Eltham is a suburban district of south east London, England, in the Royal Borough of Greenwich. It is centred 8.7 miles east south-east of Charing Cross, the area is identified in the London Plan as one of 35 major centres in Greater London. The three wards of Eltham North and West had a population at the 2011 Census of 35,459. Eltham developed along part of the road from London to Maidstone, Mottingham, to the south, became part of the parish on the abolition of all extra-parochial areas, which were rare anomalies in the parish system. Eltham College and other parts of Mottingham were even before the 1860s therefore not considered within Elthams boundaries, from the 6th century Eltham was in the ancient Lathe of Sutton at Hone. In the 1086 Domesday Book its hundred was named Greniz, which by the 1166 was renamed Blachehedfeld because it had become the location of the annual or more frequent hundred gathering. Eltham lies in the hundred of Blackheath, at the distance of eight miles from London, on the road to Maidstone, by the 1880s the lathes and hundreds of Kent had become obsolete, with the civil parishes and other districts assuming modern governmental functions.
Eltham was a parish of Kent until 1889 when it became part of the County of London. The metropolitan borough was abolished in 1965 and Eltham became part of the London Borough of Greenwich, Eltham today is one of the largest suburban developments in the borough with a population of almost 88,000 people. Eltham lies on a high, sandy plateau which gave it a strategic significance. That, and the fact of its close to the main route to the English Channel ports in Kent, led to the creation of the moated Plantagenet Eltham Palace. The Kings of England had a palace at Eltham at an early period. Henry the Third, in the year 1270, kept a public Christmas at his palace of Eltham, being accompanied by the Queen, in 1315, his Queen was brought to bed of a son in this palace, from that circumstance, John of Eltham. Edward the Third held a Parliament at Eltham in 1329, the nearby manor of Well Hall was home to Sir John Pulteney, four times Lord Mayor of the City of London, and to wealthy Catholic William Roper and his wife Margaret.
In 1733 Sir Gregory Page bought this estate for £19,000 and demolished Roper House, until its demolition in 1931, Well Hall House variously served as a home to watchmaker John Arnold, and to socialist Hubert Bland and author Edith Nesbit. Also of note is Avery Hill Park and its mansion, accessed from Bexley Road. Avery Hill was the home of Colonel North, who made his working in the Chilean nitrate industry. A hothouse is still open to the public and contains temperate, There are remnants of the formal gardens in the public park
Abbey Wood is an area of south east London, within the London Boroughs of Greenwich and Bexley. It is located south of Thamesmead and is 10.6 miles east of Charing Cross, the district takes its name from Lesnes Abbey Woods, located to the east, which once belonged to the monks of Lesnes Abbey. The Abbey of St Mary and St Thomas the Martyr at Lesnes was founded in 1178 by Richard de Luci, the Abbott of Lesnes Abbey was an important local landlord, and took a leading part in draining the marshland. However and the cost of maintaining river embankments was one of the reasons given for the Abbeys chronic financial difficulties and it never became a large community, and was closed by Cardinal Wolsey in 1525, under a licence to suppress monasteries of less than seven inmates. It was one of the first monasteries to be closed after the Dissolution of the Monasteries in 1524, henry Cooke acquired the site in 1541 and it eventually passed to Sir John Hippersley who salvaged building materials, before selling the property to Thomas Hawes of London in 1632.
It was bequeathed to Christs Hospital in 1633, Abbey Wood railway station was opened in 1849, immediately to the north of the area now known as The Village, built where Knee Hill became Harrow Manorway. Contemporary maps show Knee Hill as a minor track compared with a major pathway through the centre of the existing woods. The Village consisted of a dozen or so cottages, and two pubs, the Abbey Arms and the Harrow Inn. 30pm whilst the Abbey Arms, Abbey Wood was suggested as a site for a cemetery serving east London at a time of burial crisis in the capital. The Treasury was sceptical that Chadwicks scheme would ever be financially viable, although the Metropolitan Interments Act 1850 authorised the scheme, it was abandoned in 1852. The Royal Arsenal Co-operative Society owned two farms on the hillside to the south of The Village, and between 1900 and 1930 built the Bostall Estate. The housing is traditional of the two-up, two-down design, in distinctive yellow London brick, with gardens to the front.
Between 1955 and 1959 the London County Council built the Abbey Estate starting with one road south of the railway and extending on the northern side on former Royal Arsenal marshland. Predominantly conventional brick houses with gardens, at first there were no shops or pubs, equipped with a few shops and pubs together with schools, transport was non existent at first until one bus, the route 180 was added after the building of Eynsham bridge. The estate was first used to people from Dockhead and Peckham Londons East End. The main through-road is Eynsham Drive, in the mid-1960s the Greater London Council began building the first phase of Thamesmead on more ex-Royal Arsenal land, north-east of Abbey Wood station. The original railway level crossing was replaced by a flyover, the Greenwich ward of Abbey Wood has a population of just over 13,000, and its rail station sees over 3 million passenger journeys a year. Places of interest include the ruins of the 12th-century Lesnes Abbey and the adjacent Lesnes Abbey Woods, part of the Woods are designated as a Site of Special Scientific Interest called Abbey Wood, which has important Paleogene fossils.
The ancient Bostall Woods & Heath, Bostall Woods includes one of the few camping and caravan sites in London, which is owned and operated by The Caravan Club
Paddington is an area within the City of Westminster, in central London. Formerly a metropolitan borough, it was integrated with Westminster and Greater London in 1965, a major project called Paddington Waterside aims to regenerate former railway and canal land between 1998 and 2018, and the area is seeing many new developments. However, the provenance is much and likely to have been forged after the 1066 Norman conquest. There is no mention of the place in the Domesday Book of 1086, a more reliable 12th-century document cited by the cleric Isaac Maddox establishes that part of the land was held by brothers Richard and William de Padinton. In the Elizabethan and early Stuart era, the rectory, Nicholas Small was a clothworker who was sufficiently well connected to have Holbein paint a portrait of his wife, Jane Small. Nicholas died in 1565 and his wife married again, to Nicholas Parkinson of Paddington who became master of the Clothworkers company. Jane Small continued to live in Paddington after her husbands death, and her manor house was big enough to have been let to Sir John Popham.
They let the building that became in this time Blowers Inn, as the regional population grew in the 17th century, Paddingtons ancient Hundred of Ossulstone was split into divisions, Holborn Division replaced the hundred for most administrative purposes. By 1773, a contemporary historian felt and wrote that London may now be said to include two cities, one borough and forty six antient villages. Roman roads formed the parishs north-eastern and southern boundaries from Marble Arch, Watling Street and, Uxbridge road, known by the 1860s in this neighbourhood as Bayswater Road. They were toll roads in much of the 18th century, before, by 1801, the area saw the start-point of an improved Harrow Road and an arm of the Grand Junction Canal - these remain. The district formed the centrepiece of an 1824 masterplan by Samuel Pepys Cockerell to redevelop the Tyburn Estate into an area to rival Belgravia. Despite this, Thackeray described the district of Tyburnia as the elegant, the prosperous, the polite Tyburnia.
Derivation of the name is uncertain, speculative explanations include Padre-ing-tun, Pad-ing-tun, and Pæding-tun the last being the cited suggestion of the Victorian Anglo-Saxon scholar John Mitchell Kemble. There is another Paddington in Surrey, recorded in the Domesday Book as Padendene, a lord named Padda is named in the Domesday Book, associated with Brampton, Suffolk. An 18th-century dictionary gives the definition Paddington Fair Day, an execution day, Tyburn being in the parish or neighbourhood of Paddington. To dance the Paddington frisk, to be hanged, public executions were abolished in England in 1868. Paddington station is the terminus for services to the west of London and mainline services to Oxford, South-West England
Bloomsbury is an area of the London Borough of Camden, between Euston Road and Holborn. It was developed by the Russell family in the 17th and 18th centuries into a residential area. It is notable for its garden squares, literary connections, and numerous cultural, Bloomsbury Square was laid out in 1660 by Thomas Wriothesley, 4th Earl of Southampton. Much of the district was planned and built by James Burton and it is home to the University of Law and New College of the Humanities. London Contemporary Dance School and the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art and are located in the area. Bloomsbury is in the constituency of Holborn and St Pancras. The western half of the district comprises Bloomsbury ward, which three councillors to Camden Borough Council. The earliest record of what would become Bloomsbury is in the 1086 Domesday Book, but it is not until 1201 that the name Bloomsbury is first noted, when William de Blemond, a Norman landowner, acquired the land. The name Bloomsbury is a development from Blemondisberi – the bury, or manor, at the end of the 14th century, Edward III acquired Blemonds manor, and passed it on to the Carthusian monks of the London Charterhouse, who kept the area mostly rural.
In the 16th century with the Dissolution of the Monasteries, Henry VIII took the back into the possession of the Crown and granted it to Thomas Wriothesley. In the early 1660s, the Earl of Southampton constructed what eventually became Bloomsbury Square, the Yorkshire Grey public house on the corner of Grays Inn Road and Theobalds Road dates from 1676. The area was laid out mainly in the 18th century, largely by landowners such as Wriothesley Russell, 3rd Duke of Bedford, who built Bloomsbury Market, William de Blemond in the 13th century, a Norman, was the first landowner. Edward III acquired Blemonds manor, and passed it on to the Carthusian monks who governed it until Henry VIII granted it to the Earl of Southampton, the Russell family became landowners in the 18th century. The area lay within the parishes of St Giles in the Fields and St Georges, Bloomsbury and it is now controlled by the London Borough of Camden and part of the district is contained within the Bloomsbury ward. The district is situated in the constituency of Holborn and St Pancras.
Bloomsbury merges gradually with Holborn in the south, with St Pancras and Kings Cross in the north-east, the road runs from Euston and Somers Town in the north to Holborn in the south. East of Southampton Row/Woburn Place are the Grade II listed Brunswick Centre, a residential and shopping centre, the area west of Southampton Row/Woburn Place is notable for its concentration of academic establishments and formal squares. Bloomsbury contains some of Londons finest parks and buildings, and is known for its formal squares
Westminster is an area of central London within the City of Westminster, part of the West End, on the north bank of the River Thames. Historically the area lay within St Margarets parish, City & Liberty of Westminster and it has been the home of the permanent institutions of Englands government continuously since about 1200 and is now the seat of British government. In a government context, Westminster often refers to the Parliament of the United Kingdom, the closest tube stations are Westminster, St Jamess Park on the Jubilee and District lines. Within the area is Westminster School, a public school which grew out of the Abbey. Bounding Westminster to the north is Green Park, a Royal Park of London, the area has a substantial resident population, indeed most of its listed buildings are residential. A proportion of residents are people of limited means, living in council, large Victorian homes and barracks exist nearer to Buckingham Palace. The name describes an area no more than 1 mile from Westminster Abbey, the settlement grew up around the palace and abbey, as a service area for them.
The need for a church, St Margarets Westminster for the servants of the palace. It became larger and in the Georgian period became connected through urban development with the City along the Strand. It did not become a local government unit until created as a civil parish. Indeed, the Cathedral and diocesan status of the church lasted only from 1539 to 1556, as such it is first known to have had two Members of Parliament in 1545 as a new Parliamentary Borough, centuries after the City of London and Southwark were enfranchised. The historic core of Westminster is the former Thorney Island on which Westminster Abbey was built, the abbey became the traditional venue of the coronation of the kings and queens of England from that of Harold Godwinson onwards. From about 1200, near the abbey, the Palace of Westminster became the royal residence, marked by the transfer of royal treasury. Later the palace housed the developing Parliament and Englands law courts, thus London developed two focal points, the City of London and Westminster.
The monarchs moved to St James Palace and the Palace of Whitehall a little towards the north-east, the main law courts have since moved to the Royal Courts of Justice. The Westminster area formed part of the City and Liberty of Westminster in Middlesex, the ancient parish was St Margaret, after 1727 this became the civil parish of St Margaret and St John, the latter a new church required for the increasing population. The area around Westminster Abbey formed the extra-parochial Close of the Collegiate Church of St Peter surrounded by —, until 1900 the local authority was the combined vestry of St Margaret and St John, which was based at Westminster City Hall in Caxton Street from 1883. The Liberty of Westminster, governed by the Westminster Court of Burgesses, included St Martin in the Fields, Westminster had its own quarter sessions, but the Middlesex sessions had jurisdiction
Belgravia is a district in West London in the City of Westminster and the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea. It is noted for its very expensive residential properties and is one of the wealthiest districts in the world, much of it, known as the Grosvenor Estate, is still owned by a family property company, the Duke of Westminsters Grosvenor Group. The area takes its name one of the Dukes subsidiary titles. Owing to the Leasehold Reform Act 1967, the estate has been forced to sell many freeholds to its erstwhile tenants, the area takes its name from one of the Duke of Westminsters subsidiary titles, Viscount Belgrave. The village of Belgrave, Cheshire is two miles from the Grosvenor familys main seat of Eaton Hall. Most of the area was owned by Richard Grosvenor, 2nd Marquess of Westminster. Thomas Cubitt was the main contractor, Belgravia is characterised by grand terraces of white stucco houses, and is focused on Belgrave Square and Eaton Square. It was one of Londons most fashionable residential districts from its beginnings, fashion design houses that have their retail flagship stores and studios within the area include Philip Treacy, Donna Ida, Jenny Packham and HEMYCA.
On the southern edge of Belgravia is Pimlico Road, renowned for its antique shops and high-end furniture. It is a quiet district in the heart of London, contrasting with neighbouring districts. Many embassies are located in the area, especially in Belgrave Square and this phenomenon has diminished social relations in the neighbourhood. Belgrave Square, one of the grandest and largest 19th century squares, is the centrepiece of Belgravia and it was laid out by the property contractor Thomas Cubitt for the 2nd Earl Grosvenor, to be the 1st Marquess of Westminster, in the 1820s. Most of the houses were occupied by 1840, the numbering is anti-clockwise from the north, NW terrace Nos.1 to 11, west corner mansion No. 12, SW terrace 13–23, south corner mansion No,24, SE terrace Nos. 25–36, east corner mansion No. There is a detached house at the northern corner. 49, which was built in by Cubitt for Sidney Herbert in 1851, the terraces were designed by George Basevi and are possibly the grandest houses ever built in London on a speculative basis.
The largest of the mansions, Seaford House in the east corner, was designed by Philip Hardwick. Eaton Square is larger but less grand than the feature of the district, Belgrave Square
Harrow /ˈhæroʊ/ is a large suburban town in the London Borough of Harrow, northwest London, England. It is centred 10.5 miles northwest of Charing Cross, harrow-on-the-Hill includes the conservation area with a high proportion of listed buildings with a residential and institutional array of Georgian architecture and a few 17th century examples. Harrow gives its initial letters to a postcode area. Harrow was a borough of Middlesex before its inclusion in Greater London in 1965. Harrow is home to a large Westminster polytechnic campus and its oldest secondary schools are Harrow School, harrows name comes from Old English hearg = temple, which was probably on the hill of Harrow, where St. Marys Church stands today. The name has been studied in detail by Keith Briggs, the first and only contemporary artist-led gallery in Harrow was set up in 2010 by the Usurp Art Collective. The space is called the Usurp Art Gallery & Studios and is based in West Harrow, Usurp Art provides professional support to artists and runs the only public artists studios in the borough.
It is a project for Arts Council England. Much of Kenton and before 1716 all of Pinner were parts of Harrow, geographical facts which root the importance of Harrow as a meeting place, Harrow Weald, is the district north of Wealdstone, both of which were historically part of Harrow. Harrow may include the wards of Roxeth, Headstone North and Harrow on the Hill as well as the Greenhill, West Harrow, the combined population of these wards is 80,213. In the 2011 census, the Greenhill ward was 42% white, 26% Indian, the West Harrow ward was 44% white, 23% Indian, and 12% Other Asian. In addition, Headstone South ward was 43% white, 24% Indian, Harrow on the Hill ward was 47% white, 19% Indian and 12% Other Asian. Major employers include Kodak Alaris, the Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital and Ladbrokes, on 7 August 1838 Thomas Port died from injuries received in a train accident near Harrow. With great fortitude, he bore a second amputation by the surgeons and died from loss of blood, August 7th 1838, on 26 November 1870 two trains collided at Harrow & Wealdstone station, killing 9 and injuring 44.
On 8 October 1952 three trains collided at Harrow and Wealdstone station, killing 112 people, of the dead,64 were railway employees on their way to work. Harrow is the hometown of renown fashion designer, Vivenne Westood whom went on to one of the notable pioneers of Punk culture. Harrow is twinned with, France Notes References Harrow Times newspaper Harrow Council Homepage Harrow Local Community News and Information
Pimlico /ˈpɪmlᵻkoʊ/ is a small area within central London in the City of Westminster. Like Belgravia, to which it was built as an extension, Pimlico is known for its garden squares. At Pimlicos heart is a grid of streets laid down by the planner Thomas Cubitt beginning in 1825. The area has over 350 Grade II listed buildings and several Grade II* listed churches, in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, the Manor of Ebury was divided up and leased by the Crown to servants or favourites. In 1623, James I sold the freehold of Ebury for £1,151 and 15 shillings, the land was sold on several more times, until it came into the hands of heiress Mary Davies in 1666. Marys dowry not only included The Five Fields of modern-day Pimlico and Belgravia, she was much pursued but in 1677, at the age of twelve, married Sir Thomas Grosvenor. The Grosvenors were a family of Norman descent long seated at Eaton Hall in Cheshire who until this auspicious marriage were, through the development and good management of this land the Grosvenors acquired enormous wealth.
At some point in the seventeenth or early eighteenth century. While its origins are disputed, it is clearly of foreign derivation, supporting this etymology, Rev. Brewer describes the area as a district of public gardens much frequented on holidays. According to tradition, it received its name from Ben Pimlico and his tea-gardens, were near Hoxton, and the road to them was termed Pimlico Path, so that what is now called Pimlico was so named from the popularity of the Hoxton resort. In 1825, Thomas Cubitt was contracted by Lord Grosvenor to develop Pimlico, the land up to this time had been marshy but was reclaimed using soil excavated during the construction of St Katharine Docks. Cubitt developed Pimlico as a grid of white stucco terraces. The largest and most opulent houses were built along St Georges Drive and Belgrave Road, lupus Street contained similarly grand houses, as well as shops and, until the early twentieth century, a hospital for women and children. Smaller-scale properties, typically of three storeys, line the side streets, an 1877 newspaper article described Pimlico as genteel, sacred to professional men… not rich enough to luxuriate in Belgravia proper, but rich enough to live in private houses.
Its inhabitants were more lively than in Kensington… and yet a cut above Chelsea, although the area was dominated by the well-to-do middle and upper-middle classes as late as Booths 1889 Map of London Poverty, parts of Pimlico are said to have declined significantly by the 1890s. Through the late century, Pimlico saw the construction of several Peabody Estates, charitable housing projects designed to provide affordable. Proximity to the Houses of Parliament made Pimlico a centre of political activity, prior to 1928, the Labour Party and Trades Union Congress shared offices on Eccleston Square, and it was here in 1926 that the general strike was organised. Completed in 1937, it became popular with MPs and public servants
Croydon is a large town in south London, England,9.5 miles south of Charing Cross. The principal settlement in the London Borough of Croydon, it is one of the largest commercial districts outside Central London, with a shopping district. Its population of 52,104 at the 2011 census includes the wards of Addiscombe, Broad Green, Croydon expanded in the Middle Ages as a market town and a centre for charcoal production, leather tanning and brewing. The Surrey Iron Railway from Croydon to Wandsworth opened in 1803 and was the worlds first public railway, nineteenth century railway building facilitated Croydons growth as a commuter town for London. By the early 20th century, Croydon was an important industrial area, known for car manufacture, metal working, Croydon was amalgamated into Greater London in 1965. Road traffic is diverted away from a largely pedestrianised town centre, East Croydon is a major hub of the national railway transport system, with frequent fast services to central London and the south coast.
The town is unique in Greater London for its Tramlink light rail transport system, although less probable, theories of the names origin have been proposed. According to John Corbett Anderson, The earliest mention of Croydon is in the joint will of Beorhtric and Aelfswth, in this Anglo-Saxon document the name is spelt Crogdaene. Crog was, and still is, the Norse or Danish word for crooked, which is expressed in Anglo-Saxon by crumb, from the Danish came our crook and crooked. This term accurately describes the locality, it is a crooked or winding valley, in reference to the valley runs in an oblique. However, there was no long-term Danish occupation in Surrey, which was part of Wessex, and Danish-derived nomenclature is highly unlikely. The town lies on the line of the Roman road from London to Portslade, later, in the 5th to 7th centuries, a large pagan Saxon cemetery was situated on what is now Park Lane, although the extent of any associated settlement is unknown. By the late Saxon period Croydon was the hub of an estate belonging to the Archbishops of Canterbury, the church and the archbishops manor house occupied the area still known as Old Town.
Croydon appears in Domesday Book as Croindene, held by Archbishop Lanfranc and its Domesday assets were,16 hides and 1 virgate,1 church,1 mill worth 5s,38 ploughs,8 acres of meadow, woodland worth 200 hogs. The church had established in the middle Saxon period, and was probably a minster church. A charter issued by King Coenwulf of Mercia refers to a council that had taken place close to the monasterium of Croydon, an Anglo-Saxon will made in about 960 is witnessed by Elfsies, priest of Croydon, and the church is mentioned in Domesday Book. The will of John de Croydon, dated 6 December 1347, includes a bequest to the church of S John de Croydon, the church still bears the arms of Archbishop Courtenay and Archbishop Chichele, believed to have been its benefactors. In 1276 Archbishop Robert Kilwardby acquired a charter for a market
Kingston upon Thames
Kingston upon Thames, known as Kingston, is the principal settlement of the Royal Borough of Kingston upon Thames in southwest London. It was the ancient market town where Saxon kings were crowned, Kingston is situated 10 miles southwest of Charing Cross and is one of the major metropolitan centres identified in the London Plan. Kingston lies approximately 33 feet above sea level, Kingston was part of a large ancient parish in the county of Surrey and the town was an ancient borough, reformed in 1835. It has been the location of Surrey County Hall from 1893, most of the town centre is part of the KT1 postcode area, but some areas north of Kingston railway station have the postcode KT2 instead. The population of the town itself, comprising the four wards of Canbury, Norbiton, Kingston was called Cyninges tun in 838, Chingestune in 1086, Kingeston in 1164, Kyngeston super Tamisiam in 1321 and Kingestowne upon Thames in 1589. The name means the manor or estate from the Old English words cyning.
It belonged to the king in Saxon times and was the earliest royal borough and it was first mentioned in 838 as the site of a meeting between King Egbert of Wessex and Ceolnoth, Archbishop of Canterbury. Kingston lay on the boundary between the ancient kingdoms of Wessex and Mercia, until in the tenth century when King Athelstan united both to create the kingdom of England. Probably because of the symbolic location, several tenth-century kings were crowned in Kingston, Æthelstan in 925, Eadred in 946. Other kings who may have been crowned there are Edward the Elder in 902, Edmund in 939, Eadwig in 956, Edgar in about 960 and Edward the Martyr in 975. It was initially used as a block, but in 1850 it was moved to a more dignified place in the market before finally being moved to its current location in the grounds of the guildhall. Well known aviation personalities Sydney Camm, Harry Hawker and Tommy Sopwith were responsible for much of Kingstons achievements in aviation. British Aerospace finally closed its Lower Ham Road factory in 1992, part of the site was redeveloped for housing but the riverside part houses a community centre.
The growth and development of Kingston Polytechnic and its transformation into Kingston University has made Kingston a university town, Kingston upon Thames formed an ancient parish in the Kingston hundred of Surrey. The parish of Kingston upon Thames covered an area including Hook, New Malden, Richmond, Thames Ditton. The town of Kingston was granted a charter by King John in 1200, but the oldest one to survive is from 1208, other charters were issued by kings, including Edward IVs charter that gave the town the status of a borough in 1481. The borough covered a smaller area than the ancient parish, although as new parishes were split off the borough. The borough was reformed by the Municipal Corporations Act 1835, becoming the Municipal Borough of Kingston-upon-Thames and it had been known as a Royal borough through custom and the right to the title was confirmed by George V in 1927