Kozhikode District or Calicut district is a district of Kerala state, on the southwest coast of India. The city of Kozhikode known as Calicut, is the district headquarters; the district is 38.25% urbanised. Kozhikode district is bordered by the districts of Kannur and Mahé to the north, Wayanad to the east, Malappuram to the south; the Arabian Sea lies to the west and Western Ghats stretches towards east. Vavulmala is the highest peak in the district, it lies between latitudes 11° 08'N and 11° 50'N and longitudes 75° 30'E and 76° 8'E. In 2001 the district was divided into four taluks: Kozhikode, Vatakara and Thamarassery. By the 2011 census there are 12 block panchayats: Balusseri, Koduvally, Kunnamangalam, Melady, Perambraa, Thodannur and Vatakara. Present-day Kozhikode District was among the territories ceded to the British East India Company by Tipu Sultan of Mysore in 1792, at the conclusion of the Third Anglo-Mysore War; the newly acquired British possessions on the Malabar Coast were organized into Malabar District, which included the present-day districts of Kannur, Malappuram and Wayanad.
Kozhikode served as the administrative headquarters of the district. Malabar District was part of a province of British India. After India's Independence in 1947, Madras Presidency was renamed Madras State; when Madras state was divided along linguistic lines by the State Names Reorganisation Act, Malabar District was combined with the erstwhile state of Travancore-Cochin and Kasaragod District to form the state of Kerala on 1 November 1956. Malabar District was considered too large for effective administration, it was divided into the districts of Kozhikode and Palakkad on 1 January 1957. The district had five taluks, Koyilandy, Kozhikode and Tirur. On 16 June 1969, Tirur Taluks became part of the newly created Malappuram District. South Wayanad, which forms the southern portion of present-day Wayanad District, was added to Kozhikode for a time, but in 1980 became part of newly created Wayanad District; the history of the district is intertwined with the history of the city of Kozhikode. Calicut is the anglicized form of Kalikat, the name used by Mappilas to refer to Kozhikode.
It was called the Cock Fort, a usage that may have come from kozhi kodu. According to the historian K. V. Krishnan Iyer, the word Kozhikode is derived from koyil kotai, meaning'Fortified Palace'. Koyilkotai further evolved into Koliykode; the ports of the Malabar Coast have participated in the Indian Ocean trade of spices and other goods for over two millennia. Kozhikode emerged as the centre of an independent kingdom in the 14th century, whose ruler was known as the Zamorin. During the Yong Le era of the Ming Dynasty of China, Admiral Zheng He and his treasure fleet visited Kozhikode, their visits were documented by on-board Arab language translators Ma Huan, Fei Xin and Gong Zheng. Each one of them published a book documented their visits including Calicut. Ma Huan's book Ying yai Sheng lan contains the following observations of Kozhikode: Calicut was a large kingdom on the West Ocean, bordering Coimbatore kingdom to the east, Kochi to the south, Honavar to the north; the king of Calicut was a Buddhist.
His chiefs were Muslims. The throne passes to the king's sister's son. In the fifth year of Yong Le 1407, the emperor of Ming dynasty ordered Admiral Zheng He to deliver an imperial honor to King of Calicut, with grant of silver seal, promoted the chiefs with titles and awards of hats and girdles of different grades. Admiral Zheng He erected a pavilion with ceremonial stone tablet in Calicut to celebrate this event; the king silver coins as currency. The people of Calicut were trustworthy; the people of Calicut made silk out of silkworm and dyed silk into colors. The main produce of Calicut were turnips, ginger, eggplants in four seasons; the king of Calicut ordered craftsmen to draw fifty ounces of gold into hair-like fine threads, weaved them into ribbon to make a gold girdle embedded with pearls and precious stones of all sort of colors, sent envoy Naina to present the gold girdle to the Ming emperor as tribute. According to Ming dynasty Imperial Guard Recruitment Record, Nanking area town guard chief Shaban was a native of Calicut.
He was promoted on his return. Another officer Shasozu from Nanking military division was a native from Calicut, who joined Zheng He's expedition and was promoted. Admiral Zheng He re-visited Calicut several times. In April 1433, during his 6th and last expedition, he died in Calicut; the ceremonial stone tablet erected by Zheng. Trade with kingdoms of Asia and the Middle East made Kozhikode a popular trading center. Vasco da Gama landed at Kappad in May 1498, as the leader of a trade mission from Portugal and was received by the Zamorin himself. During the 16th century the Portuguese set up trading posts to the north in Kannur and to the south in Kochi. However, the Zamorin resisted the establishment of a permanent Portuguese presence in the city. In 1503 a Portuguese trading post was built in Chaliyam on the mouth of the river Chaliyar with th
Tamil Nadu is one of the 29 states of India. Its capital and largest city is Chennai. Tamil Nadu lies in the southernmost part of the Indian subcontinent and is bordered by the union territory of Puducherry and the South Indian states of Kerala and Andhra Pradesh, it is bounded by the Eastern Ghats on the north, by the Nilgiri Mountains, the Meghamalai Hills, Kerala on the west, by the Bay of Bengal in the east, by the Gulf of Mannar and the Palk Strait on the southeast, by the Indian Ocean on the south. The state shares a maritime border with the nation of Sri Lanka. Tamil Nadu is the sixth largest by population, it has a high HDI ranking among Indian states as of 2017. The economy of Tamil Nadu is the second-largest state economy in India with ₹17.25 lakh crore in gross domestic product after Maharashtra and a per capita GDP of ₹167,000. It was ranked as one of the top seven developed states in India based on a "Multidimensional Development Index" in a 2013 report published by the Reserve Bank of India.
Its official language is Tamil, one of the longest-surviving classical languages in the world. The region was ruled by several empires, including the three great empires – Chola and Pandyan empires, which shape the region's cuisine and architecture; the British Colonial rule during the modern period led to the emergence of Chennai known as Madras, as a world-class city. Modern-day Tamil Nadu was formed in 1956 after the reorganization of states on linguistic lines; the state is home to a number of historic buildings, multi-religious pilgrimage sites, hill stations and three World Heritage sites. Archaeological evidence points to this area being one of the longest continuous habitations in the Indian peninsula. In Attirampakkam, archaeologists from the Sharma Centre for Heritage Education excavated ancient stone tools which suggests that a humanlike population existed in the Tamil Nadu region somewhere around 300,000 years before homo sapiens arrived from Africa. In Adichanallur, 24 km from Tirunelveli, archaeologists from the Archaeological Survey of India unearthed 169 clay urns containing human skulls, bones, grains of rice, charred rice and celts of the Neolithic period, 3,800 years ago.
The ASI archaeologists have proposed that the script used at that site is "very rudimentary" Tamil Brahmi. Adichanallur has been announced as an archaeological site for further excavation and studies. About 60 per cent of the total epigraphical inscriptions found by the ASI in India are from Tamil Nadu, most of these are in the Tamil language. A Neolithic stone celt with the Indus script on it was discovered at Sembian-Kandiyur near Mayiladuthurai in Tamil Nadu. According to epigraphist Iravatham Mahadevan, this was the first datable artefact bearing the Indus script to be found in Tamil Nadu. According to Mahadevan, the find was evidence of the use of the Harappan language, therefore that the "Neolithic people of the Tamil country spoke a Harappan language"; the date of the celt was estimated at between 1500 BCE and 2000 BCE. Though this finding remains contested,like the claim of historian Michel Danino who rubbishes the theory of the latter’s southward migration in a paper he presented at the International Symposium on Indus Civilisation and Tamil Language in 2007.
He wrote: ‘There is no archaeological evidence of a southward migration through the Deccan after the end of the urban phase of the Indus- Sarasvati civilization… The only actual evidence of movements at that period is of Late Harappans migrating towards the Ganges plains and towards Gujarat... Migration apart, there is a complete absence of Harappan artefacts and features south of the Vindhyas: no Harappan designs on pottery, no Harappan seals and ornaments, no trace of Harappan urbanism… Cultural continuity from Harappan to historical times has been documented in North India, but not in the South… This means, in effect, that the south-bound Late Harappans would have reverted from an advanced urban bronze-age culture to a Neolithic one! Their migration to South would thus constitute a double “archaeological miracle”: apart from being undetectable on the ground, it implies that the migrants experienced a total break with all their traditions; such a phenomenon is unheard of.’ The early history of the people and rulers of Tamil Nadu is a topic in Tamil literary sources known as Sangam literature.
Numismatic and literary sources corroborate that the Sangam period lasted for about eight centuries, from 500 BC to AD 300. The recent excavations in Alagankulam archaeological site suggests that Alagankulam is one of the important trade centre or port city in Sangam Era; the Bhakti movement originated in Tamil speaking region of South India and spread northwards through India. The Bhakti Movement was a rapid growth of bhakti beginning in this region with the Saiva Nayanars and the Vaisnava Alvars who spread bhakti poetry and devotion; the Alwars and Nayanmars were instrumental in propagating the Bhakti tradition. During the 4th to 8th centuries, Tamil Nadu saw the rise of the Pallava dynasty under Mahendravarman I and his son Mamalla Narasimhavarman I; the Pallavas ruled parts of South India with Kanchipuram as their capital. Tamil architecture reached its peak during Pallava rule. Narasimhavarman II built the Shore Temple, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Much the Pallavas were replaced by the Chola dynasty as the dominant kingdom in the 9th century and they in turn were replaced by the Pandyan Dynasty in the 13th century.
The Pandyan capital Madurai was in the deep s
Indian Police Service
The Indian Police Service or IPS, is an All India Service for policing. It replaced the Indian Imperial Police in 1948, a year after India became independent from Great Britain. Along with the Indian Administrative Service and the Indian Forest Service, the IPS is one of the three All India Services — its cadre can be employed by both the Union Government and the individual States; the service provides leaders and commanders to staff the state police. Its members are the senior officers of the police; the Bureau of police Research and Development is responsible for research and development of the police force in India. In 1861, the British Government introduced the Indian Councils Act, 1861; the act created the foundation of a professionalised police bureaucracy in India. It introduced, a new cadre of police, called Superior Police Services known as the Indian Imperial Police; the highest rank in the service was the inspector general for each province. The rank of inspector general was equated and ranked with brigadier, similar ranks in the Indian Armed Forces, as per central warrant of precedence in 1937.
In 1902–03, a police commission was established for the Police reforms under Sir Andrew Fraser and Lord Curzon. It recommended the appointment of Indians at officer level in the police. Indians could rise only to the ranks of Inspector of police, the senior N. C. O. Position; however they were not part of Indian Imperial Police. From 1920, Indian Imperial Police was open to Indians and the entrance examination for the service was conducted both in India and England. Prior to Independence, senior police officers belonging to the Imperial Police were appointed by the Secretary of State on the basis of a competitive examination; the first open civil service examination for admission to the service was held in England in June 1893 and the ten top candidates were appointed as probationers in the Indian Police. It is not possible to pinpoint an exact date. Around 1907, the Secretary of State's officers were directed to wear the letters "IP" on their epaulettes in order to distinguish them from the other officers not recruited by the Secretary of State through examination.
In this sense, 1907 could be regarded as the starting point. In 1948, a year after India gained independence; the modern Indian Administrative Service was created under the Article 312 in part XIV of the Constitution of India. In 1972, Kiran Bedi joined the IPS; as per media reports, there is a massive shortage of IPS officers in India, amounting to nearly 19% to 22% of sanctioned strength. Few officers have been awarded United Nations Medal and have participated in Indian Army United Nations peacekeeping missions; the First Police Commission, appointed on 17 August 1865, contained detailed guidelines for the desired system of police in India and defined the police as a governmental department to maintain order, enforce the law, to prevent and detect crime. The Indian Police Service is not a force itself but a service providing leaders and commanders to staff the state police and all-India Central Armed Police Forces, its members are the senior officers of the police. With the passage of time Indian Police Service's objectives were updated and redefined, the current roles and functions of an Indian Police Service Officer are as follows: To fulfil duties based on border responsibilities, in the areas of maintenance of public peace and order, crime prevention and detection, collection of intelligence, VIP security, counter-terrorism, border policing, railway policing, tackling smuggling, drug trafficking, economic offences, corruption in public life, disaster management, enforcement of socio-economic legislation, bio-diversity and protection of environmental laws etc.
Leading and commanding the Indian Intelligence Agencies like Research and Analysis Wing, Intelligence Bureau, Central Bureau of Investigation, Criminal Investigation Department etc. Indian Federal Law Enforcement Agencies and Armed Police Forces in all the states and union territories. Leading and commanding the Central Armed Police Forces which include the Central Police Organisations such as Border Security Force, Central Reserve Police Force, Indo-Tibetan Border Police, National Security Guard, Central Industrial Security Force, Vigilance Organisations and Indian Federal Law Enforcement Agencies. To interact and coordinate with the members of other All India Services and with the Indian Revenue Service and with the Indian Armed Forces with the Indian Army. To lead and command the force with courage, dedication and a strong sense of service to the people. Endeavor to inculcate in the police forces under their command such values and norms as would help them serve the people better. Inculcate integrity of the highest order, sensitivity to aspirations of people in a fast-changing social and economic milieu, respect for human rights, broad liberal perspective of law and justice and high standard of professionalism.
IPS officers are recruited from Civil Services Examination. They are promoted from State Police Services and DANIPS. However, at present, recruitment from Limited Competitive Examination has been put on hold; the training of IPS officer recruits is conducted at Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel National Police Academy in Hyderabad. The authorised cadre strength of Indian Police Service is 4920.. The Civil List of IPS officers is an updated list maintained by the Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India that list
Palakkad District is one of the 14 districts of the Indian state of Kerala. It is the largest district in Kerala from 2006; the city of Palakkad is the district headquarters. Palakkad is bordered on the northwest by the Malappuram District, on the southwest by the Thrissur District, on the northeast by The Nilgiris District and on the east by Coimbatore district of Tamil Nadu; the district is 24.4% urbanized according to the census of 2011. The district is nicknamed "the granary of Kerala" and "Rice bowl of Kerala". In earlier times, Palakkad was known as Palakkattussery; some believe, connecting the ancient Jain Temple in the town, that the sacred language Pali gave the name. But many concluded that Palakkad is derived from'Pala', an indigenous tree which once densely occupied the land. In 1757, to check the invasion of the Zamorin of Calicut, the Palakkad Raja sought the help of Hyder Ali of Mysore, his son Tipu Sultan became the ruler. Palakkad is the gateway to Kerala due to the presence of the Palakkad Gap, in the Western Ghats.
The total area of the district is 4,480 km2, 11.5% of the state's area which makes it the largest district of Kerala. Out of the total area of 4,480 km2, about 1,360 km2 of land is covered by forests. Most parts of the district fall in the midland region, except the Nelliampathy-Parambikulam area in the Chittur taluk in the south and Attappadi-Malampuzha area in the north, which are hilly and fall in the highland region; the climate is pleasant for most parts of the year, the exception is the summer months. There is sufficient rainfall and it receives more rainfall than the extreme southern districts of Kerala; the district is blessed with many small and medium rivers, which are tributaries of the Bharathapuzha River. A number of dams have been built across the largest being the Malampuzha dam; the largest in volume capacity is the Parambikulam Dam Taluks. Members of Parliament; the headquarters of the District Panchayat is at Palakkad Municipal town. The District Panchayat office building is near the Civil Station.
Indian Institute of Technology Palakkad started operations in its temporary campus at Kanjikode, Palakkad on August 3, 2015. Many industries are located in the Kanjikode Industrial Area, termed as the second largest industrial area in Kerala. Many central government institutions are located in this area. Palakkad became the first paperless revenue district by computerizing the collectorate, five taluks and 156 village offices, it became the first computerized collectorate in the country implemented under the ‘DC Suit’ system and the first district where all the five taluk offices were computerized under the ‘Taluk Suit’ and connected with the Collectorate. There are various industries in the district; the Public Sector companies and Instrumentation Limited have plants in Kanjikode, 12 kilometres from Palakkad. Other large companies are the BPL group, Pepsi. There is an Industrial Area in Kanjikode with a number of medium industries. Palakkad is the one of the most agrarian districts in Kerala. Palakkad is known for paddy cultivation.
Paddy is cultivated in around 83,998 hectares in the district and occupies the first position in the production of rice in the state. Palakkad occupies the first position in the state for the production of groundnut, turmeric, vegetables, mango, banana and cotton. Rubber, areca nut, black pepper are cultivated extensively like other parts of Kerala. According to the 2011 census, Palakkad district has a population of 2,810,892 equal to the nation of Jamaica or the state Utah in the U. S; this gives it a ranking of 138th in India. The district has a population density of 627 inhabitants per square kilometre, its population growth rate over the decade 2001–2011 was 7.39%. Palakkad has a sex ratio of 1067 females for every 1000 males, a literacy rate of 89.32%. Palakkad city has a literacy rate of 94.20% The official language Malayalam is spoken in the district,while Kerala Iyers prefer to speak at home, a dialect of Tamil influenced by Malayalam syntax and Malayalam accent. Anita Nair E Sreedharan Kunchan Nambiar K. P. Kesava Menon Methil Devika M. T. Vasudevan Nair O. V. Vijayan Shashi Tharoor T. N. Seshan Vallathol Narayana Menon Palakkad town consists of two railway stations, namely Palakkad Town railway station and Palakkad Junction Railway station.
Palakkad Junction is an important station on the Southern Railway. The office of the Palakkad Division of the Southern Railway is situated near Palakkad Junction Railway Station; the trains coming from other parts of India are diverted to north and south Kerala from Shoranur Junction in Palakkad District. From here, there is train service to Calicut, Trivandrum and Nilambur. Shoranur Junction has rail connections to Mangalore and the Konkan Railway, enabling travel towards Goa and Bombay. Palakkad has a medium grade network of roads; the Salem-Kanyakumari National Highway 47 and the Palakkad-Kozhikode National Highway 213 run through the district. Another important road is the Palakkad – Ponnani road which connects NH 47 and NH 17; the nearest airport is at Coimbatore, 60 kilometres (37 mile
A district is a type of administrative division that, in some countries, is managed by local government. Across the world, areas known as "districts" vary in size, spanning regions or counties, several municipalities, subdivisions of municipalities, school district, or political district. A municipal utility district is a special-purpose district or other jurisdiction that provides services to district residents. Local residents may vote to establish a municipal utility district, represented by a board of directors elected by constituents; as governmental bodies, they are nonprofit. In the US, public utility districts have similar functions to Municipal utility districts, but are created by a local government body such as a city or county, have no authority to levy taxes, they provide public utilities to the residents of that district. PUDs are created by a local government body, such as county, or metropolitan service area; the districts are non-profit. PUDs are governed by a commission, which may be appointed or elected.
In Afghanistan, a district is a subdivision of a province. There are 400 districts in the country. Electoral districts are used in state elections. Districts were used in several states as cadastral units for land titles; some were used as squatting districts. New South Wales had several different types of districts used in the 21st century. In Austria, the word Bezirk is used with different meanings in three different contexts: Some of the tasks of the administrative branch of the national and regional governments are fulfilled by the 95 district administrative offices; the area a district administrative office is responsible for is although informally, called a district. A number of statutory cities 15, are not served by any district administrative office, their respective municipal bureaucracies handle the tasks performed by the district administrative office. The cities of Vienna and Graz are divided into municipal districts, assisting the respective municipal governments. In Vienna, the constituents of each district elect a district council.
Although the city vests its districts with a limited amount of budgetary autonomy, district councils and chairpersons have little real responsibility. In particular, they do not legislate. Most of the districts of Vienna were independent municipalities at some point. From the point of view of the judiciary of Austria, the country is subdivided into 115 judicial districts, each corresponding to one of the country's 115 lowest-level trial courts. Bangladeshi districts are local administrative units. In all, there are 64 districts in Bangladesh. There were 21 greater districts with several subdivisions in each district. In 1984, the government made all these subdivisions into districts; each district has several sub districts called Upazila in Bengali. In Belgian municipalities with more than 100,000 inhabitants, on initiative of the local council, sub-municipal administrative entities with elected councils may be created; as such, only Antwerp, having over 460,000 inhabitants, became subdivided into nine districts.
The Belgian arrondissements, an administrative level between province and municipality, or the lowest judicial level, are in English sometimes called districts as well. Bhutanese districts are local administrative units consisting of village blocks called gewog; some have subdistricts called dungkhag. In Bosnia and Herzegovina, a district is a self-governing administrative unit. Brčko District in northeastern Bosnia and Herzegovina is formally part of both the Republika Srpska and the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina; the Assembly of the Brčko District has 29 seats. Brazilian municipalities are subdivided into districts. Small municipalities have only one urban district, which contains the city itself, consisting of the seat of the local government, where the municipality's prefeitura and câmara de vereadores are located; the rural districts and groups of urban districts may present a sub local Executive body, named subprefeitura. A district is known locally as daerah and it is the first-level administrative division of Brunei.
There are four districts in the country, namely Brunei-Muara, Tutong and Temburong. Each district is administered by a Jabatan Daerah, headed by a Pegawai Daerah. All district offices are government departments under the Ministry of Home Affairs. In Alberta, the municipal districts and improvement districts are types of rural municipalities, they are recognized as census subdivisions by Statistics Canada, which form parts of census divisions. In the province of British Columbia, there are several kinds of administrative districts by that name; the usual usage is a reference to district municipalities, which are a class of municipality in the same hierarchy as city, town, or village. Most are styled, e.g. "District of Mission" or "District of Wells", though some are styled, e.g. "Corporation of Delta" or "Township of Langley". Within the area of municipal powers, regional districts – which
India known as the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh largest country by area and with more than 1.3 billion people, it is the second most populous country as well as the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives, while its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia; the Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE. In the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, Buddhism and Jainism arose. Early political consolidations took place under the Gupta empires. In the medieval era, Zoroastrianism and Islam arrived, Sikhism emerged, all adding to the region's diverse culture.
Much of the north fell to the Delhi Sultanate. The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal Empire. In the mid-18th century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, in the mid-19th under British Crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance and led to India's independence in 1947. In 2017, the Indian economy was the world's sixth largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the fastest-growing major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, corruption and inadequate public healthcare. A nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the second largest standing army in the world and ranks fifth in military expenditure among nations. India is a federal republic governed under a parliamentary system and consists of 29 states and 7 union territories.
A pluralistic and multi-ethnic society, it is home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindush, equivalent to the Sanskrit word Sindhu, the historical local appellation for the Indus River; the ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as "The people of the Indus". The geographical term Bharat, recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations, it is a modernisation of the historical name Bharatavarsha, which traditionally referred to the Indian subcontinent and gained increasing currency from the mid-19th century as a native name for India. Hindustan is a Middle Persian name for India, it was introduced into India by the Mughals and used since then. Its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety; the name may refer to either the northern part of India or the entire country.
The earliest known human remains in South Asia date to about 30,000 years ago. Nearly contemporaneous human rock art sites have been found in many parts of the Indian subcontinent, including at the Bhimbetka rock shelters in Madhya Pradesh. After 6500 BCE, evidence for domestication of food crops and animals, construction of permanent structures, storage of agricultural surplus, appeared in Mehrgarh and other sites in what is now Balochistan; these developed into the Indus Valley Civilisation, the first urban culture in South Asia, which flourished during 2500–1900 BCE in what is now Pakistan and western India. Centred around cities such as Mohenjo-daro, Harappa and Kalibangan, relying on varied forms of subsistence, the civilization engaged robustly in crafts production and wide-ranging trade. During the period 2000–500 BCE, many regions of the subcontinent transitioned from the Chalcolithic cultures to the Iron Age ones; the Vedas, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism, were composed during this period, historians have analysed these to posit a Vedic culture in the Punjab region and the upper Gangetic Plain.
Most historians consider this period to have encompassed several waves of Indo-Aryan migration into the subcontinent from the north-west. The caste system, which created a hierarchy of priests and free peasants, but which excluded indigenous peoples by labeling their occupations impure, arose during this period. On the Deccan Plateau, archaeological evidence from this period suggests the existence of a chiefdom stage of political organisation. In South India, a progression to sedentary life is indicated by the large number of megalithic monuments dating from this period, as well as by nearby traces of agriculture, irrigation tanks, craft traditions. In the late Vedic period, around the 6th century BCE, the small states and chiefdoms of the Ganges Plain and the north-western regions had consolidated into 16 major oligarchies and monarchies that were known as the mahajanapadas; the emerging urbanisation gave rise to non-Vedic religious movements, two of which became independent religions. Jainism came into prominence during the life of Mahavira.
Buddhism, based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha, attracted followers from all social classes excepting the middle