Outline of exercise
____________Attention: THIS IS AN OUTLINE___________________________ part of the set of 740+ outlines listed at Portal:Contents/Outlines. Wikipedia outlines are a special type of list article, they make up one of Wikipedia's content navigation systems See Wikipedia:Outlines for more details. Further improvements to this outline are on the way...--> The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to exercise: Exercise – any bodily activity that enhances or maintains physical fitness and overall health and wellness. It is performed for various reasons including strengthening muscles and the cardiovascular system, honing athletic skills, weight loss or maintenance, as well as for the purpose of enjoyment. Frequent and regular physical exercise boosts the immune system, helps prevent the "diseases of affluence" such as heart disease, cardiovascular disease, Type 2 diabetes and obesity. Aerobic exercise – Aerobics Circuit training Cycling Hiking Running Skipping rope Swimming Walking Power walking Anaerobic exercise – Bodybuilding Eccentric training Functional training Sprint Weight training Strength training Quadriceps Leg extension Leg press Lunge Squat Hamstrings Deadlift Good-morning Leg curl Squat Calves Calf raise Pectorals Bench press Chest fly Dips Machine fly Push-up Lats and trapezius Bent-over row Chin-up Pulldown Pullup Seated row Shoulder shrug Supine row Deltoids Front raise Head stand into Handstand push-up Lateral raise Military press Rear delt raise Shoulder press Upright row Biceps Biceps curl Pull ups with a supinated grip Triceps Close-grip bench press Dip Pushdown Triceps extension Forearms Wrist curl Wrist extension Abdomen and obliques Crunch Leg raise Russian twist Sit-up Lower back Deadlift Good-morning Hyperextension Pelvis Vaginal weightlifting Extended length conditioning Calisthenics Abdominal exercise Calf-raises Crunches Dips Hyperextensions Jumping jacks Leg raises Lunges Plank Pull-ups Muscle-ups Push-ups Sit-ups Squat jumps Squats Stretching – Ballistic stretching Dynamic stretching PNF stretching Static stretching Passive stretching Altitude training Boxing training Circuit training Complex training Cross training Endurance training Long slow distance Grip strength training Interval training Plyometrics Strength training High intensity training Weight training Resistance training Training to failure Physical therapy Pilates Yoga Exercise trends Aerobic conditioning Neurobiological effects of physical exercise - improves: Executive function Memory Stress management Physical fitness, including improving and maintaining these aspects of it: Accuracy Agility Balance Coordination Endurance Flexibility Power Speed Stamina Strength Prevention – exercise helps prevent: Cancer Drug addiction Hypertension Major depressive disorder Neurodegenerative disorders Obesity Osteoporosis Type 2 Diabetes Cramps Dehydration Heat stroke Overtraining Sports injury Sprain – pull or rupture ligaments Strain – pull or rupture muscles Tendon rupture Achilles tendon rupture Reps – Sets – Workout – Warm up – yes Ripped – Buff – Recovery –NutritionalFormula – Dietary supplement – Protein – Whey protein – Energy drink – Snack bar – Amino acid – Creatine Vitamin B2 Vitamin B6 Vitamin B12BiologicalMuscle – Muscle tissue – Muscle fiber – Joint – Tendon – Aerobic exercise § History Bodybuilding § History Exercise § History Exercise physiology § History Exercise trends Fitness boot camp § History Fitness culture Physical culture Outdoor fitness § History List of exercise equipment Dumbbell Barbell Chin-up bar Kettlebell Treadmill Punching bag Metal bar Bench Barbell Bench Bowflex Bulgarian Bag Cable machine Captains of Crush Grippers Dip bar Dumbbell Halteres Indian clubs Iron rings IronMind Ivanko Barbell Company Kettlebell Leg press Power cage Shake Weight Smith machine Soloflex Total Gym Trap bar Universal Gym Equipment Weight machine York Barbell Exercise physiology Aerobic exercise Anaerobic exercise Exercise induced nausea Grip strength Muscle hypertrophy Overtraining Stretching Supercompensation Warming up Weight cutting Weight loss Remote physiological monitoring Body fat percentage Blood pressure Heart rate Pulse rate Respiration rate Fitness professional Personal trainer Weighted clothing Roger Bannister Lance Armstrong John Basedow Robyn Landis Joseph Pilates Susan Powter Arnold Schwarzenegger Jack LaLanne Erwan Le Corre Georges Hébert List of exercise equipment List of weight training exercises Outline of health Outline of nutrition Outline of sports Sportswear Yahoo!
Health Alberta Centre for Active Living Physical Activity @ Work website American College of Sports Medicine website
Yersinia enterocolitica is a Gram-negative bacillus-shaped bacterium, belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae. It becomes nonmotile at normal human body temperature. Y. enterocolitica infection causes the disease yersiniosis, an animal-borne disease occurring in humans, as well as in a wide array of animals such as cattle, deer and birds. Many of these animals become carriers; the bacterium infects the host by sticking to its cells using trimeric autotransporter adhesins. The genus Yersinia includes 11 species: Y. pestis, Y. pseudotuberculosis, Y. enterocolitica, Y. frederiksenii, Y. intermedia, Y. kristensenii, Y. bercovieri, Y. mollaretii, Y. rohdei, Y. aldovae, Y. ruckeri. Among them, only Y. pestis, Y. pseudotuberculosis, certain strains of Y. enterocolitica are of pathogenic importance for humans and certain warm-blooded animals, whereas the other species are of environmental origin and may, at best, act as opportunists. However, Yersinia strains can be isolated from clinical materials, so they have to be identified at the species level.
Y. enterocolitica is a heterogeneous group of strains, which are traditionally classified by biotyping into six biogroups on the basis of phenotypic characteristics, by serotyping into more than 57 O serogroups, on the basis of their O surface antigen. Five of the six biogroups are regarded as pathogens. However, only a few of these serogroups have been associated with disease in either humans or animals. Strains that belong to serogroups O:3, O:5,27, O:8, O:9 are most isolated worldwide from human samples. However, the most important Y. enterocolitica serogroup in many European countries is serogroup O:3 followed by O:9, whereas the serogroup O:8 is detected in the United States. Y. enterocolitica is widespread in nature, occurring in reservoirs ranging from the intestinal tracts of numerous mammals, avian species, cold-blooded species, from terrestrial and aquatic niches. Most environmental isolates are avirulent. In addition, sheep, wild rodents, environmental water may be a reservoir of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica strains.
Human pathogenic strains are confined to the intestinal tract and lead to enteritis/diarrhea. The portal of entry is the gastrointestinal tract; the organism is acquired by insufficiently cooked pork or contaminated water, meat, or milk. Acute Y. enterocolitica infections lead to mild self-limiting enterocolitis or terminal ileitis and adenitis in humans. Symptoms may include watery or bloody diarrhea and fever, resembling appendicitis or salmonellosis or shigellosis. After oral uptake, Yersinia species invade Peyer's patches. From here they can disseminate further to mesenteric lymph nodes causing lymphadenopathy; this condition can be confused with appendicitis. In immunosuppressed individuals, they can disseminate from the gut to the liver and spleen and form abscesses; because Yersinia species are siderophilic bacteria, people with hereditary hemochromatosis are more susceptible to infection with Yersinia. In fact, the most common contaminant of stored blood is Y. enterocolitica. See yersiniosis for further details.
Yersiniosis is self-limiting and does not require treatment. For sepsis or severe focal infections if associated with immunosuppression, the recommended regimen includes doxycycline in combination with an aminoglycoside. Other antibiotics active against Y. enterocolitica include trimethoprim-sulfamethoxasole, fluoroquinolones and chloramphenicol. Y. enterocolitica is resistant to penicillin G, cefalotin due to beta-lactamase production. Y. enterocolitica infections are sometimes followed by chronic inflammatory diseases such as arthritis, erythema nodosum, reactive arthritis. This is most because of some immune-mediated mechanism. Y. Enterocolitica seems to be associated with autoimmune Graves-Basedow thyroiditis. Whilst indirect evidence exists, direct causative evidence is limited. Y. Enterocolitica is not a major cause of this disease but may contribute to the development of thyroid autoimmunity arising for other reasons in genetically susceptible individuals. Y. Enterocolitica infection has been suggested to be not the cause of autoimmune thyroid disease but rather an associated condition, with both sharing a common inherited susceptibility.
More the role for Y. enterocolitica has been disputed. Yersinia enterocolitica genomes and related information at PATRIC, a Bioinformatics Resource Center funded by NIAID "Yersinia enterocolitica". NCBI Taxonomy Browser. 630. Type strain of Yersinia enterocolitica subsp. Enterocolitica at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase
Yersinia pestis is a gram-negative, rod-shaped coccobacillus bacteria, with no spores. It is a facultative anaerobic organism, it causes the disease plague, which takes three main forms: pneumonic and bubonic plagues. All three forms were responsible for a number of high-mortality epidemics throughout human history, including: the sixth century's Plague of Justinian; these plagues originated in China and were transmitted west via trade routes. Recent research indicates that the pathogen may have been the cause of what is described as the Neolithic Decline, when European populations declined significantly; this would push the date to much earlier and might be indicative of an origin in Europe rather than Eurasia. Y. pestis was discovered in 1894 by Alexandre Yersin, a Swiss/French physician and bacteriologist from the Pasteur Institute, during an epidemic of the plague in Hong Kong. Yersin was a member of the Pasteur school of thought. Kitasato Shibasaburō, a German-trained Japanese bacteriologist who practised Koch's methodology, was engaged at the time in finding the causative agent of the plague.
However, Yersin linked plague with Y. pestis. Named Pasteurella pestis in the past, the organism was renamed Yersinia pestis in 1944; every year, thousands of cases of the plague are still reported to the World Health Organization, although with proper treatment, the prognosis for victims is now much better. A five- to six-fold increase in cases occurred in Asia during the time of the Vietnam War due to the disruption of ecosystems and closer proximity between people and animals; the plague is now found in sub-Saharan Africa and Madagascar, areas which now account for over 95% of reported cases. The plague has a detrimental effect on nonhuman mammals. In the United States, mammals such as the black-tailed prairie dog and the endangered black-footed ferret are under threat. Y. pestis is a nonmotile, stick-shaped, facultative anaerobic bacterium with bipolar staining that produces an antiphagocytic slime layer. Similar to other Yersinia species, it tests negative for urease, lactose fermentation, indole.
The closest relative is the gastrointestinal pathogen Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, more distantly Yersinia enterocolitica. The complete genomic sequence is available for two of the three subspecies of Y. pestis: strain KIM, strain CO92. As of 2006, the genomic sequence of a strain of biovar Antiqua has been completed. Similar to the other pathogenic strains, signs exist of loss of function mutations; the chromosome of strain KIM is 4,600,755 base pairs long. Like Y. pseudotuberculosis and Y. enterocolitica, Y. pestis is host to the plasmid pCD1. It hosts two other plasmids, pPCP1 and pMT1 that are not carried by the other Yersinia species. PFra codes for a phospholipase D, important for the ability of Y. pestis to be transmitted by fleas. PPla codes for a protease, that activates plasmin in human hosts and is a important virulence factor for pneumonic plague. Together, these plasmids, a pathogenicity island called HPI, encode several proteins that cause the pathogenesis, for which Y. pestis is famous.
Among other things, these virulence factors are required for bacterial adhesion and injection of proteins into the host cell, invasion of bacteria in the host cell, acquisition and binding of iron harvested from red blood cells. Y. pestis is thought to be descended from Y. pseudotuberculosis, differing only in the presence of specific virulence plasmids. A comprehensive and comparative proteomics analysis of Y. pestis strain KIM was performed in 2006. The analysis focused on the transition to a growth condition mimicking growth in host cells. Numerous bacterial small noncoding RNAs have been identified to play regulatory functions; some can regulate the virulence genes. Some 63 novel putative sRNAs were identified through deep sequencing of the Y. pestis sRNA-ome. Among them was Yersinia-specific Ysr141. Ysr141 sRNA was shown to regulate the synthesis of the type III secretion system effector protein YopJ; the Yop-Ysc T3SS is a critical component of virulence for Yersinia species. Many novel sRNAs were identified from Y. pestis grown in vitro and in the infected lungs of mice suggesting they play role in bacterial physiology or pathogenesis.
Among them sR035 predicted to pair with SD region and transcription initiation site of a thermo-sensitive regulator ymoA, sR084 predicted to pair with fur, ferric uptake regulator. Intergenic RNA thermometer In the urban and sylvatic cycles of Y. pestis, most of the spreading occurs between rodents and fleas. In the sylvatic cycle, the rodent is wild, but in the urban cycle, the rodent is the brown rat. In addition, Y. pestis can spread from the urban environment and back. Transmission to humans is through the bite of infected fleas. If the disease has progressed to the pneumonic form, humans can spread the bacterium to others by coughing and sneezing. Several species of rodents serve as the main reservoir for Y. pes