Soho is an area of the City of Westminster and is part of the West End of London, England. Since the 1980s, the area has undergone considerable gentrification and it is now predominantly a fashionable district of upmarket restaurants and media offices, with only a small remnant of sex industry venues. Soho is a small, multicultural area of central London, a home to industry, commerce and entertainment, record shops cluster in the area around Berwick Street, with shops such as Phonica, Sister Ray and Reckless Records. On many weekends, Soho is busy enough to warrant closing off some of the streets to vehicles, Westminster City Council pedestrianised parts of Soho in the mid-1990s, but removed much of the pedestrianisation, apparently after complaints of loss of trade from local businesses. The name Soho first appears in the 17th century, Most authorities believe that the name derives from a former hunting cry. James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth, used soho as a call for his men at the Battle of Sedgemoor on 6 July 1685.
The Soho name has been imitated by other entertainment and restaurant districts such as Soho, Hong Kong, Soho, Málaga, SOHO, Beijing, SoHo, Ontario and Palermo Soho, Buenos Aires. SoHo, gets its name from its location SOuth of HOuston Street, apart from Oxford Street, all of these roads are 19th-century metropolitan improvements, so they are not Sohos original boundaries. Soho has never been a unit, with formally defined boundaries. The area to the west is known as Mayfair, to the north Fitzrovia, to the east St Giles and Covent Garden, and to the south St Jamess. According to the Soho Society, the area between Leicester Square to the south and Shaftesbury Avenue to the north, is part of Soho, Soho is part of the West End electoral ward which elects three councillors to Westminster City Council. In 1536, the land was taken by Henry VIII as a park for the Palace of Whitehall. In the 1660s, ownership of Soho Fields passed to Henry Jermyn, 1st Earl of St Albans and he was granted permission to develop property and quickly passed the lease and development to bricklayer Richard Frith.
Soho was part of the ancient parish of St Martin in the Fields, as the population started to grow a new church was provided and in 1687 a new parish of St Anne was established for it. The parish stretched from Oxford Street in the north, to Leicester Square in the south and it therefore included all of contemporary eastern Soho, including the Chinatown area. The western portion of modern Soho, around Carnaby Street was part of the parish of St James, building progressed rapidly in the late 17th century, with large properties including Monmouth House, Leicester House, Fauconberg House, Carlisle House and Newport House. Soho Square was first laid out in the 1680s on the former Soho Fields, firth built the first houses around the square, and by 1691,41 had been completed. It was originally called King Square in honour of Charles II, several upper-class families moved into the area
Brixton is a district of London, located in the borough of Lambeth in south London. The area is identified in the London Plan as one of 35 major centres in Greater London, Brixton is mainly residential with a prominent street market and substantial retail sector. It is a community, with a large percentage of its population being of Caribbean descent. It lies within Inner south London and is bordered by Stockwell, Streatham, Tulse Hill, the district houses the main offices of the London Borough of Lambeth. Brixton is 2.7 miles south-southwest of the centre of London near Lambeth North tube station. The name Brixton is thought to originate from Brixistane, meaning the stone of Brixi, Brixi is thought to have erected a boundary stone to mark the meeting place of the ancient hundred court of Surrey. The location is unknown but is thought to be at the top of Brixton Hill, at a road known at the time as Bristow or Brixton Causeway, Brixton marks the rise from the marshes of North Lambeth up to the hills of Upper Norwood and Streatham.
At the time the River Effra flowed from its source in Upper Norwood through Herne Hill to Brixton, at Brixton the river was crossed by low bridges for Roman roads to the south coast of Britain, now Brixton Road and Clapham Road. The main roads were connected through a network of country lanes, such as Acre Lane, Coldharbour Lane, Brixton Water Lane and Lyham Road. The area remained undeveloped until the beginning of the 19th century, with the opening of Vauxhall Bridge in 1816, improved access to Central London led to a process of suburban development. One of a few surviving windmills in London, built in 1816, is just off Brixton Hill, Brixton was transformed into a middle class suburb between the 1860s and 1890s. Railways linked Brixton with the centre of London when the Chatham Main Line was built through the area by the London, Chatham, in 1880, Electric Avenue was so named after it became the first street in London to be lit by electricity. By 1925, Brixton attracted thousands of new people and it housed the largest shopping centre in South London at the time, as well as a thriving market, pubs and a theatre.
In the 1920s, Brixton was the capital of South London with three large department stores and some of the earliest branches of what are now Britains major national retailers. Today, Brixton Road is the shopping area, fusing into Brixton Market. A prominent building on Brixton High Street is Morleys, an independent department store established in the 1920s, on the western boundary of Brixton with Clapham stands the Sunlight Laundry, an Art Deco factory building. Designed by architect F. E. Simpkins and erected in 1937, the Brixton area was bombed during World War II, contributing to a severe housing crisis, which in turn led to urban decay. This was followed by slum clearances and the building of council housing, in the 1940s and 1950s, many immigrants, particularly from the West Indies, settled in Brixton
Stratford is a district in the London Borough of Newham, in East London, England. Historically an agrarian settlement in the county of Essex, it was transformed into an industrial suburb following the introduction of the railway in 1839, Stratford is now East London’s primary retail and leisure centre. It has become the second most significant business location in the east of the capital, stratford’s early significance was as the point where the originally Roman road from Aldgate in the City, to Romford and Colchester, crossed the River Lea. At that time the branches of the river were tidal and unchannelised. The Lea valley formed a boundary between Essex on the eastern bank and Middlesex on the west, and was a formidable obstacle to overland trade. The name is first recorded in 1067 as Strætforda and means ford on a Roman road and it is formed from Old English stræt and ford. The former crossing lay at a location north of Stratford High Street. And Stretford Langthorne after a distinctive thorn tree which was mentioned in a charter of 958 AD, the western Stratford become suffixed by “-atte-Bow”, eventually becoming known simply as Bow, while over time the eastern Stratford lost its “Langthorne” suffix.
The Bridge was repaired and upgraded many times over the centuries until eventually demolished and replaced in the 19th Century, in 1135 the Cistercian Order founded Stratford Langthorne Abbey, known as West Ham Abbey. This became one of the largest and most wealthy monasteries in England, the Abbey lay between the Channelsea River and Marsh Lane. Nothing visible remains on the site, as after it dissolution by Henry VIII in 1538, local landowners took away much of the stone for their own buildings and the land was subsequently urbanised. A stone window and a carving featuring skulls – thought to have been over the door to the charnel house – remain in All Saints Church, the Great Gate of the abbey survived in Bakers Row until 1825. The coat of arms of the Abbey can be seen over the doorway to the Old Court House, in Tramway Avenue. The chevrons from this device, originally from the arms of the Mountfitchet family, the same arms were adopted by the new London Borough of Newham in 1965. The industrialisation of Stratford started slowly and accelerated rapidly in the early Victorian era, Stratford was originally an agricultural community, whose proximity to London provided a ready market for its produce.
By the 18th century, the area around Stratford was noted for potato growing, Stratford became a desirable country retreat for wealthy merchants and financiers, within an easy ride of the City. When Daniel Defoe visited Stratford in 1722, he reported that it had. increased in buildings to a strange degree and he continues that. this increase is, generally speaking, of hansom large houses. An early industrial undertaking at Stratford was the Bow porcelain factory, the site of the factory was to the north of Stratford High Street near the modern Bow Flyover, it was the subject of archaeological excavations in 1921 and 1969
Wards of the City of London
The City of London is divided into 25 wards. Unlike other modern-day English local authorities, the City of London Corporation has two bodies, the now largely ceremonial Court of Aldermen and the Court of Common Council. The wards are a survival of the governmental system that allowed very small areas to exist as self-governing units within the wider city. They are both electoral/political sub-divisions and permanent ceremonial and administrative entities within the City and they had their boundaries changed in 2003, and to a lesser extent in 2013, though the number of wards and their names did not change. Each ward, or aldermanry, has its own alderman, who is the most senior official or representative in the ward, the aldermen traditionally held office for life but in the modern era put themselves up for re-election at least every six years. They now customarily retire at 70, the retirement age as a justice of the peace. Each ward returns one alderman to the Court of Aldermen, one of the aldermen is elected as Lord Mayor of London for a period of one year.
The Lord Mayor performs many functions and holds many ancient positions, the City of London is the only remaining local authority in Great Britain to have aldermen, since their general abolition in England and Wales in 1974 and the London boroughs in 1978. Wards continue to have beadles, with most having just one and these should not be confused with the Beadles of the Livery Companies of the City, who are employees of them. The wards alderman presides over the wardmote and appoints one of the councillors of the ward as a deputy for the year ahead. Wardmotes at which an alderman is to be elected are presided over by the Lord Mayor, there are twenty two of these. Confusingly, there is a United Wards Club which was formed many of the others as a joint association and is now additional to them. In recent times the ward clerk is a permanent position held by an official at the Corporation, the ward clerk is a separate office to that of the Town Clerk of London, who is the chief executive of the Corporation.
Boundary changes in 2003 removed some of these places from their wards, but that boundary review. The Common Council as we know it today, as a body of the wards, was realised in 1384 when the Citys guilds no longer elected members. The number of members of the Common Council grew to 240 by the mid-nineteenth century, each ward was divided into precincts, each of which elected one common councilman. As the number of precincts grew over time, the number of councilmen elected therefore increased, the precincts have now been abolished. The wards are ancient and their number has changed three times since their creation in time immemorial
Croydon is a large town in south London, England,9.5 miles south of Charing Cross. The principal settlement in the London Borough of Croydon, it is one of the largest commercial districts outside Central London, with a shopping district. Its population of 52,104 at the 2011 census includes the wards of Addiscombe, Broad Green, Croydon expanded in the Middle Ages as a market town and a centre for charcoal production, leather tanning and brewing. The Surrey Iron Railway from Croydon to Wandsworth opened in 1803 and was the worlds first public railway, nineteenth century railway building facilitated Croydons growth as a commuter town for London. By the early 20th century, Croydon was an important industrial area, known for car manufacture, metal working, Croydon was amalgamated into Greater London in 1965. Road traffic is diverted away from a largely pedestrianised town centre, East Croydon is a major hub of the national railway transport system, with frequent fast services to central London and the south coast.
The town is unique in Greater London for its Tramlink light rail transport system, although less probable, theories of the names origin have been proposed. According to John Corbett Anderson, The earliest mention of Croydon is in the joint will of Beorhtric and Aelfswth, in this Anglo-Saxon document the name is spelt Crogdaene. Crog was, and still is, the Norse or Danish word for crooked, which is expressed in Anglo-Saxon by crumb, from the Danish came our crook and crooked. This term accurately describes the locality, it is a crooked or winding valley, in reference to the valley runs in an oblique. However, there was no long-term Danish occupation in Surrey, which was part of Wessex, and Danish-derived nomenclature is highly unlikely. The town lies on the line of the Roman road from London to Portslade, later, in the 5th to 7th centuries, a large pagan Saxon cemetery was situated on what is now Park Lane, although the extent of any associated settlement is unknown. By the late Saxon period Croydon was the hub of an estate belonging to the Archbishops of Canterbury, the church and the archbishops manor house occupied the area still known as Old Town.
Croydon appears in Domesday Book as Croindene, held by Archbishop Lanfranc and its Domesday assets were,16 hides and 1 virgate,1 church,1 mill worth 5s,38 ploughs,8 acres of meadow, woodland worth 200 hogs. The church had established in the middle Saxon period, and was probably a minster church. A charter issued by King Coenwulf of Mercia refers to a council that had taken place close to the monasterium of Croydon, an Anglo-Saxon will made in about 960 is witnessed by Elfsies, priest of Croydon, and the church is mentioned in Domesday Book. The will of John de Croydon, dated 6 December 1347, includes a bequest to the church of S John de Croydon, the church still bears the arms of Archbishop Courtenay and Archbishop Chichele, believed to have been its benefactors. In 1276 Archbishop Robert Kilwardby acquired a charter for a market
White City, London
White City is a district in the London Borough of Hammersmith and Fulham and forms the northern part of Shepherds Bush. Today, White City is home to the BBC Television Centre and BBC White City, and Loftus Road stadium, the area now called White City was level arable farmfields until 1908, when it was used as the site of the Franco-British Exhibition and the 1908 Summer Olympics. In 1909 the exhibition site hosted the Imperial International Exhibition and in 1910, the final two exhibitions to be held there were the Latin-British Exhibition and the Anglo-American Exhibition, which was brought to a premature end by the outbreak of the First World War. During this period it was known as the Great White City due to the marble cladding used on the exhibition pavilions. The White City Stadium in the north of the area, known as the Great Stadium, in 1931, a 440yd running track was installed for the Amateur Athletic Association Championships, held there from 1932 to 1970. It hosted one match during the 1966 World Cup, the stadium was demolished in 1985 to make way for the BBC White City building.
The Marathon from these London Olympics played an important part in the development of the marathon race. In the early years of international sport, the long distance marathon race did not have a standard set distance. The distance run at the first seven Olympics from 1896 to 1920 varied between 40km and 42.75 km, the starting point of the race at the 1908 Olympics was at Windsor Castle creating a distance of 26 miles 385 yards to the finishing line at White City stadium. In 1921 this was adopted as the standard distance, to house the growing population of Shepherds Bush, a five-storey housing estate was built in the late 1930s, which took the name of the White City. Streets were named after countries that had featured in the exhibitions, in 2001, BBC Television Centre was damaged by a car bomb attack by the Real IRA. The bomb went off on Wood Lane, in front of the Television Centre news building, on 30 October 2008, Westfield shopping centre was opened. Westfield Group has built a new shopping centre, bounded by the West Cross Route and this centre has been branded Westfield London.
Shepherds Bush on the West London Line, to the east of the adjacent to the Holland Park roundabout. It is a walking distance from Shepherds Bush tube station served by the Central line. In 2007, it was announced that the BBC would sell its landmark Television Centre as part of a cost-cutting programme, in 2008 English Heritage announced its recommendation to list parts of TV centre as an excellent example of 20th-century architecture. Following the sale of the Television Centre, White City has become a key area within Central London. A strong partnership between White City Living by St James, Westfield London and Imperial College London, has created a vision for the future of White City area
Vauxhall is a mixed commercial and residential district of southwest London in the London Borough of Lambeth. Vauxhall formed part of Surrey until 1889 when the County of London was created, Vauxhall is 2.1 km south of Charing Cross and 1.5 km southwest of the actual centre of London at Frazier st near Lambeth North tube station. The area only became known by this name when the Vauxhall Pleasure Gardens opened as a public attraction. Initially most visitors would have approached by river, but crowds of Londoners of all came to know the area after the construction of Westminster Bridge in the 1740s. There are competing theories as to why the Russian word for a railway station is вокзал. This was further embellished into a story that the Tsar Nicholas I of Russia, visiting London in 1844, was taken to see the trains at Vauxhall and made the same mistake. The locality of the L&SWRs original railway terminus, Nine Elms Station, was shown boldly and simply as Vauxhall in the 1841 Bradshaw timetable, in 1838 a music and entertainment pavilion was constructed at the railway terminus.
This pavilion was called the Vokzal in homage to the Vauxhall Pleasure Gardens in London, the name soon came to be applied to the station itself, which was the gateway that most visitors used to enter the gardens. It came to any substantial railway station building. Archdeacon William Coxe describes the place as a sort of Vauxhall in that year, there is no mention of Vauxhall in the 1086 Domesday Book. The area originally formed part of the extensive Manor of South Lambeth, falkes de Breauté acquired it in 1216 when he married Margaret, widow of Baldwin de Redvers, de Breautés lands reverted to the de Redvers family after his death in 1226. In 1293 South Lambeth Manor and the Manor of la Sale Faukes passed, probably by trickery, in 1317 King Edward II granted the manor of Vauxhall, Surrey, to Sir Roger dAmory for his good services at the Battle of Bannockburn. From various accounts, three local roads – the South Lambeth Road, Clapham Road and Wandsworth Road – were ancient and well-known routes to and from London.
The land was flat and parts were marshy and poorly drained by ditches, and only started to be developed with the draining of Lambeth Marsh in the mid-18th century, prior to this it provided market garden produce for the nearby City of London. Vauxhall Bridge and Vauxhall Bridge Road were opened in 1816, by 1860 the village had been subsumed by the town of Lambeth. Many of Vauxhalls streets were destroyed during the construction of the railway to Waterloo station, many Vauxhall residents live in social housing. Vauxhall is an ethnically diverse area, with approximately 40% of residents originating from a non-white ethnic group. There is a significant Portuguese community, some with a connection to Madeira, many Portuguese restaurants and bars are located in South Lambeth Road, there is a significant Muslim community, with almost 6% of residents declaring themselves as Muslim in the 2001 census
Sands End denotes an area in the ancient parish of Fulham, formerly in the County of Middlesex. It is the southernmost part to the east of the London Borough of Hammersmith and Fulham in London and it lies in a deep loop of the Thames river, between the tidal Chelsea Creek and the old Peterborough estate, west of Wandsworth Bridge. Its northern edge may be defined by the New Kings Road, where there were wharves, industrial acres and workers cottages has given way to intensive re-development since the last quarter of the 20th-century. It contains some 300-years-old cottages, 19th-century genteel streets and now the Chelsea Harbour, for centuries, this swampy place was a rural backwater, cut off from other villages and the main thoroughfares into the City of London. Its earliest recorded landowner was John de Saundeford in the reign of Edward I, barbara Denny, a contemporary historian, wrote that King Henry VIII granted the manor of Sandford to the Abbot of Westminster, but that in 1549 it returned to the Crown.
Ten years later, Queen Mary sold it to a mercer from London, although the estate had a manor house, for centuries the land was used mainly for pasture. Another reputed resident was Nell Gwyn, the historian of Fulham, Charles Féret, devotes several chapters of his 3 volume work to the origins of Sands End. In the earlier Court Rolls one or two persons are described as atte Sonde. In 1454 we hear of a John Burton atte Sonde, in a presentment of 1569 there is mentioned a Thomas Burton of Sandes. It is not till the time of the Virgin Queen that we hear of the End, the earliest instance of the name is in 1566, when mention is made of the bridge at Sandeande. In 1575 John Powell, was required to make his fence between Gill Hale and the premises of John Burton at Sands Ende, two years this John Burton was ordered to scour his ditches at Sand End, between Gilhalle and Peasecroft. In 1824 twenty acres of the estate were bought by the Imperial Gas Light and Coke Company, so began almost two centuries of industrialisation and manufacturing.
Craftsmen and artists were attracted to its fringes, most notably, William De Morgan, a friend of William Morris. The growth of the Temperance movement produced yet another brewery in Fulham, on an eight-acre site in Sands End, just east of Wandsworth Bridge, the Polish-born entrepreneur, Henry Lowenfeld built the Kops Brewery that started production in 1890. It lasted to the dawn of World War I when it was turned into a margarine factory, in 1901, Fulham Council built its gasworks here, while MacFarlane Lang had established its biscuit factory nearby. On the northern bank of the Thames there is Hurlingham Retail Park, there is a business enterprise centre in the Sulivan district. Also in this part of Fulham is South Park, Wandsworth Bridge Road runs through Sands End and has restaurants and pine furniture shops, the Church of England parish church of Saint Matthew. Southern provides train services from Imperial Wharf to Milton Keynes Central
Uxbridge is a town in west London and the administrative headquarters of the London Borough of Hillingdon. Fifteen miles west-northwest of Charing Cross, it is one of the metropolitan centres identified in the London Plan. Uxbridge historically formed part of the parish of Hillingdon in the county of Middlesex, as part of the suburban growth of London in the 20th century it expanded and increased in population, becoming a municipal borough in 1955, and has formed part of Greater London since 1965. It is a significant retail and commercial centre, and is the location of Brunel University, the town is close to the boundary with Buckinghamshire, which is locally the River Colne. Several historical events have taken place in and around the town, the public house at the centre of those events, since renamed the Crown & Treaty, still stands. Uxbridge houses the Battle of Britain Bunker, from where the air defence of the south-east of England was coordinated during the Battle of Britain. Situated in RAF Uxbridge, the No.11 Group Operations Room within the bunker played a crucial rule during the battle and was used during the D-Day landings.
The wards of Uxbridge North and Uxbridge South are used for the election of councillors to Hillingdon Council, the 2011 Census recorded population figures of 12,048 for Uxbridge North and 13,979 for Uxbridge South. The name of the town is derived from Wixans Bridge, which was sited near the bottom of Oxford Road where a road bridge now stands, beside the Swan. The Wixan were a 7th-century Saxon tribe from Lincolnshire who began to settle in what became Middlesex, anglo-Saxons began to settle and farm in the area of Uxbridge in the 5th century, clearing the dense woodland and remaining there for around 500 years. Two other places in Middlesex bore the name of the Wixan, Uxendon, a now preserved only in the street names of Uxendon Hill and Crescent in Harrow. Archaeologists found Bronze Age remains and medieval remains during the construction of The Chimes shopping centre, Uxbridge is not mentioned in the Domesday Book of the 11th century, but a hundred years the existing church, St Margarets, was built.
The town appears in records from 1107 as Woxbrigge, and became part of the Elthorne Hundred with other settlements in the area. Charles I met with representatives of Parliament at the Crown Inn in Uxbridge in 1645, the town had been chosen as it was located between the Royal headquarters at Oxford and the Parliamentary stronghold of London. The covered market was built in 1788, replacing a building constructed in 1561, in the early 19th century, Uxbridge had an unsavoury reputation, the jurist William Arabin said of its residents They will steal the very teeth out of your mouth as you walk through the streets. For about 200 years most of Londons flour was produced in the Uxbridge area, the Grand Junction Canal opened in 1794, linking Uxbridge with Birmingham. By 1800 Uxbridge had become one of the most important market towns in Middlesex, the development of Uxbridge declined after the opening of the Great Western Railway in 1838, which passed through West Drayton. A branch line to Uxbridge was not built until 1904, harmans Brewery was established in Uxbridge by George Harman in 1763, and moved into its new headquarters in Uxbridge High Street in 1875
London, or Greater London, is a region of England which forms the administrative boundaries of London. It is organised into 33 local government districts, the 32 London boroughs, the Greater London Authority, based in Southwark, is responsible for strategic local government across the region and consists of the Mayor of London and the London Assembly. The county of Greater London was created on 1 April 1965 through the London Government Act 1963, Greater London was first established as a sui generis council area under the Greater London Council between 1963 and 1986. The area was re-established as a region in 1994, and the Greater London Authority formed in 2000, the region covers 1,572 km2 and had a population of 8,174,000 at the 2011 census. In 2012, it had the highest GVA per capita in the United Kingdom at £37,232, the Greater London Built-up Area—used in some national statistics—is a measure of the continuous urban area of London, and therefore includes areas outside of the administrative region.
The term Greater London has been and still is used to different areas in governance, history. In terms of ceremonial counties, London is divided into the small City of London, outside the limited boundaries of the City, a variety of arrangements has governed the wider area since 1855, culminating in the creation of the Greater London administrative area in 1965. The Greater London Arterial Road Programme was devised between 1913 and 1916, one of the larger early forms was the Greater London Planning Region, devised in 1927, which occupied 1,856 square miles and included 9 million people. The LCC pressed for an alteration in its boundaries soon after the end of the First World War, noting that within the Metropolitan, a Royal Commission on London Government was set up to consider the issue. The LCC proposed a vast new area for Greater London, with a boundary somewhere between the Metropolitan Police District and the home counties, protests were made at the possibility of including Windsor and Eton in the authority.
The Commission made its report in 1923, rejecting the LCCs scheme, two minority reports favoured change beyond the amalgamation of smaller urban districts, including both smaller borough councils and a central authority for strategic functions. The London Traffic Act 1924 was a result of the Commission, Greater London originally had a two-tier system of local government, with the Greater London Council sharing power with the City of London Corporation and the 32 London Borough councils. The GLC was abolished in 1986 by the Local Government Act 1985 and its functions were devolved to the City Corporation and the London Boroughs, with some functions transferred to central government and joint boards. Greater London was used to form the London region of England in 1994, a referendum held in 1998 established a public will to recreate an upper tier of government to cover the region. The Greater London Authority, London Assembly and the directly elected Mayor of London were created in 2000 by the Greater London Authority Act 1999, in 2000, the outer boundary of the Metropolitan Police District was re-aligned to the Greater London boundary.
The 2000 and 2004 mayoral elections were won by Ken Livingstone, the 2008 and 2012 elections were won by Boris Johnson. The 2016 election was won by Sadiq Khan, Greater London continues to include the most closely associated parts of the Greater London Urban Area and their historic buffers. Thus it includes, in five boroughs, significant parts of the Metropolitan Green Belt which protects designated greenfield land in a way to the citys parks
Shepherds Bush is an area of west London in the London Borough of Hammersmith and Fulham. Although it is residential in character, its focus is the shopping area of Shepherds Bush Green. The main thoroughfares are Uxbridge Road, Goldhawk Road and Askew Road, all containing a number of small and mostly independent shops, pubs. The Loftus Road football stadium in Shepherds Bush is home to Queens Park Rangers, in 2011, the population of the area was 39,724. The district is bounded by Hammersmith to the south, Holland Park and Notting Hill to the east, Harlesden to the north and by Acton, White City forms the northern part of Shepherds Bush. Shepherds Bush comprises the Shepherds Bush Green, College Park & Old Oak, Kensal Green and White City wards. The areas focal point is Shepherds Bush Green, an area of about 8 acres of open grass surrounded by trees and roads with shops. This position makes it an important node of the bus network and it is served by five London Underground stations, Shepherds Bush, White City, Shepherds Bush Market, Goldhawk Road and Wood Lane.
Originally built in the 1970s with a car park and connecting bridge to the station. The bridge was removed, and the now houses several chain stores, a 12-screen cinema, pub, restaurants, a medical practice. The small shops continue along Uxbridge Road to the west for some distance, many of these establishments cater for the local ethnic minority communities. The Westfield Group opened a centre in October 2008. The same building houses Escape Studios, an art school providing computer graphics training for the visual effects industry in London. The residential areas of Shepherds Bush are primarily located to the west of the Green, either side of Uxbridge Road and Goldhawk Road to the southwest, and about as far as Askew Road in the west. Much of the housing in this area consists of three- or four-storey terraces dating from the late 19th century, Shepherds Bush is home to the White City Estate, a housing estate that was originally constructed in the 1930s and further extended after the war in the early 1950s.
The name Shepherds Bush is thought to have originated from the use of the land here as a resting point for shepherds on their way to Smithfield Market in the City of London. An alternative theory is that it could have named after someone in the area. Evidence of human habitation can be traced back to the Iron Age, Shepherds Bush enters the written record in the year 704 when it was bought by Waldhere, Bishop of London as a part of the Fulanham estate