Clapham Junction railway station
Clapham Junction railway station is a major railway station and transport hub near St Johns Hill in the south-west of Battersea in the London Borough of Wandsworth. Despite its name, it is not located in Clapham, a district situated some 1.5 kilometres east-south-east of the station, the station is the busiest UK station for interchanges between services. Before the railway came, the area was rural and specialised in growing lavender, the coach road from London to Guildford ran slightly south of the future station site, past The Falcon public house at the crossroads in the valley between St. Johns Hill and Lavender Hill. On 21 May 1838 the London and Southampton Railway became the London and South Western Railway and that was the first railway through the area but it had no station at the present site. The second line, initially from Nine Elms to Richmond, opened on 27 July 1846, Nine Elms was replaced in 1848 as the terminus by Waterloo Bridge station, now Waterloo. The line to Victoria opened by 1860, Clapham Junction opened on 2 March 1863, a joint venture of the L&SWR, the London and South Coast Railway and the West London Extension Railway as an interchange station for their lines.
When the station was built, much of Battersea was the site of heavy industry while Clapham, Side and Clapham Common W. Side, London despite being well away from those park-side streets. Additional station buildings were erected in 1874 and 1876, batterseas slums unfit for human habitation were entirely replaced with council and charitable housing between 1918 and 1975. A £39.5 million planning application from Metro Shopping Fund was withdrawn before governmental planning committee consideration on 20 May 2009, the change would have been at Clapham Junction. On the morning of 12 December 1988 two collisions involving three commuter trains occurred slightly south-west of the station, thirty-five people died and more than 100 were injured. On the morning of 16 December 1991, a bomb ripped through tracks on one of the stations platforms, the Provisional Irish Republican Army claimed responsibility. The station is named Clapham Junction because it is at the junction of rail lines. Latchmere Main Junction connecting the WLL to the Brighton Line at Falcon Junction, West London Extension Junction and Junction for Waterloo, relaid for Eurostar empty-stock moves from the Windsor Lines to the WLL.
Pouparts Junction where the low-level and high-level approaches to Victoria split, each day about 2,000 trains, over half of them stopping, pass through the station, more than through any other station in Europe. At peak times 180 trains per hour pass through of which 117 stop and it is not the busiest station by number of passengers, most of whom pass through. Interchanges make some 40% of the activity and on that basis too it is the busiest station in the UK, in 2011 the station had three entrances, all with staffed ticket offices, though only the south-east entrance is open 24 hours a day. The most heavily used of the three, this leads from St Johns Hill via an indoor shopping centre into a subway some 15 ft wide. The north entrance, which has restricted opening hours, leads from Grant Road to the same subway, the subway is crowded during rush hours, with the ticket barriers at the ends being pinch points
Vauxhall is a mixed commercial and residential district of southwest London in the London Borough of Lambeth. Vauxhall formed part of Surrey until 1889 when the County of London was created, Vauxhall is 2.1 km south of Charing Cross and 1.5 km southwest of the actual centre of London at Frazier st near Lambeth North tube station. The area only became known by this name when the Vauxhall Pleasure Gardens opened as a public attraction. Initially most visitors would have approached by river, but crowds of Londoners of all came to know the area after the construction of Westminster Bridge in the 1740s. There are competing theories as to why the Russian word for a railway station is вокзал. This was further embellished into a story that the Tsar Nicholas I of Russia, visiting London in 1844, was taken to see the trains at Vauxhall and made the same mistake. The locality of the L&SWRs original railway terminus, Nine Elms Station, was shown boldly and simply as Vauxhall in the 1841 Bradshaw timetable, in 1838 a music and entertainment pavilion was constructed at the railway terminus.
This pavilion was called the Vokzal in homage to the Vauxhall Pleasure Gardens in London, the name soon came to be applied to the station itself, which was the gateway that most visitors used to enter the gardens. It came to any substantial railway station building. Archdeacon William Coxe describes the place as a sort of Vauxhall in that year, there is no mention of Vauxhall in the 1086 Domesday Book. The area originally formed part of the extensive Manor of South Lambeth, falkes de Breauté acquired it in 1216 when he married Margaret, widow of Baldwin de Redvers, de Breautés lands reverted to the de Redvers family after his death in 1226. In 1293 South Lambeth Manor and the Manor of la Sale Faukes passed, probably by trickery, in 1317 King Edward II granted the manor of Vauxhall, Surrey, to Sir Roger dAmory for his good services at the Battle of Bannockburn. From various accounts, three local roads – the South Lambeth Road, Clapham Road and Wandsworth Road – were ancient and well-known routes to and from London.
The land was flat and parts were marshy and poorly drained by ditches, and only started to be developed with the draining of Lambeth Marsh in the mid-18th century, prior to this it provided market garden produce for the nearby City of London. Vauxhall Bridge and Vauxhall Bridge Road were opened in 1816, by 1860 the village had been subsumed by the town of Lambeth. Many of Vauxhalls streets were destroyed during the construction of the railway to Waterloo station, many Vauxhall residents live in social housing. Vauxhall is an ethnically diverse area, with approximately 40% of residents originating from a non-white ethnic group. There is a significant Portuguese community, some with a connection to Madeira, many Portuguese restaurants and bars are located in South Lambeth Road, there is a significant Muslim community, with almost 6% of residents declaring themselves as Muslim in the 2001 census
Westminster is an area of central London within the City of Westminster, part of the West End, on the north bank of the River Thames. Historically the area lay within St Margarets parish, City & Liberty of Westminster and it has been the home of the permanent institutions of Englands government continuously since about 1200 and is now the seat of British government. In a government context, Westminster often refers to the Parliament of the United Kingdom, the closest tube stations are Westminster, St Jamess Park on the Jubilee and District lines. Within the area is Westminster School, a public school which grew out of the Abbey. Bounding Westminster to the north is Green Park, a Royal Park of London, the area has a substantial resident population, indeed most of its listed buildings are residential. A proportion of residents are people of limited means, living in council, large Victorian homes and barracks exist nearer to Buckingham Palace. The name describes an area no more than 1 mile from Westminster Abbey, the settlement grew up around the palace and abbey, as a service area for them.
The need for a church, St Margarets Westminster for the servants of the palace. It became larger and in the Georgian period became connected through urban development with the City along the Strand. It did not become a local government unit until created as a civil parish. Indeed, the Cathedral and diocesan status of the church lasted only from 1539 to 1556, as such it is first known to have had two Members of Parliament in 1545 as a new Parliamentary Borough, centuries after the City of London and Southwark were enfranchised. The historic core of Westminster is the former Thorney Island on which Westminster Abbey was built, the abbey became the traditional venue of the coronation of the kings and queens of England from that of Harold Godwinson onwards. From about 1200, near the abbey, the Palace of Westminster became the royal residence, marked by the transfer of royal treasury. Later the palace housed the developing Parliament and Englands law courts, thus London developed two focal points, the City of London and Westminster.
The monarchs moved to St James Palace and the Palace of Whitehall a little towards the north-east, the main law courts have since moved to the Royal Courts of Justice. The Westminster area formed part of the City and Liberty of Westminster in Middlesex, the ancient parish was St Margaret, after 1727 this became the civil parish of St Margaret and St John, the latter a new church required for the increasing population. The area around Westminster Abbey formed the extra-parochial Close of the Collegiate Church of St Peter surrounded by —, until 1900 the local authority was the combined vestry of St Margaret and St John, which was based at Westminster City Hall in Caxton Street from 1883. The Liberty of Westminster, governed by the Westminster Court of Burgesses, included St Martin in the Fields, Westminster had its own quarter sessions, but the Middlesex sessions had jurisdiction
Balham /ˈbæləm/ is a neighbourhood of south London, England in the London Borough of Wandsworth. The settlement appears in the Domesday Book as Belgeham, bal refers to rounded enclosure and ham to a homestead, village or river enclosure. It was held by Geoffrey Orlateile and its Domesday Assets were, 1½ ploughs,8 acres of meadow. The Balham area has settled since Saxon times. Balham Hill and Balham High Road follow the line of the Roman road Stane Street to Chichester –, Balham is recorded in several maps in the 1600s as Ballam or Balham Hill or Balham Manor. The village was within the parish of Streatham, on 14 October 1940 Balham tube station was badly damaged by air raids on London during World War II. People took shelter in the station during the raids. A bomb fell in the High Road and through the roof of the Underground station below, bursting water and gas mains and this particular incident was featured in Atonement, a 2001 novel by Ian McEwan. An image of the aftermath is of the No.88 bus which had fallen into the bomb crater, Balham is in Wandsworth and encompasses the A24 north of Tooting Bec and the roads radiating off it.
The southern part of Balham, towards Tooting Bec, near the 1930s block of Art Deco flats called Du Cane Court, the Heaver Estate lies to the south of Balham in Tooting. The Estate mainly comprises substantial houses, was built in the grounds of the old Bedford Hill House and was the work of local Victorian builder, other nearby areas include Tooting, Brixton, Wandsworth Common, Clapham South or the southern part of Clapham Park. Balhams town centre has a variety of bars and shops including major chains, there are local services, including independent stores, coffee houses and brasseries. There are two car parks serving the vicinity, one behind the Sainsburys and one in front of Waitrose, Balham is diverse both in terms of economic and cultural demographics with an increasingly professional middle class population. The Polish population in Balham has hugely increased since 2006, though Balham has been one of the centres of the community in London since World War II, the White Eagle Club is a thriving Polish community centre, and its traditional Saturday night dance draws people from across London.
Opposite the White Eagle is The Polish Roman Catholic Church of Christ the King, the Irish, Somali and Brazilian communities are well represented. The Bedford is a pub venue for music and comedy on Bedford Hill. Performers at the Banana Cabaret have included Stephen K Amos, Omid Djalili, Harry Hill, Eddie Izzard, Al Murray and Catherine Tate. The pub has won awards including the Publican Music Pub of the Year 2002, the Morning Advertiser Pub of the Year 2004
Mayfair is an affluent area in the West End of London towards the east edge of Hyde Park, in the City of Westminster, between Oxford Street, Regent Street and Park Lane. It is one of the most expensive districts in London and the world, the area around Mayfair was originally part of the manor of Eia and remained largely rural in nature until the early 18th century. It became well known for the annual May Fair that took place from 1686 to 1764 in what is now Shepherd Market, the fair attracted an unpleasant, downmarket element and gradually became a public nuisance. The Grosvenor family, to become the Dukes of Westminster, acquired land through marriage, the work included three major squares – Hanover Square, Berkeley Square and Grosvenor Square, all of which were surrounded by luxury homes, and the church of St George Hanover Square. By the end of the 18th century, most of Mayfair was built on with prestigious housing to suit the upper class, unlike some nearby areas of London, it has never lost its affluent status.
There remains a substantial quantity of luxury property, upmarket shops and restaurants. Mayfairs prestigious status has been commemorated by being the most expensive property square on the London Monopoly board. The Mayfair area is in the London Borough of Westminster and mainly consists of the estate of Grosvenor, along with the estates of Albemarle, Burlington. It is bordered on the west by Park Lane, north by Oxford Street, east by Regent Street, beyond the bounding roads, to the north is Marylebone, to the east, Soho and to the southwest and Belgravia. Mayfair is surrounded by parkland, both Hyde Park and Green Park run along its boundary, the 8-acre Grosvenor Square is roughly in the centre of Mayfair, and is the centrepiece of the area, containing numerous expensive and desirable properties. There has been speculation that the Romans settled in the area before establishing Londinium, the proposal has been disputed owing to lack of archaeological evidence. This area was known as the manor of Eia in the Domesday Book and it was subsequently given to the Abbey of Westminster, who owned it until 1536 when it was taken over by Henry VIII.
Mayfair was mainly open fields until development started in the Shepherd Market area around 1686-8 to accommodate the May Fair that had moved from Haymarket in St Jamess because of overcrowding. There were some buildings before 1686 – a cottage in Stanhope Row, dating from 1618, a 17th century English Civil War fortification was established in what is now Mount Street in Mayfair, and known as Olivers Mount by the 18th century. The May Fair was held every year at Great Brookfield from 1 –14 May and it was established during the reign of Edward I, where the area beyond St. James was open fields. The fair was recorded as Saint Jamess fayer by Westminster in 1560 and it was postponed briefly in 1603 because of plague, but otherwise continued throughout the 17th century. In 1686, the moved to what is now Mayfair. By the 18th, it had attracted various showmen and fencers, popular attractions included bare-knuckle fighting, semolina eating contests and womens foot racing
Bloomsbury is an area of the London Borough of Camden, between Euston Road and Holborn. It was developed by the Russell family in the 17th and 18th centuries into a residential area. It is notable for its garden squares, literary connections, and numerous cultural, Bloomsbury Square was laid out in 1660 by Thomas Wriothesley, 4th Earl of Southampton. Much of the district was planned and built by James Burton and it is home to the University of Law and New College of the Humanities. London Contemporary Dance School and the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art and are located in the area. Bloomsbury is in the constituency of Holborn and St Pancras. The western half of the district comprises Bloomsbury ward, which three councillors to Camden Borough Council. The earliest record of what would become Bloomsbury is in the 1086 Domesday Book, but it is not until 1201 that the name Bloomsbury is first noted, when William de Blemond, a Norman landowner, acquired the land. The name Bloomsbury is a development from Blemondisberi – the bury, or manor, at the end of the 14th century, Edward III acquired Blemonds manor, and passed it on to the Carthusian monks of the London Charterhouse, who kept the area mostly rural.
In the 16th century with the Dissolution of the Monasteries, Henry VIII took the back into the possession of the Crown and granted it to Thomas Wriothesley. In the early 1660s, the Earl of Southampton constructed what eventually became Bloomsbury Square, the Yorkshire Grey public house on the corner of Grays Inn Road and Theobalds Road dates from 1676. The area was laid out mainly in the 18th century, largely by landowners such as Wriothesley Russell, 3rd Duke of Bedford, who built Bloomsbury Market, William de Blemond in the 13th century, a Norman, was the first landowner. Edward III acquired Blemonds manor, and passed it on to the Carthusian monks who governed it until Henry VIII granted it to the Earl of Southampton, the Russell family became landowners in the 18th century. The area lay within the parishes of St Giles in the Fields and St Georges, Bloomsbury and it is now controlled by the London Borough of Camden and part of the district is contained within the Bloomsbury ward. The district is situated in the constituency of Holborn and St Pancras.
Bloomsbury merges gradually with Holborn in the south, with St Pancras and Kings Cross in the north-east, the road runs from Euston and Somers Town in the north to Holborn in the south. East of Southampton Row/Woburn Place are the Grade II listed Brunswick Centre, a residential and shopping centre, the area west of Southampton Row/Woburn Place is notable for its concentration of academic establishments and formal squares. Bloomsbury contains some of Londons finest parks and buildings, and is known for its formal squares
Hounslow is the principal town in the London Borough of Hounslow in Greater London and is part of the historic county of Middlesex. It is a suburban district 10.6 miles west south-west of Charing Cross, a minority of its workers are employed in Central London, to which the town is connected by rail and tube. Hounslow is part of the TW3 postcode area, though areas to the west are in TW4 instead. The population of the town, comprising the Hounslow Central, Hounslow Heath, the name Hounslow is spelt in old records as Hundeslow and similar, pointing to Anglo-Saxon Hundes hlāw, meaning the dogs mound or the mound of a man named or nicknamed Hound. Positioned on the Bath Road, Hounslow was centred around Holy Trinity Priory founded in 1211, the priory developed what had been a small village into a town with regular markets and other facilities for travellers heading to and from London. Although the priory was dissolved in 1539 the town remained an important staging post on the Bath Road, the adjacent Hounslow Heath that had been used as a military encampment by both Oliver Cromwell and James II developed a reputation as the haunt of highwaymen and footpads.
Nearby important landowners included those of Osterley House, Syon House, Hanworth Park House, in 1756 Sir Thomas Morris, a distant relative of Bernard Matthews, established the base of his chicken farming empire. As a rich philanthropist who started from humble beginnings, he used his wealth to establish a school for the privileged children of the town. The building of the Great Western Railway line from London to Bristol from 1838 reduced long-distance travel along the Bath Road, by 1842 the local paper was reporting that the formerly flourishing village, which used to stable 2,000 horses, was suffering a general depreciation of property. The Hounslow Loop Line was constructed in 1850, prompting new development, the construction of the Great West Road in the 1920s attracted the building of the factories and headquarters of large companies. The factories were a local source of employment until a decline in the 1970s, attracting workers from a wide area. The settlement is employed in the Commuter Belt with access between 45 and 60 minutes from most of Central London.
DHL Air UK has its office in the Orbital Park in Hounslow. The M4 motorway is 2& mi north, its nearest junction, J3, the A315 is the historic WSW road out of London on which Hounslows High Street is placed. To the east, it bisects Isleworth and Chiswick, to the west it bisects North Feltham and Bedfont before joining the A30. The north-south A312, The Parkway, to the west of Hounslow leads south to Hampton or north to Harrow passing Waggoners Roundabout, Yeading, three minor roads converge on Heston from the A315 in parts of Hounslow, the A3063, A3005 and B363. For longer journeys north, the M4, A4 or A30 M25 provides the best routes, for longer journeys south, Hanworth Road leads to the A316 that becomes the M3 motorway. Hounslow railway station, operated by South West Trains is on the line to London Waterloo station, or westwards to Reading
Dalston is a district of the London Borough of Hackney in North East London, England. Dalston began as a hamlet within the parish of Hackney, which developed on either side of Dalston Lane, as the area urbanised, the term came to apply to surrounding areas including the old centres of Kingsland and Shacklewell, which are now considered part of Dalston. The area’s best known resident was Prime Minister Tony Blair who lived in Mapledene Road from 1980–86. The same contrast could not be today as gentrification has led to a rapid increase in the price of property. The process of change was accelerated by the East London line extension, the reopening of Dalston Junction Station on this extension was part of Londons successful bid to hold the 2012 Olympics. Dalston has never been a unit, and partly for this reason the boundaries are not fully defined. There are popularly understood boundaries in the south and west, but its northern and this is a common situation in London’s neighbourhoods which often merge and change over time.
There is an electoral Ward of the name which covers a part of the north–west of Dalston. Dalston’s boundaries are described more or less precision below, South. Albion Drive forms much of this boundary, The originally Roman A10 road marks most of Dalston’s western margin. This area includes Dalston Kingsland Railway Station, There isnt a tradition of a clear northern boundary with Stoke Newington. East, Between Downs Road and Amhurst Road, the barrier of the railway embankment marks the postcode boundary with Lower Clapton. There is little tradition of a boundary with the central Hackney area except that it is said that Dalston extends as far as the park at London Fields. The name Dalston is thought to have derived from Deorlafs tun in much the way as nearby Hoxton was named after the farm of Hoch. The first written record available is from 1294 when the name was written as Derleston, the village was one of four small villages within the Parish of Hackney that were grouped for assessment purposes, together having only as many houses as the village of Hackney.
John Rocques map of 1746 shows the village of Kingsland centred on the crossroads at what is now Dalston Junction, another clear feature is Roman Ermine Street which now forms most of the western boundary of this area. Ermine Street now has the road number A10 and goes by a number of names, around AD1280 a leper hospital was founded in Dalston by the citizens of London and in AD1549 it was attached to the chapel of St Bartholomew as an outhouse. During the 18th and 19th centuries the area changed from an agricultural and rural landscape to urban one, during the 1930s, 40sand 60s the areas large Jewish and other minority populations made it a target for provocative rallies by Oswald Mosley and the various organisations he founded
Ilford is a large cosmopolitan town in East London and the administrative headquarters of the London Borough of Redbridge. It is located 9.1 miles north-east of Charing Cross and is one of the metropolitan centres identified in the London Plan. Ilford forms a significant commercial and retail centre surrounded by residential development. It was historically a rural settlement in the county of Essex and its strategic position on the River Roding. Since 1965 it has formed part of Greater London, but it is considered by some to be in Essex because of the postal county. Despite the Royal Mail no longer using official postal counties, Ilford is part of the IG postcode area, though areas to the west of Ilford Hill and the A406 are part of E postcode area instead. Ilford was historically known as Great Ilford to differentiate it from nearby Little Ilford, the name is first recorded in the Domesday Book of 1086 as Ilefort and means ford over the Hyle, an old name for the River Roding that means trickling stream.
The only complete skull of a mammoth discovered in the United Kingdom was unearthed in 1860 at the site where Boots the Chemist now stands in the High Road. The skull can now be seen in the Natural History Museum and other animal remains can be seen at Redbridge Museum, Central Library. Redevelopment has destroyed much of the evidence for early Ilford, but the oldest evidence for human occupation is the 1st and this was situated between the Roding and Ilford Lane and is recorded in 18th century plans. Roman finds have made in the vicinity. A nearby mound called Lavender Mount existed into the 1960s, when it was removed during building work at Howards chemical works, excavation has shown that the latter may have been a 16th-century beacon-mound. Archaeological discoveries are displayed at Redbridge Museum, Ilford straddled the important road from London to Colchester. The Middlesex and Essex Turnpike Trust controlled and maintained the road from 1721, the River Roding was made navigable for barges as far as Ilford Bridge from 1737.
Ilford remained largely rural until its expansion in the 19th century and this brought about brickworks, cement works and coal yards to service the new buildings, largely centred on the River Roding. In 1839, a station was opened on the line from Romford to Mile End. The early businesses gave way to new industries, such as making and services such as steam laundries and collar making. A number of businesses have been founded in the town, including the eponymous photographic film
London, or Greater London, is a region of England which forms the administrative boundaries of London. It is organised into 33 local government districts, the 32 London boroughs, the Greater London Authority, based in Southwark, is responsible for strategic local government across the region and consists of the Mayor of London and the London Assembly. The county of Greater London was created on 1 April 1965 through the London Government Act 1963, Greater London was first established as a sui generis council area under the Greater London Council between 1963 and 1986. The area was re-established as a region in 1994, and the Greater London Authority formed in 2000, the region covers 1,572 km2 and had a population of 8,174,000 at the 2011 census. In 2012, it had the highest GVA per capita in the United Kingdom at £37,232, the Greater London Built-up Area—used in some national statistics—is a measure of the continuous urban area of London, and therefore includes areas outside of the administrative region.
The term Greater London has been and still is used to different areas in governance, history. In terms of ceremonial counties, London is divided into the small City of London, outside the limited boundaries of the City, a variety of arrangements has governed the wider area since 1855, culminating in the creation of the Greater London administrative area in 1965. The Greater London Arterial Road Programme was devised between 1913 and 1916, one of the larger early forms was the Greater London Planning Region, devised in 1927, which occupied 1,856 square miles and included 9 million people. The LCC pressed for an alteration in its boundaries soon after the end of the First World War, noting that within the Metropolitan, a Royal Commission on London Government was set up to consider the issue. The LCC proposed a vast new area for Greater London, with a boundary somewhere between the Metropolitan Police District and the home counties, protests were made at the possibility of including Windsor and Eton in the authority.
The Commission made its report in 1923, rejecting the LCCs scheme, two minority reports favoured change beyond the amalgamation of smaller urban districts, including both smaller borough councils and a central authority for strategic functions. The London Traffic Act 1924 was a result of the Commission, Greater London originally had a two-tier system of local government, with the Greater London Council sharing power with the City of London Corporation and the 32 London Borough councils. The GLC was abolished in 1986 by the Local Government Act 1985 and its functions were devolved to the City Corporation and the London Boroughs, with some functions transferred to central government and joint boards. Greater London was used to form the London region of England in 1994, a referendum held in 1998 established a public will to recreate an upper tier of government to cover the region. The Greater London Authority, London Assembly and the directly elected Mayor of London were created in 2000 by the Greater London Authority Act 1999, in 2000, the outer boundary of the Metropolitan Police District was re-aligned to the Greater London boundary.
The 2000 and 2004 mayoral elections were won by Ken Livingstone, the 2008 and 2012 elections were won by Boris Johnson. The 2016 election was won by Sadiq Khan, Greater London continues to include the most closely associated parts of the Greater London Urban Area and their historic buffers. Thus it includes, in five boroughs, significant parts of the Metropolitan Green Belt which protects designated greenfield land in a way to the citys parks
Camden Town, often shortened to Camden, is an inner city district of northwest London,2.4 miles north of the centre of London. It is one of the 35 major centres identified in the London Plan, the areas industrial economic base has been replaced by service industries such as retail and entertainment. The area now hosts street markets and music venues which are associated with alternative culture. Camden Town is named after Charles Pratt, 1st Earl Camden and his earldom was styled after his estate, Camden Place near Chislehurst in Kent, formerly owned by historian William Camden. The name, which appears on the Ordnance Survey map of 1822, was applied to the early 20th century Camden Town Group of artists. Camden Town stands on land which was once the manor of Kentish Town, sir Charles Pratt, a radical 18th century lawyer and politician, acquired the manor through marriage. In 1791, he started granting leases for houses to be built in the manor, in 1816, the Regents Canal was built through the area.
Up to at least the mid 20th century, Camden Town was considered an unfashionable locality, the Camden markets, which started in 1973 and have grown since then, attract many visitors all week. Camden Lock Village, known as Camden Lock market, suffered a major fire, Camden Town, previously in the Metropolitan Borough of St Pancras, became part of the London Borough of Camden when it was created in 1965. Camden Town is contained in the following political constituencies for different purposes, listed with some incumbents as of 2017, Camden London Borough Council, Camden Town with Primrose Hill, returns three Borough councillors. UK Parliament, Holborn and St Pancras, four Labour, two Conservative, one Green, one UKIP. Camden Town is on flat ground at 100 feet above sea level,2.4 miles north-northwest of Charing Cross. To the north are the hills of Hampstead and Highgate, the culverted, subterranean River Fleet flows from its source on Hampstead Heath through Camden Town south to the Thames. The Regents Canal runs through the north of Camden Town, from the end of the twentieth century entertainment-related businesses and a Holiday Inn started moving into the area. A number of retail and food chain outlets replaced independent shops, driven out by high rents and redevelopment.
Restaurants with a variety of culinary traditions thrived, many of them an away from the markets, on Camden High Street and its side streets, Chalk Farm Road. The plan to re-develop the historic Stables Market led to a steel and glass extension, built on the edges of the site in 2006, Camden is well known for its markets. Camden Town Tube station is near the markets and other attractions and it is a key interchange station for the Bank, Charing Cross and High Barnet Northern line branches
Putney is a district in south-west London, England in the London Borough of Wandsworth. It is centred 5.1 miles south-west of Charing Cross, the area is identified in the London Plan as one of 35 major centres in Greater London. And thus we take leave of Putney, one of the pleasantest of the London suburbs, Putney is an ancient parish which covered 9.11 square kilometres and was until 1889 in the Hundred of Brixton in the county of Surrey. Its area has reduced by the loss of Roehampton to the south-west. In 1855 the parish was included in the area of responsibility of the Metropolitan Board of Works and was grouped into the Wandsworth District, in 1889 the area was removed from Surrey and became part of the County of London. The Wandsworth District became the Metropolitan Borough of Wandsworth in 1900, since 1965 Putney has formed part of the London Borough of Wandsworth in Greater London. The benefice of the remains a perpetual curacy whose patron is the Dean. It has a small chantry chapel removed from the east end of the south aisle, a charitable almshouse for 12 men and women, dedicated to the Holy Trinity, was erected by Sir Abraham Dawes, who provided it with an endowment.
Putney was birthplace of Thomas Cromwell, made Earl of Essex by Henry VIII and of Edward Gibbon, author of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, William Pitt, Earl of Chatham, died at a house on Putney Heath. At that time Putney took on Londons premier role in civil engineering, Putney had a second place of worship, for Independents and Roehampton was in the process of achieving separate parish status. The proprietors of the bridge distributed £31 per annum to watermen, and watermens widows and children, Putney in 1887 covered 9 square kilometres. Putney appears in the Domesday Book of 1086 as Putelei and it was noted that it did not fall into the category of local jurisdictions known as a manor, but obtained 20 shillings from the ferry or market toll at Putney belonging to the manor of Mortlake. One famous crossing at Putney was that of Cardinal Wolsey in 1529 upon his disgrace in falling out of favour with Henry VIII and on ceasing to be the holder of the Great Seal of England. As he was riding up Putney Hill he was overtaken by one of the royal chamberlains who presented him with a ring as a token of the continuance of his majestys favour.
The first permanent bridge between Fulham and Putney was completed in 1729, and was the bridge to be built across the Thames in London. The ferry boat was on the side and the waterman. Walpole vowed that a bridge would replace the ferry, the Prince of Wales apparently was often inconvenienced by the ferry when returning from hunting in Richmond park and asked Walpole to use his influence by supporting the bridge. The bridge was a structure and lasted for 150 years