List of districts in the London Borough of Islington
The following is a list of places located within the London Borough of Islington:
The following is a list of places located within the London Borough of Islington:
Ilford is a large cosmopolitan town in East London and the administrative headquarters of the London Borough of Redbridge. It is located 9.1 miles north-east of Charing Cross and is one of the metropolitan centres identified in the London Plan. Ilford forms a significant commercial and retail centre surrounded by residential development. It was historically a rural settlement in the county of Essex and its strategic position on the River Roding. Since 1965 it has formed part of Greater London, but it is considered by some to be in Essex because of the postal county. Despite the Royal Mail no longer using official postal counties, Ilford is part of the IG postcode area, though areas to the west of Ilford Hill and the A406 are part of E postcode area instead. Ilford was historically known as Great Ilford to differentiate it from nearby Little Ilford, the name is first recorded in the Domesday Book of 1086 as Ilefort and means ford over the Hyle, an old name for the River Roding that means trickling stream.
The only complete skull of a mammoth discovered in the United Kingdom was unearthed in 1860 at the site where Boots the Chemist now stands in the High Road. The skull can now be seen in the Natural History Museum and other animal remains can be seen at Redbridge Museum, Central Library. Redevelopment has destroyed much of the evidence for early Ilford, but the oldest evidence for human occupation is the 1st and this was situated between the Roding and Ilford Lane and is recorded in 18th century plans. Roman finds have made in the vicinity. A nearby mound called Lavender Mount existed into the 1960s, when it was removed during building work at Howards chemical works, excavation has shown that the latter may have been a 16th-century beacon-mound. Archaeological discoveries are displayed at Redbridge Museum, Ilford straddled the important road from London to Colchester. The Middlesex and Essex Turnpike Trust controlled and maintained the road from 1721, the River Roding was made navigable for barges as far as Ilford Bridge from 1737.
Ilford remained largely rural until its expansion in the 19th century and this brought about brickworks, cement works and coal yards to service the new buildings, largely centred on the River Roding. In 1839, a station was opened on the line from Romford to Mile End. The early businesses gave way to new industries, such as making and services such as steam laundries and collar making. A number of businesses have been founded in the town, including the eponymous photographic film
Vauxhall is a mixed commercial and residential district of southwest London in the London Borough of Lambeth. Vauxhall formed part of Surrey until 1889 when the County of London was created, Vauxhall is 2.1 km south of Charing Cross and 1.5 km southwest of the actual centre of London at Frazier st near Lambeth North tube station. The area only became known by this name when the Vauxhall Pleasure Gardens opened as a public attraction. Initially most visitors would have approached by river, but crowds of Londoners of all came to know the area after the construction of Westminster Bridge in the 1740s. There are competing theories as to why the Russian word for a railway station is вокзал. This was further embellished into a story that the Tsar Nicholas I of Russia, visiting London in 1844, was taken to see the trains at Vauxhall and made the same mistake. The locality of the L&SWRs original railway terminus, Nine Elms Station, was shown boldly and simply as Vauxhall in the 1841 Bradshaw timetable, in 1838 a music and entertainment pavilion was constructed at the railway terminus.
This pavilion was called the Vokzal in homage to the Vauxhall Pleasure Gardens in London, the name soon came to be applied to the station itself, which was the gateway that most visitors used to enter the gardens. It came to any substantial railway station building. Archdeacon William Coxe describes the place as a sort of Vauxhall in that year, there is no mention of Vauxhall in the 1086 Domesday Book. The area originally formed part of the extensive Manor of South Lambeth, falkes de Breauté acquired it in 1216 when he married Margaret, widow of Baldwin de Redvers, de Breautés lands reverted to the de Redvers family after his death in 1226. In 1293 South Lambeth Manor and the Manor of la Sale Faukes passed, probably by trickery, in 1317 King Edward II granted the manor of Vauxhall, Surrey, to Sir Roger dAmory for his good services at the Battle of Bannockburn. From various accounts, three local roads – the South Lambeth Road, Clapham Road and Wandsworth Road – were ancient and well-known routes to and from London.
The land was flat and parts were marshy and poorly drained by ditches, and only started to be developed with the draining of Lambeth Marsh in the mid-18th century, prior to this it provided market garden produce for the nearby City of London. Vauxhall Bridge and Vauxhall Bridge Road were opened in 1816, by 1860 the village had been subsumed by the town of Lambeth. Many of Vauxhalls streets were destroyed during the construction of the railway to Waterloo station, many Vauxhall residents live in social housing. Vauxhall is an ethnically diverse area, with approximately 40% of residents originating from a non-white ethnic group. There is a significant Portuguese community, some with a connection to Madeira, many Portuguese restaurants and bars are located in South Lambeth Road, there is a significant Muslim community, with almost 6% of residents declaring themselves as Muslim in the 2001 census
Uxbridge is a town in west London and the administrative headquarters of the London Borough of Hillingdon. Fifteen miles west-northwest of Charing Cross, it is one of the metropolitan centres identified in the London Plan. Uxbridge historically formed part of the parish of Hillingdon in the county of Middlesex, as part of the suburban growth of London in the 20th century it expanded and increased in population, becoming a municipal borough in 1955, and has formed part of Greater London since 1965. It is a significant retail and commercial centre, and is the location of Brunel University, the town is close to the boundary with Buckinghamshire, which is locally the River Colne. Several historical events have taken place in and around the town, the public house at the centre of those events, since renamed the Crown & Treaty, still stands. Uxbridge houses the Battle of Britain Bunker, from where the air defence of the south-east of England was coordinated during the Battle of Britain. Situated in RAF Uxbridge, the No.11 Group Operations Room within the bunker played a crucial rule during the battle and was used during the D-Day landings.
The wards of Uxbridge North and Uxbridge South are used for the election of councillors to Hillingdon Council, the 2011 Census recorded population figures of 12,048 for Uxbridge North and 13,979 for Uxbridge South. The name of the town is derived from Wixans Bridge, which was sited near the bottom of Oxford Road where a road bridge now stands, beside the Swan. The Wixan were a 7th-century Saxon tribe from Lincolnshire who began to settle in what became Middlesex, anglo-Saxons began to settle and farm in the area of Uxbridge in the 5th century, clearing the dense woodland and remaining there for around 500 years. Two other places in Middlesex bore the name of the Wixan, Uxendon, a now preserved only in the street names of Uxendon Hill and Crescent in Harrow. Archaeologists found Bronze Age remains and medieval remains during the construction of The Chimes shopping centre, Uxbridge is not mentioned in the Domesday Book of the 11th century, but a hundred years the existing church, St Margarets, was built.
The town appears in records from 1107 as Woxbrigge, and became part of the Elthorne Hundred with other settlements in the area. Charles I met with representatives of Parliament at the Crown Inn in Uxbridge in 1645, the town had been chosen as it was located between the Royal headquarters at Oxford and the Parliamentary stronghold of London. The covered market was built in 1788, replacing a building constructed in 1561, in the early 19th century, Uxbridge had an unsavoury reputation, the jurist William Arabin said of its residents They will steal the very teeth out of your mouth as you walk through the streets. For about 200 years most of Londons flour was produced in the Uxbridge area, the Grand Junction Canal opened in 1794, linking Uxbridge with Birmingham. By 1800 Uxbridge had become one of the most important market towns in Middlesex, the development of Uxbridge declined after the opening of the Great Western Railway in 1838, which passed through West Drayton. A branch line to Uxbridge was not built until 1904, harmans Brewery was established in Uxbridge by George Harman in 1763, and moved into its new headquarters in Uxbridge High Street in 1875
Kingston upon Thames, known as Kingston, is the principal settlement of the Royal Borough of Kingston upon Thames in southwest London. It was the ancient market town where Saxon kings were crowned, Kingston is situated 10 miles southwest of Charing Cross and is one of the major metropolitan centres identified in the London Plan. Kingston lies approximately 33 feet above sea level, Kingston was part of a large ancient parish in the county of Surrey and the town was an ancient borough, reformed in 1835. It has been the location of Surrey County Hall from 1893, most of the town centre is part of the KT1 postcode area, but some areas north of Kingston railway station have the postcode KT2 instead. The population of the town itself, comprising the four wards of Canbury, Norbiton, Kingston was called Cyninges tun in 838, Chingestune in 1086, Kingeston in 1164, Kyngeston super Tamisiam in 1321 and Kingestowne upon Thames in 1589. The name means the manor or estate from the Old English words cyning.
It belonged to the king in Saxon times and was the earliest royal borough and it was first mentioned in 838 as the site of a meeting between King Egbert of Wessex and Ceolnoth, Archbishop of Canterbury. Kingston lay on the boundary between the ancient kingdoms of Wessex and Mercia, until in the tenth century when King Athelstan united both to create the kingdom of England. Probably because of the symbolic location, several tenth-century kings were crowned in Kingston, Æthelstan in 925, Eadred in 946. Other kings who may have been crowned there are Edward the Elder in 902, Edmund in 939, Eadwig in 956, Edgar in about 960 and Edward the Martyr in 975. It was initially used as a block, but in 1850 it was moved to a more dignified place in the market before finally being moved to its current location in the grounds of the guildhall. Well known aviation personalities Sydney Camm, Harry Hawker and Tommy Sopwith were responsible for much of Kingstons achievements in aviation. British Aerospace finally closed its Lower Ham Road factory in 1992, part of the site was redeveloped for housing but the riverside part houses a community centre.
The growth and development of Kingston Polytechnic and its transformation into Kingston University has made Kingston a university town, Kingston upon Thames formed an ancient parish in the Kingston hundred of Surrey. The parish of Kingston upon Thames covered an area including Hook, New Malden, Richmond, Thames Ditton. The town of Kingston was granted a charter by King John in 1200, but the oldest one to survive is from 1208, other charters were issued by kings, including Edward IVs charter that gave the town the status of a borough in 1481. The borough covered a smaller area than the ancient parish, although as new parishes were split off the borough. The borough was reformed by the Municipal Corporations Act 1835, becoming the Municipal Borough of Kingston-upon-Thames and it had been known as a Royal borough through custom and the right to the title was confirmed by George V in 1927
Shepherds Bush is an area of west London in the London Borough of Hammersmith and Fulham. Although it is residential in character, its focus is the shopping area of Shepherds Bush Green. The main thoroughfares are Uxbridge Road, Goldhawk Road and Askew Road, all containing a number of small and mostly independent shops, pubs. The Loftus Road football stadium in Shepherds Bush is home to Queens Park Rangers, in 2011, the population of the area was 39,724. The district is bounded by Hammersmith to the south, Holland Park and Notting Hill to the east, Harlesden to the north and by Acton, White City forms the northern part of Shepherds Bush. Shepherds Bush comprises the Shepherds Bush Green, College Park & Old Oak, Kensal Green and White City wards. The areas focal point is Shepherds Bush Green, an area of about 8 acres of open grass surrounded by trees and roads with shops. This position makes it an important node of the bus network and it is served by five London Underground stations, Shepherds Bush, White City, Shepherds Bush Market, Goldhawk Road and Wood Lane.
Originally built in the 1970s with a car park and connecting bridge to the station. The bridge was removed, and the now houses several chain stores, a 12-screen cinema, pub, restaurants, a medical practice. The small shops continue along Uxbridge Road to the west for some distance, many of these establishments cater for the local ethnic minority communities. The Westfield Group opened a centre in October 2008. The same building houses Escape Studios, an art school providing computer graphics training for the visual effects industry in London. The residential areas of Shepherds Bush are primarily located to the west of the Green, either side of Uxbridge Road and Goldhawk Road to the southwest, and about as far as Askew Road in the west. Much of the housing in this area consists of three- or four-storey terraces dating from the late 19th century, Shepherds Bush is home to the White City Estate, a housing estate that was originally constructed in the 1930s and further extended after the war in the early 1950s.
The name Shepherds Bush is thought to have originated from the use of the land here as a resting point for shepherds on their way to Smithfield Market in the City of London. An alternative theory is that it could have named after someone in the area. Evidence of human habitation can be traced back to the Iron Age, Shepherds Bush enters the written record in the year 704 when it was bought by Waldhere, Bishop of London as a part of the Fulanham estate
Wood Green is a district of north London, England, in the London Borough of Haringey. It is 6.7 miles north of Charing Cross, and is west of Tottenham, south of Palmers Green, the population, comprising the Noel Park and Woodside wards, was 28,453 in the 2011 Census. The London Plan identifies the area as one of the centres in Greater London. The 18 acre area was auctioned off as Wood-Green in 9 separate plots on 13 August 1806 by local agent Prickett and Ellis at Garraways Coffee house in Cornhill, London. Two bombs planted by the Provisional IRA exploded at the Shopping City complex on 10 December 1992, injuring 11 people, the bombs were hidden in two separate litter bins about 200 yards away from each other. In 1894, Wood Green was created as an urban district, the constituency of Wood Green was created in 1918 and existed until 1983 when it was split. Since 2015, the seat has been represented in the House of Commons by the Labour Party MP, there are no Streets in Wood Green. Wood Green lies between 66 ft and 98 ft above sea level, Wood Green is mostly represented by the Noel Park ward and Woodside ward.
In the 2011 census, the largest ethnic group of Noel Park was Other White, 27%, followed by 25% White British, the Woodside ward was likewise, the figures being 30% and 23% respectively, whereas 8% were Black African. Wood Green is a busy urban activity centre with a shopping area with two cinemas, nightclubs, numerous restaurants and cafes and a shopping area, The Mall. The Chocolate Factory was set up by Haringey Arts Council in 1996 to develop artists studios, the project houses 200 local artists, music and multi media studios, photographic studios, and several performing arts organisations. The nearby Alexandra Palace played a role in the development of public service television in the UK. Wood Green played its part in the history of commercial television, in November 1936, the BBC opened its TV service at Alexandra Palace. The now-demolished bus depot at Wood Green was used for filming by London Weekend Television for their 1970s situation comedy On The Buses. Wood Green tube station is on Wood Green High Road with Bounds Green tube station to the north of the area and Turnpike Lane tube station to the south, Alexandra Palace, formerly known as Wood Green for Alexandra Park, is on the East Coast Main Line.
It has services in to Kings Cross and Moorgate and out to Hertford, bowes Park serves the Hertford Loop Line branch of the East Coast Main Line. Until the 1960s, a line of the former Great Eastern Railway network crossed the Wood Green High Road at a station called Noel Park, providing connections to Stratford. A bus station is located at Turnpike Lane, there are many buses that stop outside Wood Green tube station
Westminster is an area of central London within the City of Westminster, part of the West End, on the north bank of the River Thames. Historically the area lay within St Margarets parish, City & Liberty of Westminster and it has been the home of the permanent institutions of Englands government continuously since about 1200 and is now the seat of British government. In a government context, Westminster often refers to the Parliament of the United Kingdom, the closest tube stations are Westminster, St Jamess Park on the Jubilee and District lines. Within the area is Westminster School, a public school which grew out of the Abbey. Bounding Westminster to the north is Green Park, a Royal Park of London, the area has a substantial resident population, indeed most of its listed buildings are residential. A proportion of residents are people of limited means, living in council, large Victorian homes and barracks exist nearer to Buckingham Palace. The name describes an area no more than 1 mile from Westminster Abbey, the settlement grew up around the palace and abbey, as a service area for them.
The need for a church, St Margarets Westminster for the servants of the palace. It became larger and in the Georgian period became connected through urban development with the City along the Strand. It did not become a local government unit until created as a civil parish. Indeed, the Cathedral and diocesan status of the church lasted only from 1539 to 1556, as such it is first known to have had two Members of Parliament in 1545 as a new Parliamentary Borough, centuries after the City of London and Southwark were enfranchised. The historic core of Westminster is the former Thorney Island on which Westminster Abbey was built, the abbey became the traditional venue of the coronation of the kings and queens of England from that of Harold Godwinson onwards. From about 1200, near the abbey, the Palace of Westminster became the royal residence, marked by the transfer of royal treasury. Later the palace housed the developing Parliament and Englands law courts, thus London developed two focal points, the City of London and Westminster.
The monarchs moved to St James Palace and the Palace of Whitehall a little towards the north-east, the main law courts have since moved to the Royal Courts of Justice. The Westminster area formed part of the City and Liberty of Westminster in Middlesex, the ancient parish was St Margaret, after 1727 this became the civil parish of St Margaret and St John, the latter a new church required for the increasing population. The area around Westminster Abbey formed the extra-parochial Close of the Collegiate Church of St Peter surrounded by —, until 1900 the local authority was the combined vestry of St Margaret and St John, which was based at Westminster City Hall in Caxton Street from 1883. The Liberty of Westminster, governed by the Westminster Court of Burgesses, included St Martin in the Fields, Westminster had its own quarter sessions, but the Middlesex sessions had jurisdiction
Islington is a district in Greater London and part of the London Borough of Islington. Islington grew as a sprawling Middlesex village along the line of the Great North Road and this gave rise to some confusion, as neighbouring districts may be said to be in Islington. This district is bounded by Liverpool Road to the west and City Road and its northernmost point is in the area of Canonbury. The main north-south high street, Upper Street splits at Highbury Corner to Holloway Road to the west, Islington was originally named by the Saxons Giseldone, Gislandune. The name means Gīslas hill from the Old English personal name Gīsla, the name mutated to Isledon, which remained in use well into the 17th century when the modern form arose. In medieval times, Islington was just one of many small manors thereabouts, along with Bernersbury, some roads on the edge of the area, including Essex Road, were known as streets by the medieval period, possibly indicating a Roman origin, but little physical evidence remains.
What is known is that the Great North Road from Aldersgate came into use in the 14th century and this was along the line of modern Upper Street, with a toll gate at The Angel defining the extent of the village. The Back Road, the modern Liverpool Road, was primarily a road where cattle would be rested before the final leg of their journey to Smithfield. Pens and sheds were erected along this road to accommodate the animals, the first recorded church, St Marys, was erected in the twelfth century and was replaced in the fifteenth century. Islington lay on the estates of the Bishop of London and the Dean, there were substantial medieval moated manor houses in the area, principally at Canonbury and Highbury. In 1548, there were 440 communicants listed and the atmosphere, with access to the City and Westminster, made it a popular residence for the rich. The local inns, harboured many fugitives and recusants, the Royal Agricultural Hall was built in 1862 on the Liverpool Road site of William Dixons Cattle Layers.
The hall was 75 ft high and the glass roof spanned 125 ft. It was built for the annual Smithfield Show in December of that year but was popular for other purposes, including recitals and it was the primary exhibition site for London until the 20th century and the largest building of its kind, holding up to 50,000 people. It was requisitioned for use by the Mount Pleasant sorting office during World War II, the main hall has now been incorporated into the Business Design Centre. The hill on which Islington stands has long supplied the City of London with water and these included Sadlers Wells, London Spa and Clerkenwell. The river was opened on 29 September 1613 by Sir Hugh Myddelton and his statue still stands where Upper Street meets Essex Road. The course of the river ran to the east of Upper Street, the Regents Canal passes through Islington
London Kings Cross is an inner city area of London, England,2.5 miles north of Charing Cross. It is the location and namesake of London Kings Cross railway station, the area was previously a village known as Battle Bridge or Battlebridge which was an ancient crossing of the River Fleet. The original name of the bridge was Broad Ford Bridge, the corruption Battle Bridge led to a tradition that this was the site of a major battle in AD60 or 61 between the Romans and the Iceni tribe led by Boudica. Lewis Spences 1937 book Boadicea – warrior queen of the Britons includes a map showing the positions of the opposing armies. The suggestion that Boudica is buried beneath platform 9 or 10 at London Kings Cross Station seems to have arisen as urban folklore since the end of World War II. The area had settled in Roman times, and a camp here, known as The Brill was erroneously attributed to Julius Caesar. The name is commemorated in two streets lying behind Kings Cross and St Pancras stations, St Pancras Old Church, set behind the stations, is said to be one of the oldest Christian sites in Britain.
The current name has its origin in a monument to King George IV which stood in the area from 1830 to 1845 and it was built at the crossroads of Grays Inn Road, Pentonville Road and New Road, which became Euston Road. It was sixty feet high and topped by a statue of the king. The statue itself, which cost no more than £25, was constructed of bricks and mortar, the architect was Stephen Geary, who exhibited a model of the Kings Cross at the Royal Academy in 1830. The upper storey was used as a camera obscura while the base in turn housed a police station, the unpopular building was demolished in 1845, though the area has kept the name of Kings Cross. A structure in the form of a lighthouse was built on top of a building almost on the site about 30 years later. Known locally as the Lighthouse Building, the structure was thought to be an advertisement for Nettens Oyster Bar on the ground floor. It is a grade II listed building, London Kings Cross railway station now stands by the junction where the monument stood and took its name.
The station, designed by architect Lewis Cubitt and opened in 1852, succeeded an earlier station. St Pancras railway station, built by the Midland Railway, lies immediately to the west and they both had extensive land to house their associated facilities for handling general goods and specialist commodities such as fish, coal and grain. The passenger stations on Euston Road far outweighed in public attention the economically important goods traffic to the north. Kings Cross and St Pancras stations, and indeed all London railway stations, after World War II the area declined from being a poor but busy industrial and distribution services district to a partially abandoned post-industrial district
Bromley is a large suburban town, the administrative headquarters of the London Borough of Bromley in Greater London, United Kingdom. It was historically a market town chartered since 1158 and an ancient parish in the county of Kent, as part of the suburban growth of London in the 20th century, Bromley significantly increased in population and was incorporated as a municipal borough in 1903. Most of Bromley including the centre falls under the BR1 postcode district. Bromley is first recorded in a charter of 862 as Bromleag and it shares this Old English etymology with Great Bromley in Essex, but not with the Bromley in Tower Hamlets. The history of Bromley is closely connected with the See of Rochester, in AD862 Ethelbert, the King of Kent, granted land to form the Manor of Bromley. It was held by the Bishops of Rochester until 1845, when Coles Child, the town was an important coaching stop on the way to Hastings from London, and the now defunct Royal Bell Hotel is referred to in Jane Austens Pride and Prejudice.
Bromley, known as Bromley St Peter and St Paul, formed an ancient parish in the Bromley and Beckenham hundred, in 1840 it became part of the expanded Metropolitan Police District. The parish adopted the Local Government Act 1858 and a board was formed in 1867. The board was reconstituted as Bromley Urban District Council in 1894 and it formed part of the London Traffic Area from 1924 and the London Passenger Transport Area from 1933. Bromley became part of the newly created Greater London in 1965, Bromley forms part of the Bromley and Chislehurst Parliament constituency and the London European Parliament constituency. The current MP is Bob Neill, James Cleverly is the London Assembly member for the Bexley and Bromley constituency, in which the town is located. Bromleys most prominent MP was the former Conservative Prime Minister Harold Macmillan, Bromley is located 9.3 miles south east of Charing Cross and is one of the major metropolitan centres identified in the London Plan. Bromley is a post town in the BR postcode area, consisting of BR1, BR1 covers Bromley, Sundridge Park and part of Downham, and the BR2 portion covers Hayes, Shortlands and Bromley Common.
Other nearby areas, Climate in this area has mild differences between highs and lows, the Köppen Climate Classification subtype for this climate is Cfb. Bromley is one of the major metropolitan centres identified in the London Plan. The town has a retail area, including a pedestrianised High Street and The Glades centre. The shopping area includes such as Gap, Russell & Bromley and Waterstones. Orpington, Sevenoaks via Swanley, Ashford International via Maidstone East, Bromley North station with services to London Bridge and Charing Cross by changing at Grove Park. Bromley has a number of theatres, the most notable being the Churchill Theatre in the town centre, the Churchill Theatre was opened on 19 July 1977 by HRH Prince of Wales, and seats 785
Highbury is a district in the London Borough of Islington. The area now known as Islington was part of the manor of Tolentone. Tolentone was owned by Ranulf brother of Ilger and included all the north and east of Canonbury. The manor house was situated by what is now the east side of Hornsey Road near the junction with Seven Sisters Road, the site for Highbury Manor was possibly used by a Roman garrison as a summer camp. During the construction of a new Highbury House in 1781, tiles were found that could have been Roman or Norman, unfortunately these have been lost. Ownership of Highbury eventually passed to Alicia de Barrow, who in 1271 gave it to the Priory of St John of Jerusalem, the wealthy Lord Prior built Highbury manor as a substantial stone country lodging with a grange and barn. In 1381, during the Peasants Revolt, Jack Straw led a mob of 20,000 rioters who so offended by the wealth and haughtiness of the Knights Hospitallers destroyed the manor house. The Lord Prior at the time, Robert Hales, who had taken refuge in the Tower of London, was captured and beheaded on Tower Hill.
Jack Straw and some of his followers used the site as a temporary headquarters, the Manor of Highbury remained the possession of the Knights of St John until it was confiscated by Henry VIII in 1540. The land stayed as crown property until Parliament began selling it in the 17th century, John Dawes, a wealthy stockbroker, acquired the site of Jack Straw’s Castle together with 247 acres of surrounding land. In 1781 he built Highbury House at a cost of £10,000 on the spot where Highbury Manor had stood, over the next 30 years the house was extended by new owners, firstly Alexander Aubert and John Bentley, to include a large observatory and lavish gardens. The grounds around Highbury House started to be sold off in 1794, by 1894 Highbury House and its remaining grounds became a school. Finally in 1938 Highbury House was demolished and is now the site of Eton House flats, in 1740 a small ale and cake house was opened in the Barn, Highbury. In 1770 William Willoughby took over Highbury Barn and greatly increased its popularity and he expanded its size and facilities, taking over land and buildings from the farm next door, reaching beyond what is now Kelvin Road and created a bowling green, trap-ball grounds and gardens.
It could cater for company dinners of 2,000 people and dancing, in 1854 events at the annual balls in the grounds of the Barn included the aeronaut Charles Greens balloon ascent. By 1865 there was a dancing platform, a rebuilt theatre, high-wire acts, music hall. The Barn became the victim of its own success, after a riot led by students from Bart’s Hospital in 1869, locals complained about the Barn’s increasingly riotous and bawdy clientele. This led to a case and in 1871 authorities revoked the Barn’s dancing licence
Croydon is a large town in south London, England,9.5 miles south of Charing Cross. The principal settlement in the London Borough of Croydon, it is one of the largest commercial districts outside Central London, with a shopping district. Its population of 52,104 at the 2011 census includes the wards of Addiscombe, Broad Green, Croydon expanded in the Middle Ages as a market town and a centre for charcoal production, leather tanning and brewing. The Surrey Iron Railway from Croydon to Wandsworth opened in 1803 and was the worlds first public railway, nineteenth century railway building facilitated Croydons growth as a commuter town for London. By the early 20th century, Croydon was an important industrial area, known for car manufacture, metal working, Croydon was amalgamated into Greater London in 1965. Road traffic is diverted away from a largely pedestrianised town centre, East Croydon is a major hub of the national railway transport system, with frequent fast services to central London and the south coast.
The town is unique in Greater London for its Tramlink light rail transport system, although less probable, theories of the names origin have been proposed. According to John Corbett Anderson, The earliest mention of Croydon is in the joint will of Beorhtric and Aelfswth, in this Anglo-Saxon document the name is spelt Crogdaene. Crog was, and still is, the Norse or Danish word for crooked, which is expressed in Anglo-Saxon by crumb, from the Danish came our crook and crooked. This term accurately describes the locality, it is a crooked or winding valley, in reference to the valley runs in an oblique. However, there was no long-term Danish occupation in Surrey, which was part of Wessex, and Danish-derived nomenclature is highly unlikely. The town lies on the line of the Roman road from London to Portslade, later, in the 5th to 7th centuries, a large pagan Saxon cemetery was situated on what is now Park Lane, although the extent of any associated settlement is unknown. By the late Saxon period Croydon was the hub of an estate belonging to the Archbishops of Canterbury, the church and the archbishops manor house occupied the area still known as Old Town.
Croydon appears in Domesday Book as Croindene, held by Archbishop Lanfranc and its Domesday assets were,16 hides and 1 virgate,1 church,1 mill worth 5s,38 ploughs,8 acres of meadow, woodland worth 200 hogs. The church had established in the middle Saxon period, and was probably a minster church. A charter issued by King Coenwulf of Mercia refers to a council that had taken place close to the monasterium of Croydon, an Anglo-Saxon will made in about 960 is witnessed by Elfsies, priest of Croydon, and the church is mentioned in Domesday Book. The will of John de Croydon, dated 6 December 1347, includes a bequest to the church of S John de Croydon, the church still bears the arms of Archbishop Courtenay and Archbishop Chichele, believed to have been its benefactors. In 1276 Archbishop Robert Kilwardby acquired a charter for a market