N. meningitidis, six account for most disease cases worldwide. Type A has been the most prevalent in Africa and Asia, but is rare/practically absent in North America. In the United States, serogroup B is the predominant cause of disease and mortality, followed by serogroup C; the multiple subtypes have hindered development of a universal vaccine for meningococcal disease. Lipooligosaccharide is a component of the outer membrane of N. meningitidis. This acts as an endotoxin and is responsible for septic shock and hemorrhage due to the destruction of red blood cells. Other virulence factors include a polysaccharide capsule which prevents host phagocytosis and aids in evasion of the host immune response, it infects the cell by sticking to it with long thin extensions called pili and the surface-exposed proteins Opa and Opc.
Meningococci produce an IgA protease, an enzyme that cleaves IgA class antibodies and thus allows the bacteria to evade a subclass of the humoral immune system. A hypervirulent strain was discovered in China, its impact is yet to be determined. Factor H binding protein, exhibited in N. meningitidis and some commensal species is the main inhibitor of the alternative complement pathway. FHbp protects meningococci from complement-mediated death in human serum experiments, but has been shown to protect meningococci from antimicrobial peptides in vitro. Factor H binding protein is key to the pathogenesis of N. meningitidis, is, important as a potential vaccine candidate. Porins are an important factor for complement inhibition for both pathogenic and commensal species. Porins are important for nutrient acquisition. Porins are recognized by TLR2, they bind complement factors. Cooperation with pili for CR3-mediated internalization is another function of porins. A
Naxos disease is a cutaneous condition characterized by a palmoplantar keratoderma. The prevalence of the syndrome is up to 1 in every 1000 people in the Greek islands, it has been associated with mutations in the genes encoding the proteins desmoplakin, desmocollin-2, SRC-interacting protein. A variation of Naxos syndrome is known as Carvajal syndrome. Olmsted syndrome List of cutaneous conditions List of conditions caused by problems with junctional proteins
Outline of exercise
____________Attention: THIS IS AN OUTLINE___________________________ part of the set of 740+ outlines listed at Portal:Contents/Outlines. Wikipedia outlines are a special type of list article, they make up one of Wikipedia's content navigation systems See Wikipedia:Outlines for more details. Further improvements to this outline are on the way...--> The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to exercise: Exercise – any bodily activity that enhances or maintains physical fitness and overall health and wellness. It is performed for various reasons including strengthening muscles and the cardiovascular system, honing athletic skills, weight loss or maintenance, as well as for the purpose of enjoyment. Frequent and regular physical exercise boosts the immune system, helps prevent the "diseases of affluence" such as heart disease, cardiovascular disease, Type 2 diabetes and obesity. Aerobic exercise – Aerobics Circuit training Cycling Hiking Running Skipping rope Swimming Walking Power walking Anaerobic exercise – Bodybuilding Eccentric training Functional training Sprint Weight training Strength training Quadriceps Leg extension Leg press Lunge Squat Hamstrings Deadlift Good-morning Leg curl Squat Calves Calf raise Pectorals Bench press Chest fly Dips Machine fly Push-up Lats and trapezius Bent-over row Chin-up Pulldown Pullup Seated row Shoulder shrug Supine row Deltoids Front raise Head stand into Handstand push-up Lateral raise Military press Rear delt raise Shoulder press Upright row Biceps Biceps curl Pull ups with a supinated grip Triceps Close-grip bench press Dip Pushdown Triceps extension Forearms Wrist curl Wrist extension Abdomen and obliques Crunch Leg raise Russian twist Sit-up Lower back Deadlift Good-morning Hyperextension Pelvis Vaginal weightlifting Extended length conditioning Calisthenics Abdominal exercise Calf-raises Crunches Dips Hyperextensions Jumping jacks Leg raises Lunges Plank Pull-ups Muscle-ups Push-ups Sit-ups Squat jumps Squats Stretching – Ballistic stretching Dynamic stretching PNF stretching Static stretching Passive stretching Altitude training Boxing training Circuit training Complex training Cross training Endurance training Long slow distance Grip strength training Interval training Plyometrics Strength training High intensity training Weight training Resistance training Training to failure Physical therapy Pilates Yoga Exercise trends Aerobic conditioning Neurobiological effects of physical exercise - improves: Executive function Memory Stress management Physical fitness, including improving and maintaining these aspects of it: Accuracy Agility Balance Coordination Endurance Flexibility Power Speed Stamina Strength Prevention – exercise helps prevent: Cancer Drug addiction Hypertension Major depressive disorder Neurodegenerative disorders Obesity Osteoporosis Type 2 Diabetes Cramps Dehydration Heat stroke Overtraining Sports injury Sprain – pull or rupture ligaments Strain – pull or rupture muscles Tendon rupture Achilles tendon rupture Reps – Sets – Workout – Warm up – yes Ripped – Buff – Recovery –NutritionalFormula – Dietary supplement – Protein – Whey protein – Energy drink – Snack bar – Amino acid – Creatine Vitamin B2 Vitamin B6 Vitamin B12BiologicalMuscle – Muscle tissue – Muscle fiber – Joint – Tendon – Aerobic exercise § History Bodybuilding § History Exercise § History Exercise physiology § History Exercise trends Fitness boot camp § History Fitness culture Physical culture Outdoor fitness § History List of exercise equipment Dumbbell Barbell Chin-up bar Kettlebell Treadmill Punching bag Metal bar Bench Barbell Bench Bowflex Bulgarian Bag Cable machine Captains of Crush Grippers Dip bar Dumbbell Halteres Indian clubs Iron rings IronMind Ivanko Barbell Company Kettlebell Leg press Power cage Shake Weight Smith machine Soloflex Total Gym Trap bar Universal Gym Equipment Weight machine York Barbell Exercise physiology Aerobic exercise Anaerobic exercise Exercise induced nausea Grip strength Muscle hypertrophy Overtraining Stretching Supercompensation Warming up Weight cutting Weight loss Remote physiological monitoring Body fat percentage Blood pressure Heart rate Pulse rate Respiration rate Fitness professional Personal trainer Weighted clothing Roger Bannister Lance Armstrong John Basedow Robyn Landis Joseph Pilates Susan Powter Arnold Schwarzenegger Jack LaLanne Erwan Le Corre Georges Hébert List of exercise equipment List of weight training exercises Outline of health Outline of nutrition Outline of sports Sportswear Yahoo!
Health Alberta Centre for Active Living Physical Activity @ Work website American College of Sports Medicine website