Westminster is an area of central London within the City of Westminster, part of the West End, on the north bank of the River Thames. Historically the area lay within St Margarets parish, City & Liberty of Westminster and it has been the home of the permanent institutions of Englands government continuously since about 1200 and is now the seat of British government. In a government context, Westminster often refers to the Parliament of the United Kingdom, the closest tube stations are Westminster, St Jamess Park on the Jubilee and District lines. Within the area is Westminster School, a public school which grew out of the Abbey. Bounding Westminster to the north is Green Park, a Royal Park of London, the area has a substantial resident population, indeed most of its listed buildings are residential. A proportion of residents are people of limited means, living in council, large Victorian homes and barracks exist nearer to Buckingham Palace. The name describes an area no more than 1 mile from Westminster Abbey, the settlement grew up around the palace and abbey, as a service area for them.
The need for a church, St Margarets Westminster for the servants of the palace. It became larger and in the Georgian period became connected through urban development with the City along the Strand. It did not become a local government unit until created as a civil parish. Indeed, the Cathedral and diocesan status of the church lasted only from 1539 to 1556, as such it is first known to have had two Members of Parliament in 1545 as a new Parliamentary Borough, centuries after the City of London and Southwark were enfranchised. The historic core of Westminster is the former Thorney Island on which Westminster Abbey was built, the abbey became the traditional venue of the coronation of the kings and queens of England from that of Harold Godwinson onwards. From about 1200, near the abbey, the Palace of Westminster became the royal residence, marked by the transfer of royal treasury. Later the palace housed the developing Parliament and Englands law courts, thus London developed two focal points, the City of London and Westminster.
The monarchs moved to St James Palace and the Palace of Whitehall a little towards the north-east, the main law courts have since moved to the Royal Courts of Justice. The Westminster area formed part of the City and Liberty of Westminster in Middlesex, the ancient parish was St Margaret, after 1727 this became the civil parish of St Margaret and St John, the latter a new church required for the increasing population. The area around Westminster Abbey formed the extra-parochial Close of the Collegiate Church of St Peter surrounded by —, until 1900 the local authority was the combined vestry of St Margaret and St John, which was based at Westminster City Hall in Caxton Street from 1883. The Liberty of Westminster, governed by the Westminster Court of Burgesses, included St Martin in the Fields, Westminster had its own quarter sessions, but the Middlesex sessions had jurisdiction
Paddington is an area within the City of Westminster, in central London. Formerly a metropolitan borough, it was integrated with Westminster and Greater London in 1965, a major project called Paddington Waterside aims to regenerate former railway and canal land between 1998 and 2018, and the area is seeing many new developments. However, the provenance is much and likely to have been forged after the 1066 Norman conquest. There is no mention of the place in the Domesday Book of 1086, a more reliable 12th-century document cited by the cleric Isaac Maddox establishes that part of the land was held by brothers Richard and William de Padinton. In the Elizabethan and early Stuart era, the rectory, Nicholas Small was a clothworker who was sufficiently well connected to have Holbein paint a portrait of his wife, Jane Small. Nicholas died in 1565 and his wife married again, to Nicholas Parkinson of Paddington who became master of the Clothworkers company. Jane Small continued to live in Paddington after her husbands death, and her manor house was big enough to have been let to Sir John Popham.
They let the building that became in this time Blowers Inn, as the regional population grew in the 17th century, Paddingtons ancient Hundred of Ossulstone was split into divisions, Holborn Division replaced the hundred for most administrative purposes. By 1773, a contemporary historian felt and wrote that London may now be said to include two cities, one borough and forty six antient villages. Roman roads formed the parishs north-eastern and southern boundaries from Marble Arch, Watling Street and, Uxbridge road, known by the 1860s in this neighbourhood as Bayswater Road. They were toll roads in much of the 18th century, before, by 1801, the area saw the start-point of an improved Harrow Road and an arm of the Grand Junction Canal - these remain. The district formed the centrepiece of an 1824 masterplan by Samuel Pepys Cockerell to redevelop the Tyburn Estate into an area to rival Belgravia. Despite this, Thackeray described the district of Tyburnia as the elegant, the prosperous, the polite Tyburnia.
Derivation of the name is uncertain, speculative explanations include Padre-ing-tun, Pad-ing-tun, and Pæding-tun the last being the cited suggestion of the Victorian Anglo-Saxon scholar John Mitchell Kemble. There is another Paddington in Surrey, recorded in the Domesday Book as Padendene, a lord named Padda is named in the Domesday Book, associated with Brampton, Suffolk. An 18th-century dictionary gives the definition Paddington Fair Day, an execution day, Tyburn being in the parish or neighbourhood of Paddington. To dance the Paddington frisk, to be hanged, public executions were abolished in England in 1868. Paddington station is the terminus for services to the west of London and mainline services to Oxford, South-West England
Hounslow is the principal town in the London Borough of Hounslow in Greater London and is part of the historic county of Middlesex. It is a suburban district 10.6 miles west south-west of Charing Cross, a minority of its workers are employed in Central London, to which the town is connected by rail and tube. Hounslow is part of the TW3 postcode area, though areas to the west are in TW4 instead. The population of the town, comprising the Hounslow Central, Hounslow Heath, the name Hounslow is spelt in old records as Hundeslow and similar, pointing to Anglo-Saxon Hundes hlāw, meaning the dogs mound or the mound of a man named or nicknamed Hound. Positioned on the Bath Road, Hounslow was centred around Holy Trinity Priory founded in 1211, the priory developed what had been a small village into a town with regular markets and other facilities for travellers heading to and from London. Although the priory was dissolved in 1539 the town remained an important staging post on the Bath Road, the adjacent Hounslow Heath that had been used as a military encampment by both Oliver Cromwell and James II developed a reputation as the haunt of highwaymen and footpads.
Nearby important landowners included those of Osterley House, Syon House, Hanworth Park House, in 1756 Sir Thomas Morris, a distant relative of Bernard Matthews, established the base of his chicken farming empire. As a rich philanthropist who started from humble beginnings, he used his wealth to establish a school for the privileged children of the town. The building of the Great Western Railway line from London to Bristol from 1838 reduced long-distance travel along the Bath Road, by 1842 the local paper was reporting that the formerly flourishing village, which used to stable 2,000 horses, was suffering a general depreciation of property. The Hounslow Loop Line was constructed in 1850, prompting new development, the construction of the Great West Road in the 1920s attracted the building of the factories and headquarters of large companies. The factories were a local source of employment until a decline in the 1970s, attracting workers from a wide area. The settlement is employed in the Commuter Belt with access between 45 and 60 minutes from most of Central London.
DHL Air UK has its office in the Orbital Park in Hounslow. The M4 motorway is 2& mi north, its nearest junction, J3, the A315 is the historic WSW road out of London on which Hounslows High Street is placed. To the east, it bisects Isleworth and Chiswick, to the west it bisects North Feltham and Bedfont before joining the A30. The north-south A312, The Parkway, to the west of Hounslow leads south to Hampton or north to Harrow passing Waggoners Roundabout, Yeading, three minor roads converge on Heston from the A315 in parts of Hounslow, the A3063, A3005 and B363. For longer journeys north, the M4, A4 or A30 M25 provides the best routes, for longer journeys south, Hanworth Road leads to the A316 that becomes the M3 motorway. Hounslow railway station, operated by South West Trains is on the line to London Waterloo station, or westwards to Reading
Belgravia is a district in West London in the City of Westminster and the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea. It is noted for its very expensive residential properties and is one of the wealthiest districts in the world, much of it, known as the Grosvenor Estate, is still owned by a family property company, the Duke of Westminsters Grosvenor Group. The area takes its name one of the Dukes subsidiary titles. Owing to the Leasehold Reform Act 1967, the estate has been forced to sell many freeholds to its erstwhile tenants, the area takes its name from one of the Duke of Westminsters subsidiary titles, Viscount Belgrave. The village of Belgrave, Cheshire is two miles from the Grosvenor familys main seat of Eaton Hall. Most of the area was owned by Richard Grosvenor, 2nd Marquess of Westminster. Thomas Cubitt was the main contractor, Belgravia is characterised by grand terraces of white stucco houses, and is focused on Belgrave Square and Eaton Square. It was one of Londons most fashionable residential districts from its beginnings, fashion design houses that have their retail flagship stores and studios within the area include Philip Treacy, Donna Ida, Jenny Packham and HEMYCA.
On the southern edge of Belgravia is Pimlico Road, renowned for its antique shops and high-end furniture. It is a quiet district in the heart of London, contrasting with neighbouring districts. Many embassies are located in the area, especially in Belgrave Square and this phenomenon has diminished social relations in the neighbourhood. Belgrave Square, one of the grandest and largest 19th century squares, is the centrepiece of Belgravia and it was laid out by the property contractor Thomas Cubitt for the 2nd Earl Grosvenor, to be the 1st Marquess of Westminster, in the 1820s. Most of the houses were occupied by 1840, the numbering is anti-clockwise from the north, NW terrace Nos.1 to 11, west corner mansion No. 12, SW terrace 13–23, south corner mansion No,24, SE terrace Nos. 25–36, east corner mansion No. There is a detached house at the northern corner. 49, which was built in by Cubitt for Sidney Herbert in 1851, the terraces were designed by George Basevi and are possibly the grandest houses ever built in London on a speculative basis.
The largest of the mansions, Seaford House in the east corner, was designed by Philip Hardwick. Eaton Square is larger but less grand than the feature of the district, Belgrave Square
Shepherds Bush is an area of west London in the London Borough of Hammersmith and Fulham. Although it is residential in character, its focus is the shopping area of Shepherds Bush Green. The main thoroughfares are Uxbridge Road, Goldhawk Road and Askew Road, all containing a number of small and mostly independent shops, pubs. The Loftus Road football stadium in Shepherds Bush is home to Queens Park Rangers, in 2011, the population of the area was 39,724. The district is bounded by Hammersmith to the south, Holland Park and Notting Hill to the east, Harlesden to the north and by Acton, White City forms the northern part of Shepherds Bush. Shepherds Bush comprises the Shepherds Bush Green, College Park & Old Oak, Kensal Green and White City wards. The areas focal point is Shepherds Bush Green, an area of about 8 acres of open grass surrounded by trees and roads with shops. This position makes it an important node of the bus network and it is served by five London Underground stations, Shepherds Bush, White City, Shepherds Bush Market, Goldhawk Road and Wood Lane.
Originally built in the 1970s with a car park and connecting bridge to the station. The bridge was removed, and the now houses several chain stores, a 12-screen cinema, pub, restaurants, a medical practice. The small shops continue along Uxbridge Road to the west for some distance, many of these establishments cater for the local ethnic minority communities. The Westfield Group opened a centre in October 2008. The same building houses Escape Studios, an art school providing computer graphics training for the visual effects industry in London. The residential areas of Shepherds Bush are primarily located to the west of the Green, either side of Uxbridge Road and Goldhawk Road to the southwest, and about as far as Askew Road in the west. Much of the housing in this area consists of three- or four-storey terraces dating from the late 19th century, Shepherds Bush is home to the White City Estate, a housing estate that was originally constructed in the 1930s and further extended after the war in the early 1950s.
The name Shepherds Bush is thought to have originated from the use of the land here as a resting point for shepherds on their way to Smithfield Market in the City of London. An alternative theory is that it could have named after someone in the area. Evidence of human habitation can be traced back to the Iron Age, Shepherds Bush enters the written record in the year 704 when it was bought by Waldhere, Bishop of London as a part of the Fulanham estate
Hayes is a town in west London, situated 13 miles west of Charing Cross. Historically in Middlesex, Hayes became part of the London Borough of Hillingdon in 1965, the towns population was recorded as 95,763 in the 2011 census. The area appears in the Domesday Book, the towns oldest public house - the Adam and Eve, on the Uxbridge Road - though not the original seventeenth-century structure, has remained on the same site since 1665. Hayes is best known as the home of EMI. The words Hayes, Middlesex appear on the reverse of The Beatles albums, the town is the location of the U. K. headquarters of companies including, United Biscuits and Rackspace U. K. Notable historical residents include the modern father of English music, William Byrd. The place-name Hayes comes from the Anglo-Saxon Hǣs or Hǣse, the towns name is spelt Hessee in a 1628 entry in an Inquisition post mortem held at The National Archives. Hayes is formed of what originally were five villages, Hayes Town, Hayes End, Wood End. The name Hayes Town has come to be applied to the area around Station Road between Coldharbour Lane and Hayes & Harlington railway station, but this was historically the hamlet called Botwell.
The original Hayes Town was the area to the east of St Marys Church, centred around Church Road, Hemmen Lane, for some 700 years up to 1546, Hayes formed part of the Archbishop of Canterburys estates, ostensibly owing to grants from the Mercian royal family. In that year, the then-Archbishop Thomas Cranmer was forced to surrender his land to King Henry VIII, the area changed hands several times thereafter, but by the eighteenth century, two family-names had established themselves as prominent and long-time landowners and Shackle. John Wesley and Charles Wesley, founders of the evangelical Methodist movement, the Salvation Army - founded in 1865 in London by William Booth - registered a barracks in Hayes between 1887 and 1896, their hall in Coldharbour Lane was registered in 1927. In the 18th and 19th centuries, Hayes was home to private boarding schools catering for wealthy families. Until the end of the century, Hayess key areas of work were agriculture. The Second Industrial Revolution brought change in the nineteenth century.
The towns location on the Grand Junction Canal and the Great Western Railway - Hayes & Harlington railway station had opened in 1868 - made it well-placed for industry, hDCs company secretary, Alfred Clayton, is commemorated in the name of Clayton Road. Residential districts consisting of dwellings of the garden suburb type were built to house workers after World War I, in 1904 the parish council created Hayes Urban District in order to address the issue of population growth. Hayes and Harlington Urban District continued until 1965 when Hayes became part of the newly established London Borough of Hillingdon
Cowley /ˈkaʊli/ is a village contiguous with the town of Uxbridge in the London Borough of Hillingdon. Cowley lies on a ridge 28 to 45 m above sea level. Its independent male householders were two villagers, one cottage-owner with one cultivated ploughland for one plough team. Lords lands took up 1.5 ploughs of land, the woodland was worth forty pigs and a mill was worth for five shillings per year. A lay franchise of the church was held in 1293 by Lucy Peachey, whose name is reflected in several of the roads and by the local government ward of Cowley Peachey. Cowley was surrounded by Hillingdon parish, of which the town of Uxbridge itself and Uxbridge Moor, part of the Moor is now the M25 motorway. For this reason most of the history of the parish has to be dissected from that of Hillingdon. These complex parish borders were those of just one manor carved out before the Norman conquest from Hillingdon, while Hillingdon parish administered to many areas now in Cowley, most of these were in one manor within Hillingdon whose name is preserved by few places in maps, Colham.
In the west, along the road between Uxbridge and West Drayton, and mostly to the north of the Iver Lane turning, lay the village formerly known as Cowley Street. A small piece of land belonged to Cowley church on the other side of Hillingdon by Long Lane. In 1796 Cowley Field was inclosed, with the object of consolidating the parishes of Hillingdon. Four parts of the north of the Greenway were assigned to Cowley but remained detached. Nomansland, across the Pinn, remained cut off from the rest of the parish, in 1547 the parish contained 36 houseling people, in 1719 there were 109 inhabitants, and in 1801 the population was 214. During the 19th century increasing amounts of land were given over to market- and nursery-gardens, about 1800 the stretch of the Grand Junction Canal through Cowley was opened, and packet boats ran for a while in 1801 and occasionally in the next few years between Uxbridge and London. The Packet Boat Inn at Cowley Peachey, licensed in 1804, commemorates the period, in 1901, after the enlargement, it was 869, and this had only risen to 1,170 by 1931.
During the 1930s there was a deal of building, partly by Uxbridge council. The diversion of Peachey Lane in 1938 and the blocking of Maygoods Lane about 1953 have destroyed the old plan of this part of the parish. On more descriptive modern analysis the soil is slowly permeable seasonally wet acid loamy and clayey soil, little Britain Lake in the west of Cowley extends for about 450 metres between the Colne and a channel of it known as Frays River
Harlington is a district of the London Borough of Hillingdon, on the northern perimeter of London Heathrow Airport. It is centred 13.6 miles west of Charing Cross, the district adjoins Hayes to the north and shares a railway station with the larger district, which is its post town, on the Great Western Main Line. The place-name Harlington is recorded in Anglo-Saxon as Hygereding tun, Hygerǣds peoples farmstead, the earliest surviving mention of Harlington appears to be in a 9th-century charter in which land at Botwell in Hayes was said to be bounded on the west by Hygeredington and Lullinges tree. The first of these must be Harlington, the second has not been identified, by 1834 the select vestry employed a paid assistant overseer. In 1824 a surgeon for the poor of Cranford and Harlington was appointed by the vestries of both and their co-operation saw the establishment of Harlingtons National School jointly with in 1848, and its cottage hospital jointly with Cranford and Harmondsworth in 1884.
In 1924 the civil parish council asked Staines Rural District Council to light the village street, the cemetery in Cherry Lane was opened in 1936 by the UDC and the CPC started its first allotments in 1895 but rejected proposals to acquire a recreation ground or parish hall. See the entry for Hayes for the detailed local history, the chief task from 1872 for local government was the making of sewers in villages beyond a handful of homes such as this. Sewerage had been discussed in the vestry as long ago as 1864, the increase of population in the 20th century, growing preference for flush toilets and prohibitions on ground water contamination made the need for proper sanitation more urgent. In 1912, for instance, there were said to have been cases of typhoid near the White Hart. A sewerage scheme for the parish was completed by Hayes and Harlington Urban District Council in 1934, Harlington Library is towards the north of the village/district. The village contains six houses, Captain Morgans, The Great Western, The Pheasant, The Red Lion, The Wheatsheaf.
There are two churches, a Baptist church and a Church of England church, St Peter & St Pauls, hellenic Imperial Airways has its United Kingdom offices in Axis House in Harlington. Harlington Locomotive Society on the High Street of the village - operates a railway around the site of an old orchard. Harlington is covered by a community station,91.8 Hayes FM. S. S. Peter and Paul, inter alia, sculpture by Edgar Boehm, Richard Cockle Lucas, William Theed and Inigo Thomas, central London is 13.6 miles east. The area is served by Hayes and Harlington railway station, served by trains from London Paddington via Ealing to Reading via West Drayton, in the late 1830s the main line of the Great Western Railway was built across the former Dawley Park. However, Hayes & Harlington railway station was not opened until 1864, before there was a choice of the stations at West Drayton and Southall, or of the daily omnibus and weekly carrier to London. The Harlington and Cranford Cottage Hospital, in Sipson Lane, opened in 1884 and it is now home to a branch of the Sant Nirankari Satsang Bhawan
Kingston upon Thames
Kingston upon Thames, known as Kingston, is the principal settlement of the Royal Borough of Kingston upon Thames in southwest London. It was the ancient market town where Saxon kings were crowned, Kingston is situated 10 miles southwest of Charing Cross and is one of the major metropolitan centres identified in the London Plan. Kingston lies approximately 33 feet above sea level, Kingston was part of a large ancient parish in the county of Surrey and the town was an ancient borough, reformed in 1835. It has been the location of Surrey County Hall from 1893, most of the town centre is part of the KT1 postcode area, but some areas north of Kingston railway station have the postcode KT2 instead. The population of the town itself, comprising the four wards of Canbury, Norbiton, Kingston was called Cyninges tun in 838, Chingestune in 1086, Kingeston in 1164, Kyngeston super Tamisiam in 1321 and Kingestowne upon Thames in 1589. The name means the manor or estate from the Old English words cyning.
It belonged to the king in Saxon times and was the earliest royal borough and it was first mentioned in 838 as the site of a meeting between King Egbert of Wessex and Ceolnoth, Archbishop of Canterbury. Kingston lay on the boundary between the ancient kingdoms of Wessex and Mercia, until in the tenth century when King Athelstan united both to create the kingdom of England. Probably because of the symbolic location, several tenth-century kings were crowned in Kingston, Æthelstan in 925, Eadred in 946. Other kings who may have been crowned there are Edward the Elder in 902, Edmund in 939, Eadwig in 956, Edgar in about 960 and Edward the Martyr in 975. It was initially used as a block, but in 1850 it was moved to a more dignified place in the market before finally being moved to its current location in the grounds of the guildhall. Well known aviation personalities Sydney Camm, Harry Hawker and Tommy Sopwith were responsible for much of Kingstons achievements in aviation. British Aerospace finally closed its Lower Ham Road factory in 1992, part of the site was redeveloped for housing but the riverside part houses a community centre.
The growth and development of Kingston Polytechnic and its transformation into Kingston University has made Kingston a university town, Kingston upon Thames formed an ancient parish in the Kingston hundred of Surrey. The parish of Kingston upon Thames covered an area including Hook, New Malden, Richmond, Thames Ditton. The town of Kingston was granted a charter by King John in 1200, but the oldest one to survive is from 1208, other charters were issued by kings, including Edward IVs charter that gave the town the status of a borough in 1481. The borough covered a smaller area than the ancient parish, although as new parishes were split off the borough. The borough was reformed by the Municipal Corporations Act 1835, becoming the Municipal Borough of Kingston-upon-Thames and it had been known as a Royal borough through custom and the right to the title was confirmed by George V in 1927
Camden Town, often shortened to Camden, is an inner city district of northwest London,2.4 miles north of the centre of London. It is one of the 35 major centres identified in the London Plan, the areas industrial economic base has been replaced by service industries such as retail and entertainment. The area now hosts street markets and music venues which are associated with alternative culture. Camden Town is named after Charles Pratt, 1st Earl Camden and his earldom was styled after his estate, Camden Place near Chislehurst in Kent, formerly owned by historian William Camden. The name, which appears on the Ordnance Survey map of 1822, was applied to the early 20th century Camden Town Group of artists. Camden Town stands on land which was once the manor of Kentish Town, sir Charles Pratt, a radical 18th century lawyer and politician, acquired the manor through marriage. In 1791, he started granting leases for houses to be built in the manor, in 1816, the Regents Canal was built through the area.
Up to at least the mid 20th century, Camden Town was considered an unfashionable locality, the Camden markets, which started in 1973 and have grown since then, attract many visitors all week. Camden Lock Village, known as Camden Lock market, suffered a major fire, Camden Town, previously in the Metropolitan Borough of St Pancras, became part of the London Borough of Camden when it was created in 1965. Camden Town is contained in the following political constituencies for different purposes, listed with some incumbents as of 2017, Camden London Borough Council, Camden Town with Primrose Hill, returns three Borough councillors. UK Parliament, Holborn and St Pancras, four Labour, two Conservative, one Green, one UKIP. Camden Town is on flat ground at 100 feet above sea level,2.4 miles north-northwest of Charing Cross. To the north are the hills of Hampstead and Highgate, the culverted, subterranean River Fleet flows from its source on Hampstead Heath through Camden Town south to the Thames. The Regents Canal runs through the north of Camden Town, from the end of the twentieth century entertainment-related businesses and a Holiday Inn started moving into the area. A number of retail and food chain outlets replaced independent shops, driven out by high rents and redevelopment.
Restaurants with a variety of culinary traditions thrived, many of them an away from the markets, on Camden High Street and its side streets, Chalk Farm Road. The plan to re-develop the historic Stables Market led to a steel and glass extension, built on the edges of the site in 2006, Camden is well known for its markets. Camden Town Tube station is near the markets and other attractions and it is a key interchange station for the Bank, Charing Cross and High Barnet Northern line branches
Holborn is a district in the West End, central London, forming part of the London Borough of Camden. The areas first mention is in a charter of Westminster Abbey, by King Edgar and this mentions the old wooden church of St Andrew. The name Holborn may be derived from the Middle English hol for hollow, and bourne, historical cartographer William Shepherd in his Plan of London about 1300 labels the Fleet as Hole Bourn where it passes to the east of St Andrews church. The exact course of the stream is uncertain, but according to Stow it started in one of the small springs near Holborn Bar. This is supported by a map of London and Westminster created during the reign of Henry VIII that clearly marks the street as Oldbourne, other historians, find the theory implausible, in view of the slope of the land. It was outside the Citys jurisdiction and a part of Ossulstone Hundred in Middlesex, in the 12th century St Andrews was noted in local title deeds as lying on Holburnestrate—Holborn Street. The rest of the area below Bars was organised by the board of the parish of St Andrew.
The Metropolitan Borough of Holborn was abolished in 1965 and its area now part of the London Borough of Camden. Holborn is represented in the London Assembly as part of Barnet and Camden by Andrew Dismore, criminals from the Tower and Newgate passed up Holborn on their way to be hanged at Tyburn or St Giles. The theatre premièred the first full-length feature film in 1914, The World, the Flesh and the Devil, Charles Dickens took up residence in Furnivals Inn, on the site of Holborn Bars. Dickens put his character Pip, in Great Expectations, in residence at Barnards Inn opposite, staple Inn, notable as the promotional image for Old Holborn tobacco, is nearby. The three of these were Inns of Chancery, the area diversified and become recognisable as the modern street. A plaque stands at number 120 commemorating Thomas Earnshaws invention of the Marine chronometer, at the corner of Hatton Garden was the old family department store of Gamages. Until 1992, the London Weather Centre was located in the street, the Prudential insurance company relocated in 2002.
The Daily Mirror offices used to be directly opposite it, further east, in the gated avenue of Ely Place, is St Etheldredas Church, originally the chapel of the Bishop of Ely’s London palace. This ecclesiastical connection allowed the street to remain part of the county of Cambridgeshire until the mid-1930s and this meant that Ye Olde Mitre, a pub located in a court hidden behind the buildings of the Place and the Garden was subject to the Cambridgeshire Magistrates to grant its licence. St Etheldredas is the oldest church building used for Roman Catholic worship in London, this became so only after it ceased to be an Anglican chapel in the 19th century. Hatton Garden, the centre of the trade, was leased to a favourite of Queen Elizabeth I, Sir Christopher Hatton
Bexleyheath is a town in the London Borough of Bexley, southeast London, approximately 12 miles east-southeast of Charing Cross. The town is identified in the London Plan as one of 35 major centres in Greater London. Until the early 19th century, Bexley Heath comprised an area of scrub-land with few buildings, although Bexley Heath windmill stood at the corner of what is today Erith Road, in 1766 Sir John Boyd had Danson House built in parkland. In 1814 the land to the north of Bexley that would become Bexleyheath became subject to an Enclosure Act, the National Trust acquired the house in 2003. Morris wanted to have a Palace of Art in which he, the house is of red brick with a steep tiled roof and an emphasis on natural materials. Red House is in a non-historical, brick-and-tile domestic style and it is now a Grade I listed building. Morris lived with his wife Jane in the house for five years, forced to sell the house for financial reasons in 1865, Morris vowed never to return to it—he said that to see the house again would be more than he could bear.
Bexleyheaths parish church, Christ Church, dates from 1841, and the parish of Bexleyheath from 1866, the clock-tower at the centre of the modern shopping area, built in 1912, commemorates the coronation of King George V. In the late 1970s the London Borough of Bexley built its headquarters and it is generally seen as being split into two parts by the old Roman road. The DA6 postcode area which is south Bexleyheath has a less homogeneous feel and features Danson House, adjacent to the park, Danson Road has an array of large houses, including a small number of Modernist buildings. In the north DA7 postcode area the majority of houses are predominantly 1930s semi-detached residences and this area includes part of the Bostall Park Estate, built by the developers Feakes & Richards. A face-lift in 2008 on The Mall gave the centre a more modern internal appearance, other developments included the building of Bexleyheath Square in the early 2000s as an extension to the Broadway, providing more retail units.
The 1990s saw the pedestrianisation of the adjacent to The Broadway shopping centre following the construction of two minor bypasses. Many of the changes to the centre since 2000 have been in some way a response to competition from Bluewater Shopping Centre,9 miles to the east in Greenhithe. Management was taken over in 2010 by Broadway Shopping Centre, the statue outside the Broadway Centre is Family Outing by local artist John Ravera, it was commissioned by Norwich Union and unveiled in 1985. The sculpture, of two parents playing with their son, is based on a Mr G Brazier of Bexley, in May 2009 a major redevelopment scheme was approved by the local council following public consultation. This involved the redevelopment of sites occupied by the Bexley council buildings, the magistrates court was to move to a new building on a site occupied by the library, which would be incorporated into the new development alongside 300 new homes. However, this development did not proceed following the sale of the Broadway Shopping Centre to new owners, in 2012, the local council approved plans to relocate its offices into the former headquarters of The Woolwich, which had lain empty since 2006