List of districts in the London Borough of Newham
This is a list of districts in the London Borough of Newham:
This is a list of districts in the London Borough of Newham:
Belgravia is a district in West London in the City of Westminster and the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea. It is noted for its very expensive residential properties and is one of the wealthiest districts in the world, much of it, known as the Grosvenor Estate, is still owned by a family property company, the Duke of Westminsters Grosvenor Group. The area takes its name one of the Dukes subsidiary titles. Owing to the Leasehold Reform Act 1967, the estate has been forced to sell many freeholds to its erstwhile tenants, the area takes its name from one of the Duke of Westminsters subsidiary titles, Viscount Belgrave. The village of Belgrave, Cheshire is two miles from the Grosvenor familys main seat of Eaton Hall. Most of the area was owned by Richard Grosvenor, 2nd Marquess of Westminster. Thomas Cubitt was the main contractor, Belgravia is characterised by grand terraces of white stucco houses, and is focused on Belgrave Square and Eaton Square. It was one of Londons most fashionable residential districts from its beginnings, fashion design houses that have their retail flagship stores and studios within the area include Philip Treacy, Donna Ida, Jenny Packham and HEMYCA.
On the southern edge of Belgravia is Pimlico Road, renowned for its antique shops and high-end furniture. It is a quiet district in the heart of London, contrasting with neighbouring districts. Many embassies are located in the area, especially in Belgrave Square and this phenomenon has diminished social relations in the neighbourhood. Belgrave Square, one of the grandest and largest 19th century squares, is the centrepiece of Belgravia and it was laid out by the property contractor Thomas Cubitt for the 2nd Earl Grosvenor, to be the 1st Marquess of Westminster, in the 1820s. Most of the houses were occupied by 1840, the numbering is anti-clockwise from the north, NW terrace Nos.1 to 11, west corner mansion No. 12, SW terrace 13–23, south corner mansion No,24, SE terrace Nos. 25–36, east corner mansion No. There is a detached house at the northern corner. 49, which was built in by Cubitt for Sidney Herbert in 1851, the terraces were designed by George Basevi and are possibly the grandest houses ever built in London on a speculative basis.
The area was formerly contaminated waste land and industrial buildings to the north of Stratford. Lend Lease engaged a team of, architects Fletcher Priest, structural engineers Arup, and urban planning/landscape architecture firm West 8 and Vogt Landscape. Each of the 67 blocks is of between 8 and 12 storeys high, nominally laid out, Street level of three storey townhouses, with front doors on street level to create an active frontage. These are supplemented by a mix of single to three shops and offices. Floor 3 and above in the centre of the complex are communal raised gardens, at and above this level are a mix of low cost and private residential apartments, ranging from one to five bedroom. Each apartment provides generous floor spacing, and each includes its own balcony that is big enough for a table, the whole Olympic Park site was proposed to be secured under a Compulsory Purchase Order by the London Development Agency. In late 2005, a row broke out between Mayor of London Ken Livingstone and Newham Council/Westfield Group over the use of the legal instrument.
The site for the Olympic Village was to be located next to the development of Stratford City. In November 2005, an agreement was made whereby the CPO over the Westfield site was removed, up until this point, the proposed site had been a mix of former industrial buildings and contaminated waste land. The proposed site for the village provided two living camp sites for Irish Travellers, one on Clays Lane, and a second on Waterden Crescent, Hackney. The final part of the Olympic CPO covering the village site, during the summer of 2012, the first use for the blocks was as the Olympic Village for the 2012 Summer Olympics. The village included a plaza, where athletes were able to meet with friends and family. During the games There is a full list of the buildings and the teams stayed in them during the 2012 Olympics. After the conclusion of the games, the Olympic housing was adapted to create a new quarter to be known as East Village. The new construction created 2,818 new homes, including 1,379 affordable homes and houses, for sale and rent.
The wider community is planned with wide vistas filled with gardens and communal areas, within which are to be housed a school, a health clinic and shops. The ODA received three bids, a joint-venture between James Ritblats Delancey and Qatari Diar, Hutchison Whampoa, and Wellcome Trust, who bid to take all the 2.5 square kilometres Olympic park. Culture Secretary Jeremy Hunt commented that the ODA never expected to recoup building costs, It was an empty site, it didnt have any infrastructure
Bloomsbury is an area of the London Borough of Camden, between Euston Road and Holborn. It was developed by the Russell family in the 17th and 18th centuries into a residential area. It is notable for its garden squares, literary connections, and numerous cultural, Bloomsbury Square was laid out in 1660 by Thomas Wriothesley, 4th Earl of Southampton. Much of the district was planned and built by James Burton and it is home to the University of Law and New College of the Humanities. London Contemporary Dance School and the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art and are located in the area. Bloomsbury is in the constituency of Holborn and St Pancras. The western half of the district comprises Bloomsbury ward, which three councillors to Camden Borough Council. The earliest record of what would become Bloomsbury is in the 1086 Domesday Book, but it is not until 1201 that the name Bloomsbury is first noted, when William de Blemond, a Norman landowner, acquired the land. The name Bloomsbury is a development from Blemondisberi – the bury, or manor, at the end of the 14th century, Edward III acquired Blemonds manor, and passed it on to the Carthusian monks of the London Charterhouse, who kept the area mostly rural.
In the 16th century with the Dissolution of the Monasteries, Henry VIII took the back into the possession of the Crown and granted it to Thomas Wriothesley. In the early 1660s, the Earl of Southampton constructed what eventually became Bloomsbury Square, the Yorkshire Grey public house on the corner of Grays Inn Road and Theobalds Road dates from 1676. The area was laid out mainly in the 18th century, largely by landowners such as Wriothesley Russell, 3rd Duke of Bedford, who built Bloomsbury Market, William de Blemond in the 13th century, a Norman, was the first landowner. Edward III acquired Blemonds manor, and passed it on to the Carthusian monks who governed it until Henry VIII granted it to the Earl of Southampton, the Russell family became landowners in the 18th century. The area lay within the parishes of St Giles in the Fields and St Georges, Bloomsbury and it is now controlled by the London Borough of Camden and part of the district is contained within the Bloomsbury ward. The district is situated in the constituency of Holborn and St Pancras.
Bloomsbury merges gradually with Holborn in the south, with St Pancras and Kings Cross in the north-east, the road runs from Euston and Somers Town in the north to Holborn in the south. East of Southampton Row/Woburn Place are the Grade II listed Brunswick Centre, a residential and shopping centre, the area west of Southampton Row/Woburn Place is notable for its concentration of academic establishments and formal squares. Bloomsbury contains some of Londons finest parks and buildings, and is known for its formal squares
Dalston is a district of the London Borough of Hackney in North East London, England. Dalston began as a hamlet within the parish of Hackney, which developed on either side of Dalston Lane, as the area urbanised, the term came to apply to surrounding areas including the old centres of Kingsland and Shacklewell, which are now considered part of Dalston. The area’s best known resident was Prime Minister Tony Blair who lived in Mapledene Road from 1980–86. The same contrast could not be today as gentrification has led to a rapid increase in the price of property. The process of change was accelerated by the East London line extension, the reopening of Dalston Junction Station on this extension was part of Londons successful bid to hold the 2012 Olympics. Dalston has never been a unit, and partly for this reason the boundaries are not fully defined. There are popularly understood boundaries in the south and west, but its northern and this is a common situation in London’s neighbourhoods which often merge and change over time.
There is an electoral Ward of the name which covers a part of the north–west of Dalston. Dalston’s boundaries are described more or less precision below, South. Albion Drive forms much of this boundary, The originally Roman A10 road marks most of Dalston’s western margin. This area includes Dalston Kingsland Railway Station, There isnt a tradition of a clear northern boundary with Stoke Newington. East, Between Downs Road and Amhurst Road, the barrier of the railway embankment marks the postcode boundary with Lower Clapton. There is little tradition of a boundary with the central Hackney area except that it is said that Dalston extends as far as the park at London Fields. The name Dalston is thought to have derived from Deorlafs tun in much the way as nearby Hoxton was named after the farm of Hoch. The first written record available is from 1294 when the name was written as Derleston, the village was one of four small villages within the Parish of Hackney that were grouped for assessment purposes, together having only as many houses as the village of Hackney.
John Rocques map of 1746 shows the village of Kingsland centred on the crossroads at what is now Dalston Junction, another clear feature is Roman Ermine Street which now forms most of the western boundary of this area. Ermine Street now has the road number A10 and goes by a number of names, around AD1280 a leper hospital was founded in Dalston by the citizens of London and in AD1549 it was attached to the chapel of St Bartholomew as an outhouse. During the 18th and 19th centuries the area changed from an agricultural and rural landscape to urban one, during the 1930s, 40sand 60s the areas large Jewish and other minority populations made it a target for provocative rallies by Oswald Mosley and the various organisations he founded
Clapham Junction railway station is a major railway station and transport hub near St Johns Hill in the south-west of Battersea in the London Borough of Wandsworth. Despite its name, it is not located in Clapham, a district situated some 1.5 kilometres east-south-east of the station, the station is the busiest UK station for interchanges between services. Before the railway came, the area was rural and specialised in growing lavender, the coach road from London to Guildford ran slightly south of the future station site, past The Falcon public house at the crossroads in the valley between St. Johns Hill and Lavender Hill. On 21 May 1838 the London and Southampton Railway became the London and South Western Railway and that was the first railway through the area but it had no station at the present site. The second line, initially from Nine Elms to Richmond, opened on 27 July 1846, Nine Elms was replaced in 1848 as the terminus by Waterloo Bridge station, now Waterloo. The line to Victoria opened by 1860, Clapham Junction opened on 2 March 1863, a joint venture of the L&SWR, the London and South Coast Railway and the West London Extension Railway as an interchange station for their lines.
When the station was built, much of Battersea was the site of heavy industry while Clapham, Side and Clapham Common W. Side, London despite being well away from those park-side streets. Additional station buildings were erected in 1874 and 1876, batterseas slums unfit for human habitation were entirely replaced with council and charitable housing between 1918 and 1975. A £39.5 million planning application from Metro Shopping Fund was withdrawn before governmental planning committee consideration on 20 May 2009, the change would have been at Clapham Junction. On the morning of 12 December 1988 two collisions involving three commuter trains occurred slightly south-west of the station, thirty-five people died and more than 100 were injured. On the morning of 16 December 1991, a bomb ripped through tracks on one of the stations platforms, the Provisional Irish Republican Army claimed responsibility. The station is named Clapham Junction because it is at the junction of rail lines. Latchmere Main Junction connecting the WLL to the Brighton Line at Falcon Junction, West London Extension Junction and Junction for Waterloo, relaid for Eurostar empty-stock moves from the Windsor Lines to the WLL.
Pouparts Junction where the low-level and high-level approaches to Victoria split, each day about 2,000 trains, over half of them stopping, pass through the station, more than through any other station in Europe. At peak times 180 trains per hour pass through of which 117 stop and it is not the busiest station by number of passengers, most of whom pass through. Interchanges make some 40% of the activity and on that basis too it is the busiest station in the UK, in 2011 the station had three entrances, all with staffed ticket offices, though only the south-east entrance is open 24 hours a day. The most heavily used of the three, this leads from St Johns Hill via an indoor shopping centre into a subway some 15 ft wide. The north entrance, which has restricted opening hours, leads from Grant Road to the same subway, the subway is crowded during rush hours, with the ticket barriers at the ends being pinch points
Canary Wharf is a major business district located in Tower Hamlets, East London. Canary Wharf contains around 16,000,000 square feet of office and retail space, Morgan, KPMG, MetLife, Morgan Stanley, RBC, S&P Global, State Street, and Thomson Reuters. Canary Wharf is located on the West India Docks on the Isle of Dogs, from 1802 to 1939, the area was one of the busiest docks in the world. After the 1960s, the industry began to decline, leading to all the docks being closed by 1980. Canary Wharf itself takes its name from No.32 berth of the West Wood Quay of the Import Dock and this was built in 1936 for Fruit Lines Ltd, a subsidiary of Fred Olsen Lines for the Mediterranean and Canary Islands fruit trade. The Canary islands were so named after the dogs found there by the Spanish and as it is located on the Isle of Dogs. The Canary Wharf of today began when Michael von Clemm, former chairman of Credit Suisse First Boston, further discussions with G Ware Travelstead led to proposals for a new business district.
The first buildings were completed in 1991, including One Canada Square, which became the UKs tallest building at the time, by the time it opened, the London commercial property market had collapsed, and Olympia and York Canary Wharf Limited filed for bankruptcy in May 1992. Initially, the City of London saw Canary Wharf as an existential threat and it modified its planning laws to expand the provision of new offices in the City of London, for example, creating offices above railway stations and roads. The resulting oversupply of office space contributed to the failure of the No 1 Canada Square project, in 1997, some residents living on the Isle of Dogs launched a lawsuit against Canary Wharf Ltd for private nuisance because the tower interfered with television signals. In December 1995 an international consortium, backed by the owners of Olympia & York and other investors. The new company was called Canary Wharf Limited, and became Canary Wharf Group, recovery in the property market generally, coupled with continuing demand for large floorplate Grade A office space, slowly improved the level of interest.
A critical event in the recovery was the start of work on the Jubilee Line Extension. At the peak of property prices in 2007, the HSBC building sold for a record £1.1 billion, in March 2014 planning permission was granted for the second residential building on the Canary Wharf estate, a 58-storey tower including 566 apartments plus shops and a health club. In July 2014 Canary Wharf Group was granted planning permission for a major expansion of the Canary Wharf estate. The plans include the construction of 30 buildings comprising a total of 4.9 million square feet, construction is planned to commence in autumn 2014 with the first buildings to be occupied at the end of 2018. In 2014, Singapore listed Oxley Holdings, together with developer Ballymore UK, have a joint venture to set up a new waterfront township of Royal Wharf with 3385 new homes housing over 10,000 people. This table lists completed buildings in Canary Wharf that are over 60 metres tall, the Canary Wharf developers played a pro-active role in improving transport links, which they recognised as essential to the success of the project
Pimlico /ˈpɪmlᵻkoʊ/ is a small area within central London in the City of Westminster. Like Belgravia, to which it was built as an extension, Pimlico is known for its garden squares. At Pimlicos heart is a grid of streets laid down by the planner Thomas Cubitt beginning in 1825. The area has over 350 Grade II listed buildings and several Grade II* listed churches, in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, the Manor of Ebury was divided up and leased by the Crown to servants or favourites. In 1623, James I sold the freehold of Ebury for £1,151 and 15 shillings, the land was sold on several more times, until it came into the hands of heiress Mary Davies in 1666. Marys dowry not only included The Five Fields of modern-day Pimlico and Belgravia, she was much pursued but in 1677, at the age of twelve, married Sir Thomas Grosvenor. The Grosvenors were a family of Norman descent long seated at Eaton Hall in Cheshire who until this auspicious marriage were, through the development and good management of this land the Grosvenors acquired enormous wealth.
At some point in the seventeenth or early eighteenth century. While its origins are disputed, it is clearly of foreign derivation, supporting this etymology, Rev. Brewer describes the area as a district of public gardens much frequented on holidays. According to tradition, it received its name from Ben Pimlico and his tea-gardens, were near Hoxton, and the road to them was termed Pimlico Path, so that what is now called Pimlico was so named from the popularity of the Hoxton resort. In 1825, Thomas Cubitt was contracted by Lord Grosvenor to develop Pimlico, the land up to this time had been marshy but was reclaimed using soil excavated during the construction of St Katharine Docks. Cubitt developed Pimlico as a grid of white stucco terraces. The largest and most opulent houses were built along St Georges Drive and Belgrave Road, lupus Street contained similarly grand houses, as well as shops and, until the early twentieth century, a hospital for women and children. Smaller-scale properties, typically of three storeys, line the side streets, an 1877 newspaper article described Pimlico as genteel, sacred to professional men… not rich enough to luxuriate in Belgravia proper, but rich enough to live in private houses.
Its inhabitants were more lively than in Kensington… and yet a cut above Chelsea, although the area was dominated by the well-to-do middle and upper-middle classes as late as Booths 1889 Map of London Poverty, parts of Pimlico are said to have declined significantly by the 1890s. Through the late century, Pimlico saw the construction of several Peabody Estates, charitable housing projects designed to provide affordable. Proximity to the Houses of Parliament made Pimlico a centre of political activity, prior to 1928, the Labour Party and Trades Union Congress shared offices on Eccleston Square, and it was here in 1926 that the general strike was organised. Completed in 1937, it became popular with MPs and public servants
Holborn is a district in the West End, central London, forming part of the London Borough of Camden. The areas first mention is in a charter of Westminster Abbey, by King Edgar and this mentions the old wooden church of St Andrew. The name Holborn may be derived from the Middle English hol for hollow, and bourne, historical cartographer William Shepherd in his Plan of London about 1300 labels the Fleet as Hole Bourn where it passes to the east of St Andrews church. The exact course of the stream is uncertain, but according to Stow it started in one of the small springs near Holborn Bar. This is supported by a map of London and Westminster created during the reign of Henry VIII that clearly marks the street as Oldbourne, other historians, find the theory implausible, in view of the slope of the land. It was outside the Citys jurisdiction and a part of Ossulstone Hundred in Middlesex, in the 12th century St Andrews was noted in local title deeds as lying on Holburnestrate—Holborn Street. The rest of the area below Bars was organised by the board of the parish of St Andrew.
The Metropolitan Borough of Holborn was abolished in 1965 and its area now part of the London Borough of Camden. Holborn is represented in the London Assembly as part of Barnet and Camden by Andrew Dismore, criminals from the Tower and Newgate passed up Holborn on their way to be hanged at Tyburn or St Giles. The theatre premièred the first full-length feature film in 1914, The World, the Flesh and the Devil, Charles Dickens took up residence in Furnivals Inn, on the site of Holborn Bars. Dickens put his character Pip, in Great Expectations, in residence at Barnards Inn opposite, staple Inn, notable as the promotional image for Old Holborn tobacco, is nearby. The three of these were Inns of Chancery, the area diversified and become recognisable as the modern street. A plaque stands at number 120 commemorating Thomas Earnshaws invention of the Marine chronometer, at the corner of Hatton Garden was the old family department store of Gamages. Until 1992, the London Weather Centre was located in the street, the Prudential insurance company relocated in 2002.
The Daily Mirror offices used to be directly opposite it, further east, in the gated avenue of Ely Place, is St Etheldredas Church, originally the chapel of the Bishop of Ely’s London palace. This ecclesiastical connection allowed the street to remain part of the county of Cambridgeshire until the mid-1930s and this meant that Ye Olde Mitre, a pub located in a court hidden behind the buildings of the Place and the Garden was subject to the Cambridgeshire Magistrates to grant its licence. St Etheldredas is the oldest church building used for Roman Catholic worship in London, this became so only after it ceased to be an Anglican chapel in the 19th century. Hatton Garden, the centre of the trade, was leased to a favourite of Queen Elizabeth I, Sir Christopher Hatton
Ilford is a large cosmopolitan town in East London and the administrative headquarters of the London Borough of Redbridge. It is located 9.1 miles north-east of Charing Cross and is one of the metropolitan centres identified in the London Plan. Ilford forms a significant commercial and retail centre surrounded by residential development. It was historically a rural settlement in the county of Essex and its strategic position on the River Roding. Since 1965 it has formed part of Greater London, but it is considered by some to be in Essex because of the postal county. Despite the Royal Mail no longer using official postal counties, Ilford is part of the IG postcode area, though areas to the west of Ilford Hill and the A406 are part of E postcode area instead. Ilford was historically known as Great Ilford to differentiate it from nearby Little Ilford, the name is first recorded in the Domesday Book of 1086 as Ilefort and means ford over the Hyle, an old name for the River Roding that means trickling stream.
The only complete skull of a mammoth discovered in the United Kingdom was unearthed in 1860 at the site where Boots the Chemist now stands in the High Road. The skull can now be seen in the Natural History Museum and other animal remains can be seen at Redbridge Museum, Central Library. Redevelopment has destroyed much of the evidence for early Ilford, but the oldest evidence for human occupation is the 1st and this was situated between the Roding and Ilford Lane and is recorded in 18th century plans. Roman finds have made in the vicinity. A nearby mound called Lavender Mount existed into the 1960s, when it was removed during building work at Howards chemical works, excavation has shown that the latter may have been a 16th-century beacon-mound. Archaeological discoveries are displayed at Redbridge Museum, Ilford straddled the important road from London to Colchester. The Middlesex and Essex Turnpike Trust controlled and maintained the road from 1721, the River Roding was made navigable for barges as far as Ilford Bridge from 1737.
Ilford remained largely rural until its expansion in the 19th century and this brought about brickworks, cement works and coal yards to service the new buildings, largely centred on the River Roding. In 1839, a station was opened on the line from Romford to Mile End. The early businesses gave way to new industries, such as making and services such as steam laundries and collar making. A number of businesses have been founded in the town, including the eponymous photographic film
The City of London is divided into 25 wards. Unlike other modern-day English local authorities, the City of London Corporation has two bodies, the now largely ceremonial Court of Aldermen and the Court of Common Council. The wards are a survival of the governmental system that allowed very small areas to exist as self-governing units within the wider city. They are both electoral/political sub-divisions and permanent ceremonial and administrative entities within the City and they had their boundaries changed in 2003, and to a lesser extent in 2013, though the number of wards and their names did not change. Each ward, or aldermanry, has its own alderman, who is the most senior official or representative in the ward, the aldermen traditionally held office for life but in the modern era put themselves up for re-election at least every six years. They now customarily retire at 70, the retirement age as a justice of the peace. Each ward returns one alderman to the Court of Aldermen, one of the aldermen is elected as Lord Mayor of London for a period of one year.
The Lord Mayor performs many functions and holds many ancient positions, the City of London is the only remaining local authority in Great Britain to have aldermen, since their general abolition in England and Wales in 1974 and the London boroughs in 1978. Wards continue to have beadles, with most having just one and these should not be confused with the Beadles of the Livery Companies of the City, who are employees of them. The wards alderman presides over the wardmote and appoints one of the councillors of the ward as a deputy for the year ahead. Wardmotes at which an alderman is to be elected are presided over by the Lord Mayor, there are twenty two of these. Confusingly, there is a United Wards Club which was formed many of the others as a joint association and is now additional to them. In recent times the ward clerk is a permanent position held by an official at the Corporation, the ward clerk is a separate office to that of the Town Clerk of London, who is the chief executive of the Corporation.
Boundary changes in 2003 removed some of these places from their wards, but that boundary review. The Common Council as we know it today, as a body of the wards, was realised in 1384 when the Citys guilds no longer elected members. The number of members of the Common Council grew to 240 by the mid-nineteenth century, each ward was divided into precincts, each of which elected one common councilman. As the number of precincts grew over time, the number of councilmen elected therefore increased, the precincts have now been abolished. The wards are ancient and their number has changed three times since their creation in time immemorial
Catford is a district of south east London, within the London Borough of Lewisham. It is located south west of Lewisham, the area is the civic administrative centre for the local authority, and comprises both the Town Hall & Civic Suite. The majority of Catford is located in the Rushey Green and Catford South wards within the Borough, the area is identified in the London Plan as one of 35 major centres in Greater London. Catford was historically part of Kent until 1889, when it was absorbed into the new London County Council, Catford covers most of SE6 postcode district. The area is identified in the London Plan as one of 35 major centres in Greater London, Broadway Theatre is an art deco building adjoining the town hall. It is a stone structure decorated with shields and heraldic emblems. It was opened in 1932 as the Concert Hall and is now a Grade II listed building, the interior is in art deco style. The last cinema in the borough stood diagonally opposite the theatre until its closure in 2002, Catford boasts a large Gothic police station.
In 2006, a large blue pipe sculpture was unveiled outside Eros House, which was another former cinema, the 1960s and 70s had a considerable impact on the architecture of Catford. The old Town Hall of 1875, was replaced by the current Civic Suite in 1968, soon after the merger of the boroughs of Lewisham. Laurence House, where many of the Lewisham Council offices are housed, is on the site of old St Laurences Church, the original Gothic C of E St. In Rushey Green the old village water hand-pump from the 1850s survives, at the end of World War II, the 188-bungalow Excalibur Estate was laid out in Catford, and by 2011 this was the largest surviving prefab estate in Britain. However, it is now planned that all but six of the prefabs will be demolished and replaced by new housing, a few examples of Brutalist architecture survive including the Catford shopping centre and Milford Towers, designed by the architect Owen Luder in 1974. The design was to make it the Barbican of the south, architecture critic Ian Nairn praised Eros House, which is now Grade II listed as, A monster sat down in Catford and just what the place needed.
No offence meant, this extension of Lewisham High Street badly wanted stiffening. Now there is a punchy concrete focus both close to and at a distance, from the heights of the Downham Estate. Rough concrete is put through all its paces, front convex eaves on Sainsburys to a tower which is either afflicted with an astounding set of visual distortions or is actually leaning. Unlike many other buildings, particularly in the universities, this one is done from real conviction