Holborn is a district in the West End, central London, forming part of the London Borough of Camden. The areas first mention is in a charter of Westminster Abbey, by King Edgar and this mentions the old wooden church of St Andrew. The name Holborn may be derived from the Middle English hol for hollow, and bourne, historical cartographer William Shepherd in his Plan of London about 1300 labels the Fleet as Hole Bourn where it passes to the east of St Andrews church. The exact course of the stream is uncertain, but according to Stow it started in one of the small springs near Holborn Bar. This is supported by a map of London and Westminster created during the reign of Henry VIII that clearly marks the street as Oldbourne, other historians, find the theory implausible, in view of the slope of the land. It was outside the Citys jurisdiction and a part of Ossulstone Hundred in Middlesex, in the 12th century St Andrews was noted in local title deeds as lying on Holburnestrate—Holborn Street. The rest of the area below Bars was organised by the board of the parish of St Andrew.
The Metropolitan Borough of Holborn was abolished in 1965 and its area now part of the London Borough of Camden. Holborn is represented in the London Assembly as part of Barnet and Camden by Andrew Dismore, criminals from the Tower and Newgate passed up Holborn on their way to be hanged at Tyburn or St Giles. The theatre premièred the first full-length feature film in 1914, The World, the Flesh and the Devil, Charles Dickens took up residence in Furnivals Inn, on the site of Holborn Bars. Dickens put his character Pip, in Great Expectations, in residence at Barnards Inn opposite, staple Inn, notable as the promotional image for Old Holborn tobacco, is nearby. The three of these were Inns of Chancery, the area diversified and become recognisable as the modern street. A plaque stands at number 120 commemorating Thomas Earnshaws invention of the Marine chronometer, at the corner of Hatton Garden was the old family department store of Gamages. Until 1992, the London Weather Centre was located in the street, the Prudential insurance company relocated in 2002.
The Daily Mirror offices used to be directly opposite it, further east, in the gated avenue of Ely Place, is St Etheldredas Church, originally the chapel of the Bishop of Ely’s London palace. This ecclesiastical connection allowed the street to remain part of the county of Cambridgeshire until the mid-1930s and this meant that Ye Olde Mitre, a pub located in a court hidden behind the buildings of the Place and the Garden was subject to the Cambridgeshire Magistrates to grant its licence. St Etheldredas is the oldest church building used for Roman Catholic worship in London, this became so only after it ceased to be an Anglican chapel in the 19th century. Hatton Garden, the centre of the trade, was leased to a favourite of Queen Elizabeth I, Sir Christopher Hatton
Camden Town, often shortened to Camden, is an inner city district of northwest London,2.4 miles north of the centre of London. It is one of the 35 major centres identified in the London Plan, the areas industrial economic base has been replaced by service industries such as retail and entertainment. The area now hosts street markets and music venues which are associated with alternative culture. Camden Town is named after Charles Pratt, 1st Earl Camden and his earldom was styled after his estate, Camden Place near Chislehurst in Kent, formerly owned by historian William Camden. The name, which appears on the Ordnance Survey map of 1822, was applied to the early 20th century Camden Town Group of artists. Camden Town stands on land which was once the manor of Kentish Town, sir Charles Pratt, a radical 18th century lawyer and politician, acquired the manor through marriage. In 1791, he started granting leases for houses to be built in the manor, in 1816, the Regents Canal was built through the area.
Up to at least the mid 20th century, Camden Town was considered an unfashionable locality, the Camden markets, which started in 1973 and have grown since then, attract many visitors all week. Camden Lock Village, known as Camden Lock market, suffered a major fire, Camden Town, previously in the Metropolitan Borough of St Pancras, became part of the London Borough of Camden when it was created in 1965. Camden Town is contained in the following political constituencies for different purposes, listed with some incumbents as of 2017, Camden London Borough Council, Camden Town with Primrose Hill, returns three Borough councillors. UK Parliament, Holborn and St Pancras, four Labour, two Conservative, one Green, one UKIP. Camden Town is on flat ground at 100 feet above sea level,2.4 miles north-northwest of Charing Cross. To the north are the hills of Hampstead and Highgate, the culverted, subterranean River Fleet flows from its source on Hampstead Heath through Camden Town south to the Thames. The Regents Canal runs through the north of Camden Town, from the end of the twentieth century entertainment-related businesses and a Holiday Inn started moving into the area. A number of retail and food chain outlets replaced independent shops, driven out by high rents and redevelopment.
Restaurants with a variety of culinary traditions thrived, many of them an away from the markets, on Camden High Street and its side streets, Chalk Farm Road. The plan to re-develop the historic Stables Market led to a steel and glass extension, built on the edges of the site in 2006, Camden is well known for its markets. Camden Town Tube station is near the markets and other attractions and it is a key interchange station for the Bank, Charing Cross and High Barnet Northern line branches
Dartmouth Park is a district of north London in the London Borough of Camden, on the slope of the hill that rises up to Highgate from Kentish Town. On its west side, it borders Parliament Hill Fields, Dartmouth Park is named after the Earl of Dartmouth who bought the land in the middle of the 18th century. The 5th Earl of Dartmouth instigated some major building in the late 19th century. By the need to increase the supply of water to serve Londons expanding population meant that water companies were building new facilities. Two covered reservoirs were constructed on Dartmouth Park Hill in 1855 by the New River Company and connected to its new waterworks, owned by the Metropolitan Water Board, the reservoirs are now owned by Thames Water Utilities. The street named York Rise, which runs through the centre of Dartmouth Park, is in a valley which follows the course of the River Fleet. At the foot of York Rise the river crosses the tracks in a large iron pipe. Most of the consists of late-19th century terraced and semi-detached houses.
The local church is St Mary Brookfield, designed by William Butterfield and it is red brick with contrasting yellow and blue brick patterns. Although the name designates a district and not a park per se, there is a small but attractive park, now named Dartmouth Park, to the immediate East in Islington and it was laid out on the edge of the reservoirs and opened to the public in 1972. Even as much of it is taken up by the reservoir tank, the land slopes steeply to the north and the east of the reservoirs, which are now covered with lush grassland. The top of the slope gives a view of south-east London. The park has a seating area surrounded by a hedge. The park was the location for one of the beacons lit nationwide on 21 April 2016 to celebrate Queen Elizabeth IIs ninetieth birthday, Dartmouth Park is a quiet residential area with a mixture of residents, from young professionals and families through to retired couples. To the north lies the Holly Lodge Estate and Highgate, Dartmouth Park is separated from Kentish Town to the south by the Gospel Oak to Barking railway line.
Housing in Dartmouth Park is a mixture of detached and semi-detached houses, late Victorian and Edwardian mansion flats, the former park on the area covered what is now Waterlow Park and Highgate Cemetery
Bloomsbury is an area of the London Borough of Camden, between Euston Road and Holborn. It was developed by the Russell family in the 17th and 18th centuries into a residential area. It is notable for its garden squares, literary connections, and numerous cultural, Bloomsbury Square was laid out in 1660 by Thomas Wriothesley, 4th Earl of Southampton. Much of the district was planned and built by James Burton and it is home to the University of Law and New College of the Humanities. London Contemporary Dance School and the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art and are located in the area. Bloomsbury is in the constituency of Holborn and St Pancras. The western half of the district comprises Bloomsbury ward, which three councillors to Camden Borough Council. The earliest record of what would become Bloomsbury is in the 1086 Domesday Book, but it is not until 1201 that the name Bloomsbury is first noted, when William de Blemond, a Norman landowner, acquired the land. The name Bloomsbury is a development from Blemondisberi – the bury, or manor, at the end of the 14th century, Edward III acquired Blemonds manor, and passed it on to the Carthusian monks of the London Charterhouse, who kept the area mostly rural.
In the 16th century with the Dissolution of the Monasteries, Henry VIII took the back into the possession of the Crown and granted it to Thomas Wriothesley. In the early 1660s, the Earl of Southampton constructed what eventually became Bloomsbury Square, the Yorkshire Grey public house on the corner of Grays Inn Road and Theobalds Road dates from 1676. The area was laid out mainly in the 18th century, largely by landowners such as Wriothesley Russell, 3rd Duke of Bedford, who built Bloomsbury Market, William de Blemond in the 13th century, a Norman, was the first landowner. Edward III acquired Blemonds manor, and passed it on to the Carthusian monks who governed it until Henry VIII granted it to the Earl of Southampton, the Russell family became landowners in the 18th century. The area lay within the parishes of St Giles in the Fields and St Georges, Bloomsbury and it is now controlled by the London Borough of Camden and part of the district is contained within the Bloomsbury ward. The district is situated in the constituency of Holborn and St Pancras.
Bloomsbury merges gradually with Holborn in the south, with St Pancras and Kings Cross in the north-east, the road runs from Euston and Somers Town in the north to Holborn in the south. East of Southampton Row/Woburn Place are the Grade II listed Brunswick Centre, a residential and shopping centre, the area west of Southampton Row/Woburn Place is notable for its concentration of academic establishments and formal squares. Bloomsbury contains some of Londons finest parks and buildings, and is known for its formal squares
West Hampstead is an area in the London Borough of Camden in north-west London. The area is residential with several small shops, cafes, bakeries concentrated on the northern section of West End Lane. It is served by three stations, West Hampstead on the Jubilee line, West Hampstead Overground station and West Hampstead Thameslink station, an area, known as le Rudyng in the mid-13th century, had by 1534 come to be called West End. It was an estate belonging to Kilburn Priory, and was so called because it was at the west end of another, larger estate. Although it is possible there was a dwelling on the estate prior to 1244. West End Lane is still bent at a right-angle at the north and south ends where it connects to Finchley Road and this is because the lane used to form the boundary between a number of different estates. In 1879, the Metropolitan Railway adopted the name West Hampstead for its station on West End Lane, Hampstead Cemetery on Fortune Green Road, opened in 1876 Hampstead Synagogue on Dennington Park Road, built on the site of Lauriston Lodge, opened in 1892.
Emmanuel Church, West Hampstead on the corner of Lyncroft Gardens, West Hampstead Fire Station was opened in 1901 and is still operating, responding to over two thousand emergency calls a year. Its service area covers 12 square miles, including Hampstead, West Hampstead, Cricklewood, Hampstead Cricket Club moved to Lymington Road in 1877. Now used as rehearsal space by the English National Opera, david Bowie recorded his first single and the Rolling Stones their first album in the studios. They were known for being where the Beatles failed their audition with Decca Records on 1 January 1962, there are three railway stations named West Hampstead all within close proximity, as well as a number of other tube stations in the area. Numerous bus routes pass through the district. Tube, West Hampstead tube station, on the Jubilee line, nearby is Finchley Road tube station, on the Jubilee and Metropolitan lines. Trains, West Hampstead Thameslink station on the cross London Thameslink route, the power signal box for the northern end of the Thameslink route is in Iverson Road, West Hampstead, around the corner from the Thameslink station.
The Network Rail signal box can be seen from the end of the platforms on the left. As well as being a 24 hours a day,7 days a week operational building, it houses engineers, the upper floor of this box controls the signals and operation of the railway from Farringdon/St Pancras International as far as Sharnbrook. Before the demise of First Capital Connect, located in the box was FCCs Thameslink control, FCCs services between London Blackfriars and Bedford were controlled from here. South of Blackfriars, FCC trains were controlled by southeastern control or FCCs other SDC at Croydon
Covent Garden is a district in London on the eastern fringes of the West End, between St Martins Lane and Drury Lane. It is associated with the former fruit-and-vegetable market in the square, now a popular shopping and tourist site, and with the Royal Opera House. The area was settled in the 7th century when it became the heart of the Anglo-Saxon trading town of Lundenwic. By 1200 part of it had been walled off by Westminster Abbey for use as arable land, referred to as the garden of the Abbey and Convent, and the Covent Garden, it was seized by Henry VIII and granted to the Earls of Bedford in 1552. The 4th Earl commissioned Inigo Jones to build fine houses to attract wealthy tenants. Jones designed the Italianate arcaded square along with the church of St Pauls, the design of the square was new to London and had a significant influence on modern town planning, acting as the prototype for new estates as London grew. By 1654 a small open-air fruit-and-vegetable market had developed on the side of the fashionable square.
Gradually, both the market and the area fell into disrepute, as taverns, coffee-houses. By the 18th century it had become a well-known red-light district, an Act of Parliament was drawn up to control the area, and Charles Fowlers neo-classical building was erected in 1830 to cover and help organise the market. The market grew and further buildings were added, the Floral Hall, Charter Market, by the end of the 1960s traffic congestion was causing problems, and in 1974 the market relocated to the New Covent Garden Market about three miles south-west at Nine Elms. With the postcode WC2, Covent Garden falls within the London boroughs of Westminster and Camden, the area has been served by the Piccadilly line at Covent Garden tube station since 1907, the journey from Leicester Square, at 300 yards, is the shortest in London. What would become the Strand on the boundary of the future Covent Garden was used during the Roman period as part of a route to Silchester. Excavations in 2006 at St Martin-in-the-Fields revealed a late Roman grave and these revealed Covent Garden as the centre of a trading town called Lundenwic, developed around 600 AD, which stretched from Trafalgar Square to Aldwych.
Alfred the Great gradually shifted the settlement into the old Roman town of Londinium from around 886 AD onwards, leaving no mark of the old town, a document from 1200 AD mentions a walled garden owned by the Benedictine monks of the Abbey of St Peter, Westminster. A document, dated between 1250 and 1283, refers to the garden of the Abbot and Convent of Westminster. By the 13th century this had become a 40-acre quadrangle of mixed orchard, meadow and arable land and this is how it was recorded from on. After the Dissolution of the Monasteries in 1540, Henry VIII took the land belonging to Westminster Abbey for himself and his son, Edward VI, granted it to John Russell, 1st Earl of Bedford, in 1552. The Russell family, who in 1694 were advanced in their peerage from Earl to Duke of Bedford, held the land until 1918
Somers Town, London
Somers Town is a district in north west London. Somers Town is within the parish and district of St Pancras, St Pancras Old Church is believed by many to be one of the oldest Christian sites in England. The churchyard remains consecrated but is managed by Camden Council as a park and it holds many literary associations, from Charles Dickens to Thomas Hardy, as well as memorials to dignitaries, including the remarkable tomb of architect Sir John Soane. Somers Town was named after Charles Cocks, 1st Baron Somers, the area was originally granted by William III to John Somers, Lord Chancellor and Baron Somers of Evesham. In the mid 1750s the New Road was established to bypass the congestion of London, in 1784, the first housing was built at the Polygon amid fields, brick works and market gardens on the northern fringes of London. Mary Wollstonecraft, writer and feminist, lived there with her husband William Godwin, the area appears to have appealed to middle-class people fleeing the French Revolution.
The site of the Polygon is now occupied by a block of flats called Oakshott Court. In this period the area housed a large transient population of labourers, Dickens lived in the Polygon briefly as a child. In 1868 the lace merchant and philanthropist George Moore funded a new church, known as Christ Church, the school accommodated about six hundred children. Christ Church and the adjacent school were destroyed in a World War II bombing raid and no trace remains today, St Mary Eversholt Street is today the parish church. Its founders were Church of England priest Father Basil Jellicoe and Irene Barclay, further social housing was built by the London County Council, which began construction of the Ossulston Estate in 1927. There remains a number of older Grade 2 listed properties. During the early 1970s the neighborhood comprising GLC-owned housing in Charrington, Platt, in the 1980s, some council tenants took advantage of the right to buy scheme and bought their homes at a substantial discount.
Later they moved away from the area, the consequence was an influx of young semi-professional people, resulting in a changing population. Historically, Somers Town has contained a number of hospitals, such as Elizabeth Garrett Anderson, National Temperance, all have closed since 1980, with the exception of St Pancras Hospital. Its site includes buildings that date from a life as St Pancras Workhouse. The large red brick building fronting the complex to the north of St Pancras Gardens is still residential, other buildings house the headquarters of Camden NHS Primary Care Trust. It accommodates parts of Islington Primary Care Trust, the Huntley Centre, Somers Town experienced ethnic tension between whites and Bengalis in the early 1990s, climaxing in the murder of Richard Everitt in 1994
Highgate is a suburban area of north London at the north-eastern corner of Hampstead Heath,4.5 miles north north-west of Charing Cross. Highgate is one of the most expensive London suburbs in which to live and it has an active conservation body, the Highgate Society, to protect its character. Until late Victorian times it was a village outside London. The area retains many green expanses including the part of Hampstead Heath. The village is at the top of North Hill which provides views across London, the area is divided between three London boroughs, Haringey in the north, Camden in the south and west, and Islington in the south and east. Historically, Highgate adjoined the Bishop of Londons hunting estate, Highgate gets its name from these hunting grounds, as there was a high, deer-proof hedge surrounding the estate, the gate in the hedge. The bishop kept a toll-house where one of the main roads out of London entered his land. A number of pubs sprang up along the route, one of which, in centuries Highgate was associated with the highwayman Dick Turpin.
Hampstead Lane and Highgate Hill contain the red brick Victorian buildings of Highgate School, the school has played a paramount role in the life of the village and has existed on its site since its founding was permitted by letters patent from Queen Elizabeth I in 1565. The area north of the High Street and Hampstead Lane was part of Hornsey parish and later the Municipal Borough of Hornsey, Highgate Hill, the steep street linking Archway and Highgate village, was the route of the first cable car to be built in Europe. It operated between 1884 and 1909, like much of London, Highgate suffered damage during World War II by German air raids. The local tube station was used as a bomb shelter, some notable favourites are the Angel, the Flask, the Dukes Head and the Wrestlers. The 2011 census showed that the Highgate ward of Haringey was 82% white, the Highgate ward of Camden meanwhile was 80% white, and 3% Black African. For details of education in the Haringey portion of Highgate see the London Borough of Haringey article, on Friday 26 August 1988, Michael Williams, a 43-year-old father from Highgate who worked for the Home Office in Pimlico, disappeared whilst travelling back home after an employee social.
His body was found at Highgate Wood the next day and his killer has never been found. The case remains unsolved despite being featured heavily in the national press, between 1930 and 1939, the wife and son of Adolf Hitlers half-brother, lived in Highgate, before moving to the United States. Bridget and Patrick Hitler lived at 26 Priory Gardens, leslie Compton, formerly an Arsenal footballer and a Middlesex cricketer, owned a pub in Highgate after he retired from sports. Singer George Michael owned an ₤8 million house in Highgate, southend United striker Nile Ranger was born in Highgate
Primrose Hill is a hill of 213 feet located on the northern side of Regents Park in London, and the name given to the surrounding district. The hill summit has a view of central London, as well as Hampstead. Nowadays it is one of the most exclusive and expensive areas in London and is home to many prominent residents. The nearest stations to Primrose Hill are Chalk Farm tube station to the northeast, the defunct Primrose Hill railway station sits on the railway lines that separate the Primrose Hill area from Camden Town. Like Regents Park, Primrose Hill was once part of a great chase appropriated by Henry VIII, later, in 1841, it became Crown property and in 1842 an Act of Parliament secured the land as public open space. It has always one of the more fashionable districts in the urban belt that lies between the core of London and the outer suburbs, and remains expensive and prosperous. Primrose Hill is an example of a successful London urban village, due to the location. In October 1678, Primrose Hill was the scene of the murder of Edmund Berry Godfrey.
In 1792 the radical Unitarian poet and antiquarian Iolo Morganwg founded the Gorsedd, there is, as in most places in London, graffiti on Primrose Hill. However, the one that seemed to impact the public most was a lyric about Primrose Hill by the band Blur, the graffiti read And the views so nice until it was removed in 2012. Some have tried to restore it, but none have yet succeeded, there are seven English Heritage blue plaques in Primrose Hill commemorating the historic personalities that have lived there. The plaques mark the residences of poet Sir Hugh Clough and broadcaster A. J. P. Joan Bakewell lives in the area
Wards of the City of London
The City of London is divided into 25 wards. Unlike other modern-day English local authorities, the City of London Corporation has two bodies, the now largely ceremonial Court of Aldermen and the Court of Common Council. The wards are a survival of the governmental system that allowed very small areas to exist as self-governing units within the wider city. They are both electoral/political sub-divisions and permanent ceremonial and administrative entities within the City and they had their boundaries changed in 2003, and to a lesser extent in 2013, though the number of wards and their names did not change. Each ward, or aldermanry, has its own alderman, who is the most senior official or representative in the ward, the aldermen traditionally held office for life but in the modern era put themselves up for re-election at least every six years. They now customarily retire at 70, the retirement age as a justice of the peace. Each ward returns one alderman to the Court of Aldermen, one of the aldermen is elected as Lord Mayor of London for a period of one year.
The Lord Mayor performs many functions and holds many ancient positions, the City of London is the only remaining local authority in Great Britain to have aldermen, since their general abolition in England and Wales in 1974 and the London boroughs in 1978. Wards continue to have beadles, with most having just one and these should not be confused with the Beadles of the Livery Companies of the City, who are employees of them. The wards alderman presides over the wardmote and appoints one of the councillors of the ward as a deputy for the year ahead. Wardmotes at which an alderman is to be elected are presided over by the Lord Mayor, there are twenty two of these. Confusingly, there is a United Wards Club which was formed many of the others as a joint association and is now additional to them. In recent times the ward clerk is a permanent position held by an official at the Corporation, the ward clerk is a separate office to that of the Town Clerk of London, who is the chief executive of the Corporation.
Boundary changes in 2003 removed some of these places from their wards, but that boundary review. The Common Council as we know it today, as a body of the wards, was realised in 1384 when the Citys guilds no longer elected members. The number of members of the Common Council grew to 240 by the mid-nineteenth century, each ward was divided into precincts, each of which elected one common councilman. As the number of precincts grew over time, the number of councilmen elected therefore increased, the precincts have now been abolished. The wards are ancient and their number has changed three times since their creation in time immemorial
Hampstead, commonly known as Hampstead Village, is an area of London, England,4 miles northwest of Charing Cross. Part of the London Borough of Camden, it is known for its intellectual, artistic and literary associations and for Hampstead Heath and it has some of the most expensive housing in the London area. The village of Hampstead has more millionaires within its boundaries than any area of the United Kingdom. The name comes from the Anglo-Saxon words ham and stede, which means, and is a cognate of, the growth of Hampstead is generally traced back to the 17th century. Trustees of the Well started advertising the medicinal qualities of the waters in 1700. Although Hampstead Wells was initially most successful and fashionable, its popularity declined in the 1800s due to competition with other fashionable London spas, the spa was demolished in 1882, although a water fountain was left behind. Much luxurious housing was created during the 1870s and 1880s, in the area that is now the ward of Frognal & Fitzjohns.
Much of this remains to this day. The large Victorian Hampstead Library and Town Hall was recently converted and extended as a creative industries centre, on 14 August 1975 Hampstead entered the UK Weather Records with the Highest 155-min total rainfall at 169 mm. As of November 2008 this record remains, Hampstead became part of the County of London in 1889 and in 1899 the Metropolitan Borough of Hampstead was formed. The borough town hall on Haverstock Hill, which was the location of the Register Office, Hampstead is part of the Hampstead and Kilburn constituency, formed at the 2010 general election. It was formerly part of the Hampstead and Highgate constituency, since May 2015 the area has been represented on Camden Council by Conservative Party councillors Tom Currie, Oliver Cooper and Stephen Stark. The area has a significant tradition of educated liberal humanism, often referred to as Hampstead Liberalism, michael Idov of The New Yorker stated that the community was the citadel of the moneyed liberal intelligentsia, posh but not stuffy.
As applied to an individual, the term Hampstead Liberal is not synonymous with champagne socialist, the term is rather misleading. As of 2016, all the component wards of Hampstead elect a full slate of Conservative councillors, the bridge pictured is known locally as The Red Arches or The Viaduct, built in fruitless anticipation of residential building on the Heath in the 19th century. The largest employer in Hampstead is the Royal Free Hospital, Pond Street, George Martins AIR recording studios, in converted church premises in Lyndhurst Road, is a current example, as Jim Hensons Creature Shop was before it relocated to California. It was recently restored by Notting Hill Housing Trust and longstanding are La Gaffe, Gaucho Grill, Jin Kichi, Tip Top Thai, Villa Bianca and, in May 2016, Patara. Hampsteads rural feel lends itself for use on film, an example being The Killing of Sister George starring Beryl Reid