Victoria is a small district in the City of Westminster in central London, named after Victoria Street and Victoria Station and therefore, after Queen Victoria. The name is used to describe streets adjoining or nearly adjoining, including Victoria Street, Buckingham Palace Road, Wilton Road, Grosvenor Gardens, Victoria consists predominantly of commercial property and private and social housing, with retail uses along the main streets. Victoria Coach Station,900 yards southwest of the station, provides road-coach services to long-distance UK. Victoria Street runs on an east–west axis from Victoria station to Broad Sanctuary at Westminster Abbey, Cardinal Place, across the street from Westminster Cathedral, opened in 2006 and contains a selection of restaurants and shops, including a Marks and Spencer store. Further along the street, there is a large House of Fraser department store opposite Westminster City Hall, the area formed part of the parish of St George Hanover Square. Long before Cardinal Place opposite the cathedral came into being there was a brewery based at the western end of Victoria Street.
From the early 17th century it started off as a small brewhouse with properties that once were part of St Jamess Palace and this substantially grew and was bought and owned by Watney & Co. They built lodgings around the brewery as well as amenities for their staff to use, by the end of the 19th century they were employing a sizeable number of staff. Part of a slum, dubbed Devils Acre by Charles Dickens, was demolished to construct Victoria Street, Victoria Station was built in 1861. According to his biography Norman Wisdom slept near the statue of Marshal Foch by the bus station at the end of the street when his parents split up at the age of 9. Before going into comedy he worked as a boy in the grand Artillery Mansions on Victoria Street which was a grand hotel. In the 1980s it went into decay and became a squat - and in the 1990s was gutted, Victoria Palace Theatre has been in its present site since 1832. It was originally known as Moys Music Hall but after Victoria station was built it got demolished and it was demolished again in 1911 due to modernisation.
It was most famous for a statue of Anna Pavlova which was above it. In 1939 this was removed and lost, a replica has recently been added and it is known as the home of the Crazy Gang and the Black and White Minstrels. It has hosted countless famous in the yearly Royal Variety Show, most of the year it hosts musicals its latest being Billy Elliott. Little Ben - a small 20 ft version of Big Ben stands in a roundabout outside the Victoria Palace was first erected in 1891 removed in 1963. It was erected with sponsorship from Elf Aquitaine Ltd as a gift of Anglo-French friendship, the Apollo Victoria on Wilton Road was designed as a super cinema in the art deco style in the 1930 and opened as the New Victoria
Hyde Park, London
Hyde Park is one of the largest parks in London and one of its Royal Parks. The park is divided by the Serpentine and the Long Water, the park is contiguous with Kensington Gardens, which are often assumed to be part of Hyde Park, Kensington Gardens has been separate since 1728, when Queen Caroline divided them. To the southeast, outside the park, is Hyde Park Corner, during daylight, the two parks merge seamlessly into each other, but Kensington Gardens closes at dusk, and Hyde Park remains open throughout the year from 5 a. m. until midnight. The Great Exhibition of 1851 was held in the park, for which the Crystal Palace, the park became a traditional location for mass demonstrations. The Chartists, the Reform League, the suffragettes, and the Stop the War Coalition have all held protests there, many protesters on the Liberty and Livelihood March in 2002 started their march from Hyde Park. Hyde Park is a ward of the City of Westminster, the population of the ward at the 2011 Census was 12,462.
Hyde Park was created for hunting by Henry Vlll in 1536, Charles I created the Ring, and in 1637 he opened the park to the general public. In 1652, during the Interregnum, Parliament ordered the 620-acre park to be sold for ready money and it realised £17,000 with an additional £765 6s 2d for the resident deer. In 1689, when William III moved his residence to Kensington Palace on the far side of Hyde Park, public transport entering London from the west runs parallel to the Kings private road along Kensington Gore, just outside the park. In the late 1800s, the row was used by the wealthy for horseback rides, the first coherent landscaping was undertaken by Charles Bridgeman for Queen Caroline, under the supervision of Charles Withers, the Surveyor-General of Woods and Forests, who took some credit. It was completed in 1733 at a cost to the public purse of £20,000, the 2nd Viscount Weymouth was made Ranger of Hyde Park in 1739 and shortly after began digging the Serpentine lakes at Longleat.
The Serpentine is divided from the Long Water by a bridge designed by George Rennie, one of the most important events to take place in the park was the Great Exhibition of 1851. The Crystal Palace was constructed on the side of the park. The public did not want the building to remain after the closure of the exhibition and he had it moved to Sydenham Hill in South London. At the age of twenty-five, Decimus Burton was commissioned by the Office of Woods and he laid out the paths and driveways and designed a series of lodges, the Screen/Gate at Hyde Park Corner and the Wellington Arch. The Screen and the Arch originally formed a single composition, designed to provide a transition between Hyde Park and Green Park, although the arch was moved. An early description reports, It consists of a screen of handsome fluted Ionic columns, the extent of the whole frontage is about 107 ft. The two side gateways, in their elevations, present two insulated Ionic columns, flanked by antae, all these entrances are finished by a blocking, the sides of the central one being decorated with a beautiful frieze, representing a naval and military triumphal procession
St Jamess is a central district in the City of Westminster, forming part of the West End. In the 17th century the area developed as a location for the British aristocracy. Anciently part of the parish of St Martin in the Fields, since the Second World War the area has transitioned from residential to commercial use. The St James name is derived from the dedication of a 12th-century leper hospital to Saint James the Less, the hospital site is now occupied by St Jamess Palace. The area became known as Clubland because of the presence of gentlemens clubs. Until the Second World War, St Jamess remained one of the most exclusive residential enclaves in London, notable residences include St Jamess Palace, Clarence House, Marlborough House, Lancaster House, Spencer House, Schomberg House, Norfolk House and Bridgewater House. St Jamess was in the ancient parish of St Martin in the Fields in the Liberty of Westminster, attempts made in 1664,1668 and 1670 to separate St Jamess from the parish were resisted by St Martins vestry.
The building of St Jamess Church, Piccadilly in 1684 forced the issue, the parish stretched from Oxford Street in the north to Pall Mall in the south. It roughly corresponded to the contemporary St Jamess area, but extended into parts of Soho, land south of Pall Mall remained in St Martin in the Fields parish and St Jamess Park was split between the parishes of St Martin and St Margaret. St Jamess Palace was an area and not part of any parish. A select vestry was created for the new parish, for elections to Westminster City Council, the area is part of the St Jamess ward. The ward includes Covent Garden, Strand and part of Mayfair, St Jamess is bounded to the north by Piccadilly, to the west by Green Park, to the south by The Mall and St. Jamess Park and to the east by Haymarket. Notable streets include, St Jamess Square, which many of its original houses but is mostly in office use. The London Library is located there, Jermyn Street, an upmarket retail street best known for bespoke shirtmakers and shops offering the finest gentlemens attire.
Pall Mall, which many of Londons gentlemens clubs. Haymarket was once the best known centre of prostitution in London and it contains two historic theatres, the Haymarket Theatre and Her Majestys Theatre. Carlton House Terrace, a pair of terraces of houses designed by John Nash overlooking St. Jamess Park. St Jamess Street which runs down from Piccadilly to St Jamess Palace, St Jamess is a predominantly commercial area with some of the highest rents in London and, the world
West End of London
Use of the term began in the early 19th century to describe fashionable areas to the west of Charing Cross. The West End covers much of the boroughs of Westminster and Camden, while the City of London, or the Square Mile, is the main business and financial district in London, the West End is the main commercial and entertainment centre of the city. It is one of the most expensive locations in the world in which to rent office space and it was close to the royal seat of power at Westminster, and is largely contained within the City of Westminster. Developed in the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries, it was built as a series of palaces, expensive town houses, fashionable shops. The areas closest to the City around Holborn, Seven Dials, as the West End is a term used colloquially by Londoners and is not an official geographical or municipal definition, its exact constituent parts are up for debate. The Edgware Road to the north-west and the Victoria Embankment to the south-east were covered by the document but were treated as adjacent areas to the West End.
According to Ed Glinerts West End Chronicles the districts falling within the West End are Mayfair, Covent Garden, one of the local government wards within the City of Westminster is called West End. This covers a area that defined by Glinert, Soho. The population of this ward at the 2011 Census was 10,575, the New West End Company is a business improvement district and runs services including street cleaning and security on Oxford Street, Regent Street and Bond Street. NWEC runs the Red Caps service, the West End is laid out with many notable public squares and circuses, the latter being the original name for roundabouts in London. London West End Things to do General overview of what to do in the West End
Charing Cross denotes the junction of Strand and Cockspur Street, just south of Trafalgar Square in central London. It gives its name to several landmarks, including Charing Cross railway station, Charing Cross is named after the Eleanor cross that stood on the site, in what was once the hamlet of Charing. The site of the cross has been occupied since 1675 by a statue of King Charles I. A loose Victorian replica of the cross, the Queen Eleanor Memorial Cross, was erected a short distance to the east outside the railway station. Until 1931, Charing Cross referred to the part of Whitehall between Great Scotland Yard and Trafalgar Square, at least one property retains a Charing Cross postal address, Drummonds Bank, on the corner of Whitehall and The Mall, which is designated 49 Charing Cross. Since the early 19th century, Charing Cross has often been regarded as the centre of London. Erect a rich and stately carved cross, Whereon her statue shall with glory shine, George Peele The Famous Chronicle of King Edward the First The name of the area, Charing, is derived from the Old English word cierring, referring to a bend in the River Thames.
Folk etymology suggests the name derives from chère reine — dear queen in French — and this wooden sculpted cross was the work of the medieval sculptor, Alexander of Abingdon. It was destroyed in 1647 on the orders of Parliament during the Civil War, a 70 ft -high stone sculpture in front of Charing Cross railway station is a copy of the original cross. Erected in 1865, it is situated a few hundred yards to the east of the original cross and it was designed by the architect E. M. Barry and carved by Thomas Earp of Lambeth out of Portland stone, Mansfield stone and Aberdeen granite. It is not a replica, being more ornate than the original. A variation on the name appears to be Charygcrouche, near St Martin in the Fields, since 1675 the site of the cross has been occupied by a statue of King Charles I mounted on a horse. The site is recognised by convention as the centre of London for the purpose of indicating distances by road in favour of other measurement points. Charing Cross is marked on maps as a road junction.
Since 1 January 1931 this section of road has been designated part of the Whitehall thoroughfare, the cross has given its name to a railway station, a tube station, police station, hospital, a hotel, a theatre, and a music hall. Charing Cross Road the main route from the north was named after the railway station, at some time between 1232 and 1236, the Chapel and Hospital of St Mary Rounceval was founded at Charing. It occupied land at the corner of the modern Whitehall and into the centre of Northumberland Avenue and it was an Augustinian house, tied to a mother house at Roncesvalles in the Pyrenees. The house and lands were seized for the king in 1379, protracted legal action returned some rights to the prior, but in 1414, Henry V suppressed the alien houses
Holborn is a district in the West End, central London, forming part of the London Borough of Camden. The areas first mention is in a charter of Westminster Abbey, by King Edgar and this mentions the old wooden church of St Andrew. The name Holborn may be derived from the Middle English hol for hollow, and bourne, historical cartographer William Shepherd in his Plan of London about 1300 labels the Fleet as Hole Bourn where it passes to the east of St Andrews church. The exact course of the stream is uncertain, but according to Stow it started in one of the small springs near Holborn Bar. This is supported by a map of London and Westminster created during the reign of Henry VIII that clearly marks the street as Oldbourne, other historians, find the theory implausible, in view of the slope of the land. It was outside the Citys jurisdiction and a part of Ossulstone Hundred in Middlesex, in the 12th century St Andrews was noted in local title deeds as lying on Holburnestrate—Holborn Street. The rest of the area below Bars was organised by the board of the parish of St Andrew.
The Metropolitan Borough of Holborn was abolished in 1965 and its area now part of the London Borough of Camden. Holborn is represented in the London Assembly as part of Barnet and Camden by Andrew Dismore, criminals from the Tower and Newgate passed up Holborn on their way to be hanged at Tyburn or St Giles. The theatre premièred the first full-length feature film in 1914, The World, the Flesh and the Devil, Charles Dickens took up residence in Furnivals Inn, on the site of Holborn Bars. Dickens put his character Pip, in Great Expectations, in residence at Barnards Inn opposite, staple Inn, notable as the promotional image for Old Holborn tobacco, is nearby. The three of these were Inns of Chancery, the area diversified and become recognisable as the modern street. A plaque stands at number 120 commemorating Thomas Earnshaws invention of the Marine chronometer, at the corner of Hatton Garden was the old family department store of Gamages. Until 1992, the London Weather Centre was located in the street, the Prudential insurance company relocated in 2002.
The Daily Mirror offices used to be directly opposite it, further east, in the gated avenue of Ely Place, is St Etheldredas Church, originally the chapel of the Bishop of Ely’s London palace. This ecclesiastical connection allowed the street to remain part of the county of Cambridgeshire until the mid-1930s and this meant that Ye Olde Mitre, a pub located in a court hidden behind the buildings of the Place and the Garden was subject to the Cambridgeshire Magistrates to grant its licence. St Etheldredas is the oldest church building used for Roman Catholic worship in London, this became so only after it ceased to be an Anglican chapel in the 19th century. Hatton Garden, the centre of the trade, was leased to a favourite of Queen Elizabeth I, Sir Christopher Hatton
Bayswater is an area within the City of Westminster and the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea in central London. It is a district located 2.5 miles west-north-west of Charing Cross, bordering the north of Kensington Gardens. Bayswater is one of Londons most cosmopolitan areas, a local population is augmented by a high concentration of hotels. There is a significant Arab community present here, the area has attractive streets and garden squares lined with Victorian stucco terraces, mostly now subdivided into flats and boarding houses. The property ranges from very expensive apartments to small studio flats and Westbourne Grove are its busiest main streets, both having many ethnic-cuisine restaurants. In 1720, the lands of the Dean and Chapter are described to be the occupation of Alexander Bond, of Bears Watering, after their divorce in 1975 Catherine married jazzman Chris Barber. Trudie Styler, now his wife, lived in a basement flat two doors down, luigi Sturzo Catholic priest and politician.
One of the fathers of Christian democracy and a founder of the Italian Peoples Party John Tenniel and cartoonist, was born at 22 Gloucester Place, New Road, Bayswater on 28 February 1820. The Bayswater area elects a total of six councillors to Westminster City Council, all six are of the Conservative Party, with the Bayswater Ward showing a more than 250-vote Conservative majority and Lancaster Gate being a safe Conservative ward. Paddington Notting Hill St Johns Wood Knightsbridge Little Venice Kensington The nearest London Underground stations are Bayswater, Paddington, Royal Oak, in le Carrés Smileys People, the retired Russian major lives in a dingy flat on Westbourne Grove. Many of the characters in Samuel Selvons novel The Lonely Londoners live in Bayswater, the Alfred Hitchcock film Frenzy was filmed in the area. In Martin Amiss Success, the two characters live together in a flat in Bayswater, which he calls the district of transients. In Oscar Wildes The Importance of Being Earnest, Lady Bracknell indicates that the perambulator was found standing by itself in a corner of Bayswater.
In Sakis short story Cross Currents, Vanessa Pennington lives on a Bayswater back street, in Evelyn Waughs novel Brideshead Revisited, Charles Ryders father lives in Bayswater. Whiteleys is frequently seen in film, e. g. Love Actually, Closer and it has Princess Productions studios on the top floor. Scenes in Alfie were filmed around Chepstow Road, the main character in Iris Murdochs novel A Word Child, Hilary Burde, has a flatlet near Bayswater Tube Station. Scenes in The Black Windmill refer to, and were filmed around, in the Italian comics series Dylan Dog the main character lives in Craven Road. Nick Jenkins meets Uncle Giles for tea at the Ufford Hotel, riding at anchor on the sluggish Bayswater tide, in The Acceptance World, the Poisonous Seed a novel by Linda Stratmann is set almost entirely in Victorian Bayswater
Lisson Grove is a district and a street of the City of Westminster, just to the north of the city ring road. There are many surrounding the area. To the north is Lords Cricket Ground in St Johns Wood, to the west are Little Venice and Watling Street. To the north east is Primrose Hill and south east is Marylebone, which includes the station and Dorset Square. It is west of the London Planetarium, Madame Tussauds, Baker Street, the postal districts are NW1 and NW8. Occasionally referred to as Lissom Grove, originally Lisson Grove was part of the manor of Lilestone which stretched as far as Hampstead. Lisson Green as a manor broke away c.1236 with its own manor house, Stingo was the name of a particular Yorkshire ale. Until the late 18th century the district remained essentially rural, the Austrian composer Joseph Haydn moved briefly to a farm in Lisson Grove in the spring of 1791 in order to have quiet surroundings in which to compose during his three-year stay in England. Nowadays Lisson Grove is a much improved section of West London, the area was notorious for drinking and prostitution, as well as the extreme poverty of the people and the squalor and dilapidation of the homes they lived in.
Local police officers patrolled the district in pairs, and they described the women of the area as the most drunken, violent. No.34 Alpha Cottages is memorialised in the name of a block of flats on Ashmill Street, opposite Ranston Street, One such friend and colleague of Blake was Richard Cosway whose studio on Stafford Street was renamed as Cosway Street. Cosway was not only a famous and fashionable painter, he was a mesmerist and magician who practised arcana related to alchemical, There are reports of erotic ceremonies, the imbibing of drugs or elixirs, and ritual nudity. In 1829 the Catholic church of Our Lady was built, scoles in the new Gothic style, it was one of the first Catholic churches following the Catholic Emancipation Act. The same year George Shillibeer operated the first London omnibus from the Yorkshire Stingo taking passengers to Bank, Bell Street, now famous in history as the spot where Turkish baths were first established, is the main stream of a low colony, with many tributary channels.
Hollingshead was, of course, referring only to the first such bath in London, the first Victorian Turkish bath was actually built near Cork in Ireland in 1856, while the first in England opened in Manchester in 1857. During the latter part of the 19th century a number of artisans and workers flats and cottages sprang up from social housing initiatives spearheaded by Octavia Hill and the Peabody Trust. Across the road from The Green Man Inn, in 1884 Miles Building was built by the Improved Industrial Dwellings Association, facing Bell Street and Penfold Place. John Nash as a director of the Regents Canal Company formed in 1812 began building detached villas set in gardens facing onto either side of the section of the canal running parallel to Lodge Road
Paddington Green, London
Paddington Green is a green space, conservation area and geographic location in Westminster located off Edgware Road and adjacent to Westway. It is the oldest part of Paddington and became a conservation area in 1988. At one time, the Green was surrounded by large Georgian houses, an omnibus service to the City of London was introduced in 1829 by George Shillibeer. St Mary on Paddington Green Church is part of the Parish of Little Venice and is the church on this site. The church was built in 1791 by John Plaw and its graveyard – known as St Marys Gardens – contains monuments to notable local residents, including actress Sarah Siddons, sculptor Joseph Nollekens and lexicographer Peter Mark Roget. The southern part of the graveyard was removed to make way for the flyover, exhumed graves were re-interred in Mill Hill Cemetery. The former Paddington Green Children’s Hospital stands on the north-east corner of the Green on Church Street and it is a Grade II Listed building. The Schmidt hammer lassen-designed City of Westminster College is located at 25 Paddington Green, Pretty Polly Perkins of Paddington Green, the music hall number by Harry Clifton, is described as living, in a gentlemans family near Paddington Green.
The TV series Paddington Green aired in the late 1990s and explored the lives of residents of the local area, lyrics to Pretty Polly Perkins of Paddington Green British History Online description Westminster Council description and map
Pimlico /ˈpɪmlᵻkoʊ/ is a small area within central London in the City of Westminster. Like Belgravia, to which it was built as an extension, Pimlico is known for its garden squares. At Pimlicos heart is a grid of streets laid down by the planner Thomas Cubitt beginning in 1825. The area has over 350 Grade II listed buildings and several Grade II* listed churches, in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, the Manor of Ebury was divided up and leased by the Crown to servants or favourites. In 1623, James I sold the freehold of Ebury for £1,151 and 15 shillings, the land was sold on several more times, until it came into the hands of heiress Mary Davies in 1666. Marys dowry not only included The Five Fields of modern-day Pimlico and Belgravia, she was much pursued but in 1677, at the age of twelve, married Sir Thomas Grosvenor. The Grosvenors were a family of Norman descent long seated at Eaton Hall in Cheshire who until this auspicious marriage were, through the development and good management of this land the Grosvenors acquired enormous wealth.
At some point in the seventeenth or early eighteenth century. While its origins are disputed, it is clearly of foreign derivation, supporting this etymology, Rev. Brewer describes the area as a district of public gardens much frequented on holidays. According to tradition, it received its name from Ben Pimlico and his tea-gardens, were near Hoxton, and the road to them was termed Pimlico Path, so that what is now called Pimlico was so named from the popularity of the Hoxton resort. In 1825, Thomas Cubitt was contracted by Lord Grosvenor to develop Pimlico, the land up to this time had been marshy but was reclaimed using soil excavated during the construction of St Katharine Docks. Cubitt developed Pimlico as a grid of white stucco terraces. The largest and most opulent houses were built along St Georges Drive and Belgrave Road, lupus Street contained similarly grand houses, as well as shops and, until the early twentieth century, a hospital for women and children. Smaller-scale properties, typically of three storeys, line the side streets, an 1877 newspaper article described Pimlico as genteel, sacred to professional men… not rich enough to luxuriate in Belgravia proper, but rich enough to live in private houses.
Its inhabitants were more lively than in Kensington… and yet a cut above Chelsea, although the area was dominated by the well-to-do middle and upper-middle classes as late as Booths 1889 Map of London Poverty, parts of Pimlico are said to have declined significantly by the 1890s. Through the late century, Pimlico saw the construction of several Peabody Estates, charitable housing projects designed to provide affordable. Proximity to the Houses of Parliament made Pimlico a centre of political activity, prior to 1928, the Labour Party and Trades Union Congress shared offices on Eccleston Square, and it was here in 1926 that the general strike was organised. Completed in 1937, it became popular with MPs and public servants
St John's Wood
Saint Johns Wood is a district of northwest London, in the City of Westminster, and on the northwest side of Regents Park. It is about 2.5 miles northwest of Charing Cross, once part of the Great Middlesex Forest, it was owned by the Knights of St John of Jerusalem. The boundaries of St. Johns Wood are the Regents Canal to the south, Maida Vale to the west, Boundary Road to the north and Avenue Rd/Primrose Hill Park to the east. It is an affluent neighbourhood, with the area postcode ranked by Forbes magazine as the fifth most expensive postcode in London based on the average home price in 2007. According to a 2014 property agent survey, St. Johns Wood residents pay the highest average rent in all of London, St Johns Wood was developed from the early 19th century onwards. One of the first developers in the area was James Burton, parts of St Johns Wood have been rebuilt at a higher density, but it remains a highly desirable residential district, and one of the most expensive areas of London. St Johns Wood is the location of Lords Cricket Ground, home of Middlesex County Cricket Club and of the Marylebone Cricket Club, and the original headquarters of cricket.
It is famous for Abbey Road Studios and the street Abbey Road, where The Beatles recorded, notably the Abbey Road album, the Kings Troop, Royal Horse Artillery was formerly based at St Johns Wood Barracks. The regiment moved to Woolwich on 6 February 2012, the barracks is to be demolished and developed as housing, the area is home to St. Johns Wood Church Grounds, which contains the only nature reserve in the City of Westminster. The nearest London Overground station is South Hampstead. C,5 Forest Road, St. Johns Wood in Wilkie Collinss 1859 sensation novel The Woman in White. Irene Adler lives there in Arthur Conan Doyles 1891 Sherlock Holmes story A Scandal in Bohemia, in the first instalment of John Galsworthys The Forsyte Saga, The Man of Property, Young Jolyon lives on fictional Wistaria Avenue with his second wife and family. St Johns Wood is the home of fictional characters Bingo and Rosie Little in P. G. Wodehouses Jeeves and Wooster short stories and novels, referenced in the Rolling Stones song, Play with Fire, released in 1965.
Ballards novel Millennium People, is a psychologist who lives in St. Johns Wood, Violet Hill, a street and area off Abbey Road with Violet Hill Gardens and Violet Hill Hospital, is the source of the name in Coldplays 2008 song Violet Hill. Media related to St. Johns Wood at Wikimedia Commons History of St Johns Wood Map of St Johns Wood and the surrounding districts stjohnswoodhighstreet. co. uk & stjohnswoodhighstreet. com
The Devils Acre was a notorious slum near Westminster Abbey in Victorian London. The Devils Acre was on and behind Old Pye Street, Great St Annes Lane and Duck Lane in the parish of Westminster St Margaret and St John. In the 19th century it was considered one of the worst areas of London — in 1850 Charles Dickens called it The Devils Acre in Household Words, Westminster has its origins in medieval times. The monks of the Westminster Abbey would offer safe haven to suspected criminals and debtors and this acquired a reputation for narrow streets and run-down dwellings, as did certain other parts of Westminster in the 18th century. The area around Old Pye Street, Great St Annes Lane and Duck Lane, dwellings were built with the cheapest material, lacked ventilation, had poor lighting, and no drainage or sanitation facilities. In particular, poorer parts of the City of London had a lack of night soil affordability which resulted, as in major cities in the culverting of all of its small streams.
The area is low-lying, built along the relict of the forked river/stream the Tyburn and this made the area prone to waterlogging, and dwellings started to subside. By the 19th century the area was considered one of the worst in London and thought of as the centre of poverty, vice, in 1850 Charles Dickens called the area The Devils Acre in Household Words. Population density in the Devils Acre was not measured in terms of persons per acre, but persons per room. The area had a rate of mortality from diseases such as typhoid and in 1848 Great Peter Street, Perkins Rent, Duck Lane. The streets were made up of old and run-down houses. Great Peter Street was mainly occupied by tradesmen, small shopkeepers, mechanics, Old Pye Street was lined with lodging houses and parts of Old Pye Street became known as Irish rookery. Initially the birthplace of 15 of the 20 was noted as unknown, I went up the last-mentioned court, which had every feature of a sewer, and found a long puddle of sewage soaking in the hollow centre.
The passages of the low black huts on either side were like old sooty chimneys, Hollingshead went on to describe Pye Street in the Devils Acre, I crossed over the road, and entered the openly acknowledged high street of thieves and prostitutes. It is called Pye Street, and has no mock modesty about it—no desire to conceal its real character. Threepenny homes for travellers abound on both sides-yellow, unwholesome places, many of them far below the level of the road, and entered by a kind of pit. Many of the houses have no flooring on their passages, and there is nothing for the children to stand upon but the black, damp. A fiddler was playing a tune to a mixed assembly of thieves and prostitutes