Mayfair is an affluent area in the West End of London towards the east edge of Hyde Park, in the City of Westminster, between Oxford Street, Regent Street and Park Lane. It is one of the most expensive districts in London and the world, the area around Mayfair was originally part of the manor of Eia and remained largely rural in nature until the early 18th century. It became well known for the annual May Fair that took place from 1686 to 1764 in what is now Shepherd Market, the fair attracted an unpleasant, downmarket element and gradually became a public nuisance. The Grosvenor family, to become the Dukes of Westminster, acquired land through marriage, the work included three major squares – Hanover Square, Berkeley Square and Grosvenor Square, all of which were surrounded by luxury homes, and the church of St George Hanover Square. By the end of the 18th century, most of Mayfair was built on with prestigious housing to suit the upper class, unlike some nearby areas of London, it has never lost its affluent status.
There remains a substantial quantity of luxury property, upmarket shops and restaurants. Mayfairs prestigious status has been commemorated by being the most expensive property square on the London Monopoly board. The Mayfair area is in the London Borough of Westminster and mainly consists of the estate of Grosvenor, along with the estates of Albemarle, Burlington. It is bordered on the west by Park Lane, north by Oxford Street, east by Regent Street, beyond the bounding roads, to the north is Marylebone, to the east, Soho and to the southwest and Belgravia. Mayfair is surrounded by parkland, both Hyde Park and Green Park run along its boundary, the 8-acre Grosvenor Square is roughly in the centre of Mayfair, and is the centrepiece of the area, containing numerous expensive and desirable properties. There has been speculation that the Romans settled in the area before establishing Londinium, the proposal has been disputed owing to lack of archaeological evidence. This area was known as the manor of Eia in the Domesday Book and it was subsequently given to the Abbey of Westminster, who owned it until 1536 when it was taken over by Henry VIII.
Mayfair was mainly open fields until development started in the Shepherd Market area around 1686-8 to accommodate the May Fair that had moved from Haymarket in St Jamess because of overcrowding. There were some buildings before 1686 – a cottage in Stanhope Row, dating from 1618, a 17th century English Civil War fortification was established in what is now Mount Street in Mayfair, and known as Olivers Mount by the 18th century. The May Fair was held every year at Great Brookfield from 1 –14 May and it was established during the reign of Edward I, where the area beyond St. James was open fields. The fair was recorded as Saint Jamess fayer by Westminster in 1560 and it was postponed briefly in 1603 because of plague, but otherwise continued throughout the 17th century. In 1686, the moved to what is now Mayfair. By the 18th, it had attracted various showmen and fencers, popular attractions included bare-knuckle fighting, semolina eating contests and womens foot racing
Pimlico /ˈpɪmlᵻkoʊ/ is a small area within central London in the City of Westminster. Like Belgravia, to which it was built as an extension, Pimlico is known for its garden squares. At Pimlicos heart is a grid of streets laid down by the planner Thomas Cubitt beginning in 1825. The area has over 350 Grade II listed buildings and several Grade II* listed churches, in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, the Manor of Ebury was divided up and leased by the Crown to servants or favourites. In 1623, James I sold the freehold of Ebury for £1,151 and 15 shillings, the land was sold on several more times, until it came into the hands of heiress Mary Davies in 1666. Marys dowry not only included The Five Fields of modern-day Pimlico and Belgravia, she was much pursued but in 1677, at the age of twelve, married Sir Thomas Grosvenor. The Grosvenors were a family of Norman descent long seated at Eaton Hall in Cheshire who until this auspicious marriage were, through the development and good management of this land the Grosvenors acquired enormous wealth.
At some point in the seventeenth or early eighteenth century. While its origins are disputed, it is clearly of foreign derivation, supporting this etymology, Rev. Brewer describes the area as a district of public gardens much frequented on holidays. According to tradition, it received its name from Ben Pimlico and his tea-gardens, were near Hoxton, and the road to them was termed Pimlico Path, so that what is now called Pimlico was so named from the popularity of the Hoxton resort. In 1825, Thomas Cubitt was contracted by Lord Grosvenor to develop Pimlico, the land up to this time had been marshy but was reclaimed using soil excavated during the construction of St Katharine Docks. Cubitt developed Pimlico as a grid of white stucco terraces. The largest and most opulent houses were built along St Georges Drive and Belgrave Road, lupus Street contained similarly grand houses, as well as shops and, until the early twentieth century, a hospital for women and children. Smaller-scale properties, typically of three storeys, line the side streets, an 1877 newspaper article described Pimlico as genteel, sacred to professional men… not rich enough to luxuriate in Belgravia proper, but rich enough to live in private houses.
Its inhabitants were more lively than in Kensington… and yet a cut above Chelsea, although the area was dominated by the well-to-do middle and upper-middle classes as late as Booths 1889 Map of London Poverty, parts of Pimlico are said to have declined significantly by the 1890s. Through the late century, Pimlico saw the construction of several Peabody Estates, charitable housing projects designed to provide affordable. Proximity to the Houses of Parliament made Pimlico a centre of political activity, prior to 1928, the Labour Party and Trades Union Congress shared offices on Eccleston Square, and it was here in 1926 that the general strike was organised. Completed in 1937, it became popular with MPs and public servants
Rotherhithe is a residential district in south east London and part of the London Borough of Southwark. Historically, the area is the most northeastern settlement in the county of Surrey and it is located on a peninsula on the south bank of the Thames, facing Wapping and the Isle of Dogs on the north bank, and is a part of the Docklands area. It borders Bermondsey to the west and Deptford to the south east, Rotherhithe has a long history as a port, with many shipyards from Elizabethan times until the early 20th century and with working docks until the 1970s. In the 1980s the area along the river was redeveloped as housing, through a mix of warehouse conversions. Rotherhithe is located 4.5 km east of Londons centre point, being an area of the Docklands, has the largest Chinese population in Southwark. The name Rotherhithe derives from the Anglo-Saxon Hrȳðer-hȳð meaning landing-place for cattle, the first recorded use of this name was in about 1105, as Rederheia. St. Marys Church is at the centre of the old Rotherhithe village, the dock has been remodelled, and its northwest half retained as an ornamental lake, renamed Canada Water.
The canal has remained as a walkway and water feature within the redeveloped area, Rotherhithe is the home of the football team Fisher F. C. which plays its games at St Pauls Stadium. The league 1 team Millwall Football Club is located nearby in the London Borough of Lewisham. In January 2009 the London Mayor Boris Johnson said he would not fund the bridge, citing budget cuts due to the credit crunch, however the idea is still being supported by Sustrans. There are two Anglican churches in Rotherhithe St. Marys Church, and Trinity Church, there are two Roman Catholic churches, St Peter and the Guardian Angels, and Our Lady of the Immaculate Conception. Kings Stairs Gardens is a park on the river towards the Bermondsey boundary. In September 2011 Thames Water announced that they wanted to build an access shaft for the super-sewer Thames Tunnel, severn Islands Leisure Centre occupies the site of the old Rotherhithe Town Hall. The building ceased to be a hall in 1905 when the former Rotherhithe Council merged with the old Bermondsey Borough Council.
The old Rotherhithe Town Hall became a library and a museum and it was razed to the ground by repeated bomb hits and near misses during the Second World War. Rotherhithe had its own hospital, St Olaves Hospital, on Lower Road close to the old town hall. Built originally in the early 1870s on land adjoining Rotherhithe Workhouse, it became the infirmary of St Olaves Union in 1875, and was renamed St Olaves Hospital in 1930. Subsequently, becoming part of the Guys Hospital Teaching Group in 1966, it closed in 1985, the Terriss Theatre opened in 1899 and was renamed the Rotherhithe Hippodrome of Varieties
Kingston upon Thames
Kingston upon Thames, known as Kingston, is the principal settlement of the Royal Borough of Kingston upon Thames in southwest London. It was the ancient market town where Saxon kings were crowned, Kingston is situated 10 miles southwest of Charing Cross and is one of the major metropolitan centres identified in the London Plan. Kingston lies approximately 33 feet above sea level, Kingston was part of a large ancient parish in the county of Surrey and the town was an ancient borough, reformed in 1835. It has been the location of Surrey County Hall from 1893, most of the town centre is part of the KT1 postcode area, but some areas north of Kingston railway station have the postcode KT2 instead. The population of the town itself, comprising the four wards of Canbury, Norbiton, Kingston was called Cyninges tun in 838, Chingestune in 1086, Kingeston in 1164, Kyngeston super Tamisiam in 1321 and Kingestowne upon Thames in 1589. The name means the manor or estate from the Old English words cyning.
It belonged to the king in Saxon times and was the earliest royal borough and it was first mentioned in 838 as the site of a meeting between King Egbert of Wessex and Ceolnoth, Archbishop of Canterbury. Kingston lay on the boundary between the ancient kingdoms of Wessex and Mercia, until in the tenth century when King Athelstan united both to create the kingdom of England. Probably because of the symbolic location, several tenth-century kings were crowned in Kingston, Æthelstan in 925, Eadred in 946. Other kings who may have been crowned there are Edward the Elder in 902, Edmund in 939, Eadwig in 956, Edgar in about 960 and Edward the Martyr in 975. It was initially used as a block, but in 1850 it was moved to a more dignified place in the market before finally being moved to its current location in the grounds of the guildhall. Well known aviation personalities Sydney Camm, Harry Hawker and Tommy Sopwith were responsible for much of Kingstons achievements in aviation. British Aerospace finally closed its Lower Ham Road factory in 1992, part of the site was redeveloped for housing but the riverside part houses a community centre.
The growth and development of Kingston Polytechnic and its transformation into Kingston University has made Kingston a university town, Kingston upon Thames formed an ancient parish in the Kingston hundred of Surrey. The parish of Kingston upon Thames covered an area including Hook, New Malden, Richmond, Thames Ditton. The town of Kingston was granted a charter by King John in 1200, but the oldest one to survive is from 1208, other charters were issued by kings, including Edward IVs charter that gave the town the status of a borough in 1481. The borough covered a smaller area than the ancient parish, although as new parishes were split off the borough. The borough was reformed by the Municipal Corporations Act 1835, becoming the Municipal Borough of Kingston-upon-Thames and it had been known as a Royal borough through custom and the right to the title was confirmed by George V in 1927
Lewisham is an area in south-east London, England, in the London Borough of Lewisham, centred 5.9 miles south-east of Charing Cross. The area is identified in the London Plan as one of 35 major centres in Greater London, as a major centre, Lewisham had a population of 95,041 in 2011. It is an important transport hub for South London, and is one of the boroughs largest settlements, Lewisham has the largest Police Station in Europe which was moved to the Town Centre from Ladywell Road and rebuilt where the shopping centres department store once stood. There were plans to replace the department store to where the Riverdale Leisure Centre was based adjacent to Boots store when the Mayor was elected. It is most likely to have founded by a pagan Jute, Leof. A Latin legal record, dated 1440, mentions a place in Kent as Levesham which may refer to Lewisham and it is now written, as well in parochial and other records as in common usage, Lewisham. Leofshema was an important settlement at the confluence of the rivers Quaggy and Ravensbourne, King Alfred was Lord of the Manor of Lewisham, as is celebrated by a plaque in Lewisham Library.
This grant is said to have been confirmed by King Edgar in 964, in the mid-17th century, the vicar of Lewisham, Abraham Colfe, built a grammar school, a primary school and six almshouses for the inhabitants. In the 17th century the Manor of Lewisham was purchased by George Legge and his grandson George, Lord Dartmouth, obtained from King Charles II the privilege of holding a fair twice a year, and a market twice a week, upon Blackheath in the parish. The fair used to be held on 12 May and 11 October, the village of Lewisham had its nucleus in its southern part, around the parish church of St Mary, towards the present site of University Hospital Lewisham. The centre migrated north with the coming of the North Kent railway line to Dartford in 1849, the area of the parish is 5,789 acres. Lord of the manor, the Earl of Dartmouth to whom it gives the title Viscount, Lewisham was administratively part of Kent until 1889, and formed part of the Metropolitan Borough of Lewisham in the County of London until 1965.
The town centre was hit by a V-1 flying bomb in 1944, there were over 300 casualties including 51 fatalities, and it devastated the high street and this horrific event is commemorated by a plaque outside the Lewisham Shopping Centre. The plaque was on the pavement outside the Marks and Spencers store in the shopping precinct. However, suffering wear and tear, the local authority arranged for it to be mounted to the façade, the area at the north end of the High Street was pedestrianised in 1994. It is home to a street market and a local landmark. The police station, opened in 2004 to replace the station in Ladywell, is officially the largest in Europe, Lewisham Cricket Club was one of the most prestigious London sides during the Victorian era. From 1864 they played at Lewisham Cricket Ground, which lay north of Ladywell Road, Lewisham Swimming Club was very successful, with several of its members representing England at water polo and other gymkhana events
Paddington is an area within the City of Westminster, in central London. Formerly a metropolitan borough, it was integrated with Westminster and Greater London in 1965, a major project called Paddington Waterside aims to regenerate former railway and canal land between 1998 and 2018, and the area is seeing many new developments. However, the provenance is much and likely to have been forged after the 1066 Norman conquest. There is no mention of the place in the Domesday Book of 1086, a more reliable 12th-century document cited by the cleric Isaac Maddox establishes that part of the land was held by brothers Richard and William de Padinton. In the Elizabethan and early Stuart era, the rectory, Nicholas Small was a clothworker who was sufficiently well connected to have Holbein paint a portrait of his wife, Jane Small. Nicholas died in 1565 and his wife married again, to Nicholas Parkinson of Paddington who became master of the Clothworkers company. Jane Small continued to live in Paddington after her husbands death, and her manor house was big enough to have been let to Sir John Popham.
They let the building that became in this time Blowers Inn, as the regional population grew in the 17th century, Paddingtons ancient Hundred of Ossulstone was split into divisions, Holborn Division replaced the hundred for most administrative purposes. By 1773, a contemporary historian felt and wrote that London may now be said to include two cities, one borough and forty six antient villages. Roman roads formed the parishs north-eastern and southern boundaries from Marble Arch, Watling Street and, Uxbridge road, known by the 1860s in this neighbourhood as Bayswater Road. They were toll roads in much of the 18th century, before, by 1801, the area saw the start-point of an improved Harrow Road and an arm of the Grand Junction Canal - these remain. The district formed the centrepiece of an 1824 masterplan by Samuel Pepys Cockerell to redevelop the Tyburn Estate into an area to rival Belgravia. Despite this, Thackeray described the district of Tyburnia as the elegant, the prosperous, the polite Tyburnia.
Derivation of the name is uncertain, speculative explanations include Padre-ing-tun, Pad-ing-tun, and Pæding-tun the last being the cited suggestion of the Victorian Anglo-Saxon scholar John Mitchell Kemble. There is another Paddington in Surrey, recorded in the Domesday Book as Padendene, a lord named Padda is named in the Domesday Book, associated with Brampton, Suffolk. An 18th-century dictionary gives the definition Paddington Fair Day, an execution day, Tyburn being in the parish or neighbourhood of Paddington. To dance the Paddington frisk, to be hanged, public executions were abolished in England in 1868. Paddington station is the terminus for services to the west of London and mainline services to Oxford, South-West England
Harrow /ˈhæroʊ/ is a large suburban town in the London Borough of Harrow, northwest London, England. It is centred 10.5 miles northwest of Charing Cross, harrow-on-the-Hill includes the conservation area with a high proportion of listed buildings with a residential and institutional array of Georgian architecture and a few 17th century examples. Harrow gives its initial letters to a postcode area. Harrow was a borough of Middlesex before its inclusion in Greater London in 1965. Harrow is home to a large Westminster polytechnic campus and its oldest secondary schools are Harrow School, harrows name comes from Old English hearg = temple, which was probably on the hill of Harrow, where St. Marys Church stands today. The name has been studied in detail by Keith Briggs, the first and only contemporary artist-led gallery in Harrow was set up in 2010 by the Usurp Art Collective. The space is called the Usurp Art Gallery & Studios and is based in West Harrow, Usurp Art provides professional support to artists and runs the only public artists studios in the borough.
It is a project for Arts Council England. Much of Kenton and before 1716 all of Pinner were parts of Harrow, geographical facts which root the importance of Harrow as a meeting place, Harrow Weald, is the district north of Wealdstone, both of which were historically part of Harrow. Harrow may include the wards of Roxeth, Headstone North and Harrow on the Hill as well as the Greenhill, West Harrow, the combined population of these wards is 80,213. In the 2011 census, the Greenhill ward was 42% white, 26% Indian, the West Harrow ward was 44% white, 23% Indian, and 12% Other Asian. In addition, Headstone South ward was 43% white, 24% Indian, Harrow on the Hill ward was 47% white, 19% Indian and 12% Other Asian. Major employers include Kodak Alaris, the Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital and Ladbrokes, on 7 August 1838 Thomas Port died from injuries received in a train accident near Harrow. With great fortitude, he bore a second amputation by the surgeons and died from loss of blood, August 7th 1838, on 26 November 1870 two trains collided at Harrow & Wealdstone station, killing 9 and injuring 44.
On 8 October 1952 three trains collided at Harrow and Wealdstone station, killing 112 people, of the dead,64 were railway employees on their way to work. Harrow is the hometown of renown fashion designer, Vivenne Westood whom went on to one of the notable pioneers of Punk culture. Harrow is twinned with, France Notes References Harrow Times newspaper Harrow Council Homepage Harrow Local Community News and Information
Romford is a large town in East London and the administrative centre of the London Borough of Havering. It is located 14.1 miles northeast of Charing Cross and is one of the metropolitan centres identified in the London Plan. It was historically a town in the county of Essex and formed the administrative centre of the liberty of Havering. It now forms one of the largest commercial, entertainment, Romford is first recorded in 1177 as Romfort, which is formed from Old English rūm and ford and means the wide or spacious ford. The naming of the River Rom is a local back-formation from the name of the town, the ford most likely existed on the main London to Colchester road where it crossed that river. The original site of the town was to the south, in an area known as Oldchurch. It was moved northwards to the present site in the medieval period to avoid the frequent flooding of the River Rom. The first building on the new site was the church of Saint Edward the Confessor. The town developed in the Middle Ages on the road to London.
The early history of Romford and the area is agricultural. Several failed attempts were made in the early 19th century to connect the town to the Thames via a Romford Canal. The development of the town was accelerated by the opening of the station in 1839 which stimulated the local economy and was key to the development of the Star Brewery. Initially Eastern Counties Railway services operated between Mile End and Romford, with extensions to Brentwood and to Shoreditch in 1840. A second station was opened on South Street in 1892 by the London and Southend Railway on the line to Upminster and Grays, the two stations were combined into one in 1934. Suburban expansion increased the population and reinforced Romfords position as a significant regional town centre. Romford formed a chapelry in the ancient parish of Hornchurch in the Becontree hundred of Essex, as well as the town it included the wards of Collier Row, Harold Wood. Over time the vestry of Romford chapelry absorbed the powers that would usually be held by the parish authorities.
Improvement commissioners were set up in 1819 for paving, watching, the remainder of the parish became part of the Romford rural sanitary district in 1875
Belgravia is a district in West London in the City of Westminster and the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea. It is noted for its very expensive residential properties and is one of the wealthiest districts in the world, much of it, known as the Grosvenor Estate, is still owned by a family property company, the Duke of Westminsters Grosvenor Group. The area takes its name one of the Dukes subsidiary titles. Owing to the Leasehold Reform Act 1967, the estate has been forced to sell many freeholds to its erstwhile tenants, the area takes its name from one of the Duke of Westminsters subsidiary titles, Viscount Belgrave. The village of Belgrave, Cheshire is two miles from the Grosvenor familys main seat of Eaton Hall. Most of the area was owned by Richard Grosvenor, 2nd Marquess of Westminster. Thomas Cubitt was the main contractor, Belgravia is characterised by grand terraces of white stucco houses, and is focused on Belgrave Square and Eaton Square. It was one of Londons most fashionable residential districts from its beginnings, fashion design houses that have their retail flagship stores and studios within the area include Philip Treacy, Donna Ida, Jenny Packham and HEMYCA.
On the southern edge of Belgravia is Pimlico Road, renowned for its antique shops and high-end furniture. It is a quiet district in the heart of London, contrasting with neighbouring districts. Many embassies are located in the area, especially in Belgrave Square and this phenomenon has diminished social relations in the neighbourhood. Belgrave Square, one of the grandest and largest 19th century squares, is the centrepiece of Belgravia and it was laid out by the property contractor Thomas Cubitt for the 2nd Earl Grosvenor, to be the 1st Marquess of Westminster, in the 1820s. Most of the houses were occupied by 1840, the numbering is anti-clockwise from the north, NW terrace Nos.1 to 11, west corner mansion No. 12, SW terrace 13–23, south corner mansion No,24, SE terrace Nos. 25–36, east corner mansion No. There is a detached house at the northern corner. 49, which was built in by Cubitt for Sidney Herbert in 1851, the terraces were designed by George Basevi and are possibly the grandest houses ever built in London on a speculative basis.
The largest of the mansions, Seaford House in the east corner, was designed by Philip Hardwick. Eaton Square is larger but less grand than the feature of the district, Belgrave Square
Herne Hill railway station
Herne Hill railway station is in the London Borough of Lambeth, South London, England, on the boundary between London fare zones 2 and 3. The station building on Railton Road was opened in 1862 by the London and Dover Railway. Initial service was only to Victoria, but by 1869 services ran to the City of London, Kings Cross, Kingston via Wimbledon, the arrival of the railways transformed Herne Hill from a wealthy suburb with large residential estates into a densely populated urban area. Herne Hill railway station sits at the bottom of the hill gives the area its name and is close to Brockwell Park. The section of Railton Road outside the station is mixed usage for pedestrians, the Chatham Main Line and Sutton Loop railway lines through Herne Hill are elevated above road level on a brick viaduct that runs north–south. The stations 1862 Gothic, polychrome brick building is on the side of the viaduct. The building houses an office and newsagent, and was Grade II listed in 1998. It was described by Cherry and Pevsner as a handsome group, the station entrance canopy was removed in 2015 due to its disrepair and a new one installed in July 2016 with a new timber valance design and cornice based on the original Victorian one.
Thameslink and Southeastern services cross each others paths at the junctions, the station has a turnback siding on its eastern side, adjacent to Milkwood Road. The area now known as Herne Hill had been a part of the Manor of Milkwell since the 13th century. Two tributaries of the River Effra met at the site of the future station. In 1783 a timber merchant, Samuel Sanders, bought Herne Hill from the Manor, Sanders granted leases for large plots of land to wealthy families – John Ruskin spent his childhood at an estate on Herne Hill. The Effra was covered over in the 1820s, and the area had become a suburb by the mid-19th century. The opening of the station, which provided convenient and cheap access to central London. All of the estates were eventually cleared to make way for many smaller houses. An 1870 railway travel guide noted the population of Herne Hill was 701, a railway line through Herne Hill was proposed in 1852 by the Mid Kent and London and South Western Junction Railways Company.
No construction work was undertaken at that time and the company had ceased to exist by 1860, in the late 1850s, the East Kent Railway had ambitions to run passenger trains between Kent and London, but it did not own any railway lines in inner London. It reached an agreement with the London and South Coast Railway in 1858 to use its West End and Crystal Palace line to access Battersea and this arrangement incurred costly access fees, but it was necessary until the company obtained Parliamentary authority to build in London
Herne Hill /hɜːrn/ is a district in south London, approximately four miles from Charing Cross and bordered by Brixton, Denmark Hill, Dulwich Village, Loughborough Junction and Tulse Hill. It overlaps the boundary between the boroughs of Lambeth and Southwark, there is a road of the same name in the area. In Rocques 1746 map, the area is shown as Island Green, probably reflecting the presence of the River Effra, early references to the area use the form Ireland Green. The earliest documented reference to Herne Hill is in two insurance policies issued by the Sun Insurance Company in 1792. The area now known as Herne Hill was part of the Manor of Milkwell, which existed from at least 1291 and it was divided between the ancient parishes of Camberwell and Lambeth. In 1783, Samuel Sanders bought the now occupied by Denmark Hill and Herne Hill from the Manor. By the mid-19th century, the road from the modern Herne Hill Junction to Denmark Hill was lined with residential estates. Herne Hill was transformed by the arrival of the railways in 1862, the Half Moon is a Grade II* listed public house in Half Moon Lane.
Herne Hill escaped lightly from V-weapons attacks during World War II, with five V-1 flying bombs, thames Water admitted liability and estimated the total cost of the damage to be around £4 million. The Half Moon reopened in March 2017, following a local campaign to save it as a pub. Herne Hill is situated between the areas of Brixton, Dulwich Village and Camberwell and it straddles two boroughs, and is a community of just under 12,000 people, with a range of independent shops, art galleries and restaurants. The Southwark half of Herne Hill is part of what is now called the North Dulwich Triangle, famous Herne Hill residents from history include John Ruskin and the Lupino family, and actor Roddy McDowall was born there. The area is home to the 50.8 ha Brockwell Park, near a hilltop in Brockwell Park stands the Grade II* listed Brockwell Hall, which was built in 1831. The hall and the land surrounding it were opened to the public in 1891 after being purchased by London County Council, Brockwell Park hosts the annual Lambeth Country Show and was the site of Londons Gay Pride festival for several years in the 1990s.
The park houses Brockwell Lido, a 1937 open-air swimming-pool that faces on to Dulwich Road, Herne Hill railway station on Railton Road was opened by the London and Dover Railway in 1862, the Gothic, polychrome brick station building was Grade II listed in 1998. The Herne Hill Velodrome, situated in a park off Burbage Road, was built in 1891, unlike most modern, steeply-banked velodromes, it is a shallow concrete bowl, the Save the Herne Hill Velodrome campaign is seeking a way to secure the future of the site. The same park has a pitch and was the home of Crystal Palace F. C. from 1915 until 1918. A Blue Plaque at 84 Burbage Road marks the former home of the athletics coach Sam Mussabini, Mussabini was immortalised in the film Chariots of Fire, in which he was played by actor Ian Holm
Until 1889 it was part of the County of Surrey. In 1900 the original became the Metropolitan Borough of Camberwell. Then in 1965 most of the Borough of Camberwell was merged into the London Borough of Southwark, to the west part of both West Dulwich and Herne Hill come under the London Borough of Lambeth. Camberwell appears in the Domesday Book as Cambrewelle, the name may derive from the Old English Cumberwell or Comberwell, meaning Well of the Britons, referring to remaining Celtic inhabitants of an area dominated by Anglo-Saxons. Springs and wells are known to have existed on the slope of Denmark Hill. It was already a settlement with a church when mentioned in the Domesday Book. It was held by Haimo the Sheriff and its domesday assets were,6 hides and 1 virgate,1 church,8 ploughs,63 acres of meadow, woodland worth 60 hogs. Up to the century, Camberwell was visited by Londoners for its rural tranquillity. Like much of inner South London, Camberwell was transformed by the arrival of the railways in the 1860s, Camberwell St Giles formed an ancient, and civil, parish in the Brixton hundred of Surrey.
The parish covered 4,570 acres in 1831 and was divided into the liberty of Peckham to the east, the width of the parish tapered in the south to form a point at what is now known as the Crystal Palace area. In 1801 the population was 7,059 and by 1851 this had risen to 54,667, in 1889 the board was replaced by the London County Council and Camberwell was removed from Surrey, to form part of the County of London. In 1900 the area of the Camberwell parish became the Metropolitan Borough of Camberwell, in 1965 the metropolitan borough was abolished and its former area became the southern part of the London Borough of Southwark in Greater London. The western part of the area is situated in the adjacent London Borough of Lambeth, Camberwell today is a mixture of relatively well preserved Georgian and 20th-century housing, including a number of tower blocks. Camberwell Grove, Grove Lane and Addington Square have some of Londons most elegant, the Salvation Armys William Booth Memorial Training College, designed by Giles Gilbert Scott, was completed in 1932, it towers over South London from Denmark Hill.
Camberwell is home to one of Londons largest teaching hospitals, Kings College Hospital with associated medical school the Guy’s King’s, the Maudsley Hospital, an internationally significant psychiatric hospital, is located in Camberwell along with the Institute of Psychiatry. Early music halls in Camberwell were in the hall of public houses. One, the Father Redcap still stands by Camberwell Green, but internally, in 1896, the Dan Leno company opened the Oriental Palace of Varieties, on Denmark Hill. This successful venture was replaced with a new theatre, designed by Ernest A. E