Broadwater Farm, often referred to simply as The Farm, is an area in Tottenham, north London, straddling the River Moselle. The eastern half of the area is dominated by the Broadwater Farm Estate, the western half of the area is taken up by Lordship Recreation Ground, one of north Londons largest parks. Broadwater Farm in 2011 had a population of 4,844, following a major redevelopment programme crime rates have dropped dramatically with a burglary rate of virtually zero percent. It is one of the most ethnically diverse locations in London, Broadwater Farm is situated in the valley of the Moselle, approximately six miles north of the City of London. It is situated in a deep depression south of Lordship Lane. It is immediately adjacent to Bruce Castle, approximately 547 yards from the centre of Tottenham, until the opening of the nearby Bruce Grove railway station on 22 July 1872 the area was still rural, although close in proximity to London and the growing suburb of Tottenham. Aside from a group of buildings clustered around neighbouring Bruce Castle.
Following the construction of the railways to Tottenham and Wood Green, due to waterlogging and flooding caused by the River Moselle, Broadwater Farm was considered unsuitable for development and remained as farmland. By 1920, Broadwater Farm was the last remaining land on Lordship Lane. In 1932 Tottenham Urban District Council purchased Broadwater Farm, the western half was drained and converted for recreational use as Lordship Recreation Ground, while the eastern half was kept vacant for prospective development and used as allotments. As initially built, the estate contained 1,063 flats, providing homes for 3, the design of the estate was inspired by Le Corbusier, and characterised by large concrete blocks and tall towers. Because of the water table and the flood risk caused by the Moselle. Instead, the level was entirely occupied by car parks. Shops and amenities were located on the deck level. The 12 interconnected buildings were named after a different World War II RAF aerodrome. The most conspicuous buildings are the very tall Northolt and Kenley towers, the housing was poorly maintained, and suffered badly from water leakages, pest infestations and electrical faults.
More than half of the offered accommodation in the estate refused it. In 1976, less than ten years after the estate opened and this decision was unwelcome to residents, and relations between the community and the local authority became increasingly confrontational
Soho is an area of the City of Westminster and is part of the West End of London, England. Since the 1980s, the area has undergone considerable gentrification and it is now predominantly a fashionable district of upmarket restaurants and media offices, with only a small remnant of sex industry venues. Soho is a small, multicultural area of central London, a home to industry, commerce and entertainment, record shops cluster in the area around Berwick Street, with shops such as Phonica, Sister Ray and Reckless Records. On many weekends, Soho is busy enough to warrant closing off some of the streets to vehicles, Westminster City Council pedestrianised parts of Soho in the mid-1990s, but removed much of the pedestrianisation, apparently after complaints of loss of trade from local businesses. The name Soho first appears in the 17th century, Most authorities believe that the name derives from a former hunting cry. James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth, used soho as a call for his men at the Battle of Sedgemoor on 6 July 1685.
The Soho name has been imitated by other entertainment and restaurant districts such as Soho, Hong Kong, Soho, Málaga, SOHO, Beijing, SoHo, Ontario and Palermo Soho, Buenos Aires. SoHo, gets its name from its location SOuth of HOuston Street, apart from Oxford Street, all of these roads are 19th-century metropolitan improvements, so they are not Sohos original boundaries. Soho has never been a unit, with formally defined boundaries. The area to the west is known as Mayfair, to the north Fitzrovia, to the east St Giles and Covent Garden, and to the south St Jamess. According to the Soho Society, the area between Leicester Square to the south and Shaftesbury Avenue to the north, is part of Soho, Soho is part of the West End electoral ward which elects three councillors to Westminster City Council. In 1536, the land was taken by Henry VIII as a park for the Palace of Whitehall. In the 1660s, ownership of Soho Fields passed to Henry Jermyn, 1st Earl of St Albans and he was granted permission to develop property and quickly passed the lease and development to bricklayer Richard Frith.
Soho was part of the ancient parish of St Martin in the Fields, as the population started to grow a new church was provided and in 1687 a new parish of St Anne was established for it. The parish stretched from Oxford Street in the north, to Leicester Square in the south and it therefore included all of contemporary eastern Soho, including the Chinatown area. The western portion of modern Soho, around Carnaby Street was part of the parish of St James, building progressed rapidly in the late 17th century, with large properties including Monmouth House, Leicester House, Fauconberg House, Carlisle House and Newport House. Soho Square was first laid out in the 1680s on the former Soho Fields, firth built the first houses around the square, and by 1691,41 had been completed. It was originally called King Square in honour of Charles II, several upper-class families moved into the area
Ilford is a large cosmopolitan town in East London and the administrative headquarters of the London Borough of Redbridge. It is located 9.1 miles north-east of Charing Cross and is one of the metropolitan centres identified in the London Plan. Ilford forms a significant commercial and retail centre surrounded by residential development. It was historically a rural settlement in the county of Essex and its strategic position on the River Roding. Since 1965 it has formed part of Greater London, but it is considered by some to be in Essex because of the postal county. Despite the Royal Mail no longer using official postal counties, Ilford is part of the IG postcode area, though areas to the west of Ilford Hill and the A406 are part of E postcode area instead. Ilford was historically known as Great Ilford to differentiate it from nearby Little Ilford, the name is first recorded in the Domesday Book of 1086 as Ilefort and means ford over the Hyle, an old name for the River Roding that means trickling stream.
The only complete skull of a mammoth discovered in the United Kingdom was unearthed in 1860 at the site where Boots the Chemist now stands in the High Road. The skull can now be seen in the Natural History Museum and other animal remains can be seen at Redbridge Museum, Central Library. Redevelopment has destroyed much of the evidence for early Ilford, but the oldest evidence for human occupation is the 1st and this was situated between the Roding and Ilford Lane and is recorded in 18th century plans. Roman finds have made in the vicinity. A nearby mound called Lavender Mount existed into the 1960s, when it was removed during building work at Howards chemical works, excavation has shown that the latter may have been a 16th-century beacon-mound. Archaeological discoveries are displayed at Redbridge Museum, Ilford straddled the important road from London to Colchester. The Middlesex and Essex Turnpike Trust controlled and maintained the road from 1721, the River Roding was made navigable for barges as far as Ilford Bridge from 1737.
Ilford remained largely rural until its expansion in the 19th century and this brought about brickworks, cement works and coal yards to service the new buildings, largely centred on the River Roding. In 1839, a station was opened on the line from Romford to Mile End. The early businesses gave way to new industries, such as making and services such as steam laundries and collar making. A number of businesses have been founded in the town, including the eponymous photographic film
Vauxhall is a mixed commercial and residential district of southwest London in the London Borough of Lambeth. Vauxhall formed part of Surrey until 1889 when the County of London was created, Vauxhall is 2.1 km south of Charing Cross and 1.5 km southwest of the actual centre of London at Frazier st near Lambeth North tube station. The area only became known by this name when the Vauxhall Pleasure Gardens opened as a public attraction. Initially most visitors would have approached by river, but crowds of Londoners of all came to know the area after the construction of Westminster Bridge in the 1740s. There are competing theories as to why the Russian word for a railway station is вокзал. This was further embellished into a story that the Tsar Nicholas I of Russia, visiting London in 1844, was taken to see the trains at Vauxhall and made the same mistake. The locality of the L&SWRs original railway terminus, Nine Elms Station, was shown boldly and simply as Vauxhall in the 1841 Bradshaw timetable, in 1838 a music and entertainment pavilion was constructed at the railway terminus.
This pavilion was called the Vokzal in homage to the Vauxhall Pleasure Gardens in London, the name soon came to be applied to the station itself, which was the gateway that most visitors used to enter the gardens. It came to any substantial railway station building. Archdeacon William Coxe describes the place as a sort of Vauxhall in that year, there is no mention of Vauxhall in the 1086 Domesday Book. The area originally formed part of the extensive Manor of South Lambeth, falkes de Breauté acquired it in 1216 when he married Margaret, widow of Baldwin de Redvers, de Breautés lands reverted to the de Redvers family after his death in 1226. In 1293 South Lambeth Manor and the Manor of la Sale Faukes passed, probably by trickery, in 1317 King Edward II granted the manor of Vauxhall, Surrey, to Sir Roger dAmory for his good services at the Battle of Bannockburn. From various accounts, three local roads – the South Lambeth Road, Clapham Road and Wandsworth Road – were ancient and well-known routes to and from London.
The land was flat and parts were marshy and poorly drained by ditches, and only started to be developed with the draining of Lambeth Marsh in the mid-18th century, prior to this it provided market garden produce for the nearby City of London. Vauxhall Bridge and Vauxhall Bridge Road were opened in 1816, by 1860 the village had been subsumed by the town of Lambeth. Many of Vauxhalls streets were destroyed during the construction of the railway to Waterloo station, many Vauxhall residents live in social housing. Vauxhall is an ethnically diverse area, with approximately 40% of residents originating from a non-white ethnic group. There is a significant Portuguese community, some with a connection to Madeira, many Portuguese restaurants and bars are located in South Lambeth Road, there is a significant Muslim community, with almost 6% of residents declaring themselves as Muslim in the 2001 census
Fortis Green is a ward in the extreme northwestern corner of the Borough of Haringey, north London. It is the name of the road runs between Muswell Hill and East Finchley which forms part of the A504. The ward lies between Colney Hatch to the north, Muswell Hill to the east, Highgate to the south, both of these hospitals are now closed. Fortis Green ward has a population of about 12,000 and is generally an area, with a higher proportion of skilled. More than half of the 16- to 74-year-olds in Fortis Green are qualified to degree level or higher, about 85% of the population is White, higher than the borough average of about 65%. 47. 2% of the stock is in houses,52. 8% in flats. Fortis Green Road and Muswell Hill Broadway are the main shopping thoroughfares, the nearest tube stations are at East Finchley and Highgate. Although Fortis Green is now seen as being integral with Greater London this is a recent development. Before the 19th century the area was rural with an expanse of common land to the north.
In 1816 only Coldfall Wood and wasteland lay north of Fortis Green, several houses stood near the junction of Fortis Green with Muswell Hill Road where these scattered dwellings included the parish poorhouses and Upton Farm. Development of Fortis Green from a countryside track began with the enclosure of the commons it crossed, the area of Hornsey Common fronting the track was divided into narrow plots in 1815. Building started soon after with the semi-detached villas Albion Lodge and Albion Cottage being one of the first properties to be built around this time and these are one of the earliest surviving properties in the area, outside Highgate. Development of the East Finchley end began in 1820 when the Bishop of London sold off a large south-facing field on the side of Fortis Green on the corner of the East Finchley High Road. Four grand houses were built on the plot and proceeding from west to east these properties were Fairlawn, Park Hall, a further large house, Park View was built to the east of Summerlee.
In 1835 the architect Anthony Salvin purchased a field and built two Italianate villas and Colethall to the east of Summerlee, in the 1850s St James Church school was constructed on the north side of Fortis Green near to the junction with Tetherdown. Twenty houses were built in the decade to 1861, most of them on the Haswell Park estate to the south of the road which was acquired in 1852 by the National Freehold Land Society. Meant for superior villas, it was divided into 180 plots facing Eastern and Southern roads and the called Haswell Passage, Francis Road. Some roads existed by 1855 and in 1856 it was claimed that all lots were fenced and connected to main services, in spite of auctions in 1852 and 1856 some lots were still unsold in 1858, there were only 28 houses in 1871
Tottenham Hale is a district in the London Borough of Haringey in north London. From 1850–1965, it was part of the Municipal Borough of Tottenham and it takes its name from the old English word Hale, as goods were unloaded from the River Lea for onward transport by road at this point. Centred around Tottenham Hale station the area was industrial in character until the development of large residential areas. There is a housing project currently under construction, and Haringey Council is formulating plans to redevelop the area. The east of Tottenham Hale borders the London Borough of Waltham Forest, the River Lea runs through the east of Tottenham Hale. This includes the Tottenham Lock and the Pymmes Brook merging with the river, surrounding these are three main housing areas, Hale Village, the Ferry Lane Estate and Heron Wharf. The nearby Walthamstow Reservoirs and River Lea support a variety of waterfowl including herons, swans, the Walthamstow Reservoirs have been awarded a Heritage Lottery grant, funding their development into Europes largest Urban Wetland Park.
This is due for completion in 2016, the Paddocks Nature Park provides a nesting site for birds such as song thrush and various warblers. Weasels and hedgehogs as well as bats reside in the park, the following companies are or have been located in the Tottenham Hale area, For details of education in Tottenham Hale see the London Borough of Haringey article. Tottenham Hale station is on the Victoria line and has National Rail Abellio Greater Anglia services, the redevelopment of Tottenham Hale bus station was completed in December 2014. The railway and Underground station is awaiting redevelopment. The following bus routes serve the bus station,41,76,123,192,230, W4, N41 and N73
Paddington is an area within the City of Westminster, in central London. Formerly a metropolitan borough, it was integrated with Westminster and Greater London in 1965, a major project called Paddington Waterside aims to regenerate former railway and canal land between 1998 and 2018, and the area is seeing many new developments. However, the provenance is much and likely to have been forged after the 1066 Norman conquest. There is no mention of the place in the Domesday Book of 1086, a more reliable 12th-century document cited by the cleric Isaac Maddox establishes that part of the land was held by brothers Richard and William de Padinton. In the Elizabethan and early Stuart era, the rectory, Nicholas Small was a clothworker who was sufficiently well connected to have Holbein paint a portrait of his wife, Jane Small. Nicholas died in 1565 and his wife married again, to Nicholas Parkinson of Paddington who became master of the Clothworkers company. Jane Small continued to live in Paddington after her husbands death, and her manor house was big enough to have been let to Sir John Popham.
They let the building that became in this time Blowers Inn, as the regional population grew in the 17th century, Paddingtons ancient Hundred of Ossulstone was split into divisions, Holborn Division replaced the hundred for most administrative purposes. By 1773, a contemporary historian felt and wrote that London may now be said to include two cities, one borough and forty six antient villages. Roman roads formed the parishs north-eastern and southern boundaries from Marble Arch, Watling Street and, Uxbridge road, known by the 1860s in this neighbourhood as Bayswater Road. They were toll roads in much of the 18th century, before, by 1801, the area saw the start-point of an improved Harrow Road and an arm of the Grand Junction Canal - these remain. The district formed the centrepiece of an 1824 masterplan by Samuel Pepys Cockerell to redevelop the Tyburn Estate into an area to rival Belgravia. Despite this, Thackeray described the district of Tyburnia as the elegant, the prosperous, the polite Tyburnia.
Derivation of the name is uncertain, speculative explanations include Padre-ing-tun, Pad-ing-tun, and Pæding-tun the last being the cited suggestion of the Victorian Anglo-Saxon scholar John Mitchell Kemble. There is another Paddington in Surrey, recorded in the Domesday Book as Padendene, a lord named Padda is named in the Domesday Book, associated with Brampton, Suffolk. An 18th-century dictionary gives the definition Paddington Fair Day, an execution day, Tyburn being in the parish or neighbourhood of Paddington. To dance the Paddington frisk, to be hanged, public executions were abolished in England in 1868. Paddington station is the terminus for services to the west of London and mainline services to Oxford, South-West England
Crouch End is an area of north London, in the London Borough of Haringey. Crouch End is in a valley between Harringay to the east, Muswell Hill and Wood Green to the north, Stroud Green and Archway to the south, and Highgate to the west. Crouch End is located 4.6 miles north of Charing Cross and 5.1 miles from the City of London, to the immediate west, it is bounded by Highgate Wood, and the adjacent Queens Wood, as well as a large expanse of playing fields. To the north is Alexandra Park and to the south Finsbury Park, the Parkland Walk, a former railway line, makes a circuitous connection part of the way between these two parks. Other parks in the area include Stationers Park, Priory Park, Harringay Hornsey Highgate Muswell Hill Stroud Green Crouch End grew up as a hamlet on the old medieval route from London to the north. At this time it was governed as part of Hornsey, which became a parish in around 1300, the name Cruch End is recorded in 1593. This heavily wooded area contained farms and country houses, one of which was Crouch Hall, the transcribed 1829–1848 diaries of William Copeland Astbury, recently made available, describe in great detail London life of the period, including walks to Crouch End.
Crouch End remained rural until around 1880, large parts remained in private ownership, inhibiting development. However, the development of the changed the area significantly. By 1887 there were seven railway stations in the area, Crouch End became a prosperous middle-class suburb due to an influx of mainly clerical workers who could easily commute to the city. The large old houses were replaced by comfortable middle-class housing, public parks were created, and it expanded greatly in the late Victorian period and most of its present-day streets were built up in the late 19th century. By the mid-1930s Crouch End had a shopping centre that included a Music Hall in the middle of Topsfield Parade. Until 1965 it was part of the Municipal Borough of Hornsey. In 1965, when local government in London was reorganised, Hornsey merged with the boroughs of Wood Green and Tottenham, in the post-war years, the London-wide provision of social housing led to the building of council homes in and around Crouch End, Hornsey Vale and Hornsey itself.
The area became known as student bedsit land for decades into the early 80s until gentrification of the area changed the social profile. These social changes were illustrated by the changes in the shop types over the period, gentrification brought estate agents en masse along with up-market establishments and pavement-type cafes. Among its more prominent buildings is the modernistic Hornsey Town Hall, the architect was the New Zealand-born Reginald Uren. The interior and exterior have been used several times as a location by the BBC soap EastEnders, for further details of education in Crouch End see the London Borough of Haringey article There are three state secondary schools serving the N8 Crouch End area
Bromley is a large suburban town, the administrative headquarters of the London Borough of Bromley in Greater London, United Kingdom. It was historically a market town chartered since 1158 and an ancient parish in the county of Kent, as part of the suburban growth of London in the 20th century, Bromley significantly increased in population and was incorporated as a municipal borough in 1903. Most of Bromley including the centre falls under the BR1 postcode district. Bromley is first recorded in a charter of 862 as Bromleag and it shares this Old English etymology with Great Bromley in Essex, but not with the Bromley in Tower Hamlets. The history of Bromley is closely connected with the See of Rochester, in AD862 Ethelbert, the King of Kent, granted land to form the Manor of Bromley. It was held by the Bishops of Rochester until 1845, when Coles Child, the town was an important coaching stop on the way to Hastings from London, and the now defunct Royal Bell Hotel is referred to in Jane Austens Pride and Prejudice.
Bromley, known as Bromley St Peter and St Paul, formed an ancient parish in the Bromley and Beckenham hundred, in 1840 it became part of the expanded Metropolitan Police District. The parish adopted the Local Government Act 1858 and a board was formed in 1867. The board was reconstituted as Bromley Urban District Council in 1894 and it formed part of the London Traffic Area from 1924 and the London Passenger Transport Area from 1933. Bromley became part of the newly created Greater London in 1965, Bromley forms part of the Bromley and Chislehurst Parliament constituency and the London European Parliament constituency. The current MP is Bob Neill, James Cleverly is the London Assembly member for the Bexley and Bromley constituency, in which the town is located. Bromleys most prominent MP was the former Conservative Prime Minister Harold Macmillan, Bromley is located 9.3 miles south east of Charing Cross and is one of the major metropolitan centres identified in the London Plan. Bromley is a post town in the BR postcode area, consisting of BR1, BR1 covers Bromley, Sundridge Park and part of Downham, and the BR2 portion covers Hayes, Shortlands and Bromley Common.
Other nearby areas, Climate in this area has mild differences between highs and lows, the Köppen Climate Classification subtype for this climate is Cfb. Bromley is one of the major metropolitan centres identified in the London Plan. The town has a retail area, including a pedestrianised High Street and The Glades centre. The shopping area includes such as Gap, Russell & Bromley and Waterstones. Orpington, Sevenoaks via Swanley, Ashford International via Maidstone East, Bromley North station with services to London Bridge and Charing Cross by changing at Grove Park. Bromley has a number of theatres, the most notable being the Churchill Theatre in the town centre, the Churchill Theatre was opened on 19 July 1977 by HRH Prince of Wales, and seats 785
Marylebone is an affluent inner-city area of central London, located within the City of Westminster and part of the West End. It is sometimes written as St. Marylebone, Marylebone is roughly bounded by Oxford Street to the south, Marylebone Road to the north, Edgware Road to the west and Great Portland Street to the east. The area east of Great Portland Street up to Cleveland Street and this stream rose further north in what is now Swiss Cottage, eventually running along what is now Marylebone Lane, which preserves its curve within the grid pattern. The church and the area became known as St Mary at the Bourne which, over time, became shortened to its present form. It is a common misunderstanding that the name is a corruption of Marie la Bonne, the manor of Tyburn is mentioned in the Domesday Book as a possession of Barking Abbey valued at 52 shillings, with a population no greater than 50. Early in the 13th century it was held by Robert de Vere, 3rd Earl of Oxford. Tyburn manor remained with the Crown until the part was sold in 1611 by James I, who retained the deer park, to Edward Forest.
Forests manor of Marylebone passed by marriage to the Austen family, the deer park, Marylebone Park Fields, was let out in small holdings for hay and dairy produce. The Harley heiress Lady Margaret Cavendish Harley married William, 2nd Duke of Portland, such place names in the neighbourhood as Cavendish Square and Portland Place reflect the Dukes of Portland landholdings and Georgian-era developments there. In 1879 the fifth Duke died without issue and the estate passed through the line to his sister, Lucy Joan Bentinck. A large part of the area directly to the west was constructed by the Portman family and is known as the Portman Estate, both estates have aristocratic antecedents and are still run by members of the aforementioned families. The Crown repurchased the northern part of the estate in 1813, mansfield Street is a short continuation of Chandos Street built by the Adam brothers in 1770, on a plot of ground which had been underwater. Most of its houses are fine buildings with exquisite interiors, which if put on the market now would have a price in excess of £10 million.
Immediately across the road at 61 New Cavendish Street lived Natural History Museum creator Alfred Waterhouse, Queen Anne Street is an elegant cross-street which unites the northern end of Chandos Street with Welbeck Street. The painter JMW Turner moved to 47 Queen Anne Street in 1812 from 64 Harley Street, now divided into numbers 22 and 23, the building is one of the finest surviving Adam houses in London, and now lets rooms. Wimpole Street runs from Henrietta Place north to Devonshire Street, becoming Upper Wimpole en route – the latter where Arthur Conan Doyle opened his practice at number 2 in 1891. Today, at the end of Wimpole at Wigmore can be found a sandwich shop named Barretts. Bentinck Street leaves Welbeck Street and touches the middle of winding Marylebone Lane, more recently, Cambridge spies Anthony Blunt and Guy Burgess lived at 5 Bentinck Street during the Second World War
Hornsey /hɔːrnziː/ is a district of north London, England in the London Borough of Haringey. It is an inner-suburban, for the most part residential, area centred 6.2 miles north of Charing Cross, despite being the oldest recorded village in London, there is much debate about the definition of the area and the term Hornsey Village. The boundaries of Hornsey neighbourhood today are not clearly defined and this used to stretch to a long border with Islington and Stoke Newington. It had two small detached parts immediately beyond and within the latter, north of Hornsey High Street, and immediately to its south, some of the area is public sector housing, surrounded by the late Victorian terraces developed by builders such as John Farrer. Between the western end of the High Street and the bottom of Muswell Hill, much of this part is the Warner Estate built up with large well-appointed late Victorian houses. To the south west of the High Street is Priory Park, the High Street has a range of shops and an increasing number of restaurants and pubs.
The eastern section retains strong echoes of its rural past and hosts the 13th-century tower which is all that remains of St Marys Church, the Tower has recently been used as The Intimate Space, climaing to be Londons smallest performance space. On the north side of the High street was the old public bath and wash house which was demolished got make way for a new housing scheme, opened in 1932, it had 33,000 users a year in the 1950s. A small group of residents had suggested to Haringey Council that it should be developed as an arts & crafts studio. The TV drama series The Hour was filmed in Hornsey Town Hall, Hornseys Town Hall was used within the show. One electoral ward containing the word Hornsey was in use by the London Borough of Haringey in 2011, the earliest written form of the name was recorded as Harenhg’ in about 1195. Its development thereafter gave rise to the names of Harringay. The church first mentioned in 1291, the village grew dramatically after about 1860 and eventually merged with the separate settlement at Crouch End to form an urban area in the middle of the parish.
Much of Hornsey was built up in Edwardian times, but the tower of the parish church still stands in its ancient graveyard in Hornsey High Street. Other notable places are the Doragh Gasworks, the former Hornsey Town Hall in Crouch End, in 1954 the first Lotus Cars factory was established in stables behind the Railway Hotel on Tottenham Lane. The company was formed as Lotus Engineering Ltd in 1952 by Colin Chapman and Colin Dare, the Railway Hotel pub was owned by Chapman’s father. In its early days Lotus sold cars aimed at privateer racers and its early road cars could be bought as kits, in order to save on purchase tax. Adjacent to the pub was the first Lotus showroom where there is now a plaque to Colin Chapman erected by Club Lotus
Croydon is a large town in south London, England,9.5 miles south of Charing Cross. The principal settlement in the London Borough of Croydon, it is one of the largest commercial districts outside Central London, with a shopping district. Its population of 52,104 at the 2011 census includes the wards of Addiscombe, Broad Green, Croydon expanded in the Middle Ages as a market town and a centre for charcoal production, leather tanning and brewing. The Surrey Iron Railway from Croydon to Wandsworth opened in 1803 and was the worlds first public railway, nineteenth century railway building facilitated Croydons growth as a commuter town for London. By the early 20th century, Croydon was an important industrial area, known for car manufacture, metal working, Croydon was amalgamated into Greater London in 1965. Road traffic is diverted away from a largely pedestrianised town centre, East Croydon is a major hub of the national railway transport system, with frequent fast services to central London and the south coast.
The town is unique in Greater London for its Tramlink light rail transport system, although less probable, theories of the names origin have been proposed. According to John Corbett Anderson, The earliest mention of Croydon is in the joint will of Beorhtric and Aelfswth, in this Anglo-Saxon document the name is spelt Crogdaene. Crog was, and still is, the Norse or Danish word for crooked, which is expressed in Anglo-Saxon by crumb, from the Danish came our crook and crooked. This term accurately describes the locality, it is a crooked or winding valley, in reference to the valley runs in an oblique. However, there was no long-term Danish occupation in Surrey, which was part of Wessex, and Danish-derived nomenclature is highly unlikely. The town lies on the line of the Roman road from London to Portslade, later, in the 5th to 7th centuries, a large pagan Saxon cemetery was situated on what is now Park Lane, although the extent of any associated settlement is unknown. By the late Saxon period Croydon was the hub of an estate belonging to the Archbishops of Canterbury, the church and the archbishops manor house occupied the area still known as Old Town.
Croydon appears in Domesday Book as Croindene, held by Archbishop Lanfranc and its Domesday assets were,16 hides and 1 virgate,1 church,1 mill worth 5s,38 ploughs,8 acres of meadow, woodland worth 200 hogs. The church had established in the middle Saxon period, and was probably a minster church. A charter issued by King Coenwulf of Mercia refers to a council that had taken place close to the monasterium of Croydon, an Anglo-Saxon will made in about 960 is witnessed by Elfsies, priest of Croydon, and the church is mentioned in Domesday Book. The will of John de Croydon, dated 6 December 1347, includes a bequest to the church of S John de Croydon, the church still bears the arms of Archbishop Courtenay and Archbishop Chichele, believed to have been its benefactors. In 1276 Archbishop Robert Kilwardby acquired a charter for a market