An administrative village or subdistrict is the lowest level of government administration in Indonesia. It can refer to a kelurahan. A desa is headed by a kepala desa, elected by popular vote. A kelurahan is headed by a civil servant appointed by local government. A village is divided non-administratively into local communities which manage a certain number of households. In Aceh, a village is called as gampong. Since the implementation of regional autonomy in 2001, the larger nagari has been introduced in place of the desa as the lowest government unit in West Sumatra. Village is the lowest level of government administration in Indonesia. A village is divided into several community groups, which are further divided into neighbourhood groups
Administrative divisions of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan is administratively divided into the following subdivisions: 59 districts, 11 cities, 1 autonomous republic, which itself contains: 7 districts 1 cityThe rayons are further divided into municipalities. Additionally, Azerbaijan is subdivided into 9 regions; this is not an administrative division. Each region contains a number of districts; the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic forms the 10th economic region. The territory of Nagorno-Karabakh presently forms part of Azerbaijani rayons Khojavend, Khojaly, the east portion of Kalbajar and the west portion of Tartar. In Soviet times the region was known as Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast. Since the territory of the autonomous oblast has been administratively split between the aforementioned rayons; as a result of the Nagorno-Karabakh War, most of its territory is now under the control of ethnic Armenian forces from Nagorno-Karabakh and Armenia. The self-proclaimed Nagorno-Karabakh Republic controls a large part of southwestern Azerbaijan outside Nagorno-Karabakh.
The Azerbaijani rayons or in the NKR are noted in the list. The NKR has its own system of administrative division; the list below is for the main part of Azerbaijan, excluding the rayons of Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic. The seven districts and one municipality of the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic are listed below. ISO 3166-2:AZ
Districts of Israel
There are six main administrative districts of Israel, known in Hebrew as mehozot and Arabic as mintaqah and fifteen sub-districts known as nafot. Each sub-district is further divided into cities and regional councils it contains; the figures in this article are based on numbers from the Israeli Central Bureau of Statistics and so include all places under Israeli civilian rule including those Israeli-occupied territories where this is the case. Therefore, the Golan sub-district and its four natural regions are included in the number of sub-districts and natural regions though it is not recognized by the United Nations or the international community as Israeli territory; the population figure below for the Jerusalem District was calculated including East Jerusalem whose annexation by Israel is not recognized by the United Nations and the international community. The Judea and Samaria Area, however, is not included in the number of districts and sub-districts as Israel has not applied its civilian jurisdiction in that part of the West Bank.
Jerusalem District. Population: 1,083,300 Area: 653 km2District capital: Jerusalem. Northern District. Population: 1,401,300 Area: 4,473 km2District capital: Nazareth Tzfat – population: 116,000 Kinneret – population: 114,000 Yizre'el – population: 498,100 Akko – population: 624,300 Golan – population: 48,800 Haifa District. Population: 996,300 Area: 866 km2District capital: Haifa Haifa – population: 571,100 Hadera – population: 424,100 Central District. Population: 2,115,800 Area: 1,294 km2District capital: Ramla Sharon – population: 464,500 Petah Tikva – population: 719,300 Ramla – population: 338,800 Rehovot – population: 593,300 Tel Aviv District. Population: 1,388,400 Area: 172 km2District capital: Tel Aviv Southern District. Population: 1,244,200 Area: 14,185 km2District Capital: Beersheba Ashkelon – population: 532,000 Be'er Sheva – population: 712,200Formerly Hof Aza Regional Council with a population of around 10,000 Israelis was part of this district, but the Israeli communities that constituted it were evacuated when the disengagement plan was implemented in the Gaza Strip.
Only the Coordination and Liaison Administration operates there. Judea and Samaria Area. Jewish Population: 435,159 Arab/Bedouin population: 40,000.. Largest city: Modi'in Illit The name Judea and Samaria for this geographical area is based on terminology from the Hebrew and other sources relating to ancient Israel and Judah/Judea; the territory has been under Israeli control since the 1967 Six-Day War but not annexed by Israel, pending negotiations regarding its status. It is part of historic Israel. However, it is not recognized as part of the State of Israel by most nations. Geography of Israel List of cities in Israel ISO 3166-2:IL ^ a: This district includes areas captured in the 1967 Six-Day War and annexed to Israel in the Jerusalem Law. ^ b: Occupied in the 1967 Six-Day War and internationally unrecognized annexed by Israel's Golan Heights Law. Central Bureau of Statistics – detailed breakdown of each district, sub-district, natural region
Subdivisions of Indonesia
Indonesia is divided into provinces. Provinces are made up of cities. Provinces and cities have their own local governments and parliamentary bodies. Since the enactment of Law Number 22 Year 1999 regarding Local Government, local governments now play a greater role in administering their areas. Foreign policy, system of law, monetary policy, remain the domain of the national government. Since 2005, heads of local government have been directly elected by popular election. A province is headed by a governor; each province has its own regional assembly, called Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat Daerah. Governors and representative members are elected by popular vote for five-year terms. Indonesia is divided into 34 provinces. Eight provinces have been created since 2000. Five provinces have special status: Aceh (also known as Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam, has greater role in local government, which includes its own Islamic Sharia law and provincial anthem, local political parties are allowed, decisions or laws made by the central government which directly affect Aceh's administration must be referred to the local government or legislative body.
Yogyakarta Special Region. The Sultan of Yogyakarta is de facto and de jure governor of Yogyakarta since he is given priority when electing the governor. For centuries, the Sultanate of Yogyakarta has reigned in the region; however the central government proposed a law that required the governor to be popularly elected as in the other provinces, while still giving the sultan significant political power. Since 31 August 2012 The Law of Specialty of Yogyakarta Special Region has been approved by Central Government and according to the Law, Yogyakarta refuses to be a province but it is a region at province-level. Papua, since 2001 local government has a greater role; the governor is required to be of Papuan origins. West Papua, has the same status as Papua. Jakarta Special Capital Region, is the capital of Indonesia; the Governor of Jakarta has the power to appoint and dismiss mayors and regent within the Jakarta Special Capital Region. The local government is allowed to co-operate with other cities from other countries.
Regency and city, collectively known as "Daerah Tingkat II" is a local level of government beneath the provincial level. However, they enjoy greater decentralisation of affairs than the provincial body, such as provision of public schools and public health facilities. Both regency and city are at the same level; the difference between a regency and a city lies in differing demographics and economics. The regency has a larger area than the city, the city has non-agricultural economic activities. A regency is headed by a regent, a city is headed by a mayor; the regent or mayor and the representative council members are elected by popular vote for a term of 5 years. Regencies and cities are divided into: Kecamatan headed by a camat. A camat is a civil servant, responsible to the mayor. Kecamatan are found in most parts of Indonesia. Distrik headed by a kepala distrik. Distrik are only found in the provinces of Papua and West Papua and are the equivalent of kecamatan in the rest of Indonesia. Kecamatan and distrik are divided into kelurahan.
Both desa and kelurahan are of a similar division level, but a desa enjoys more power in local matters than a kelurahan. An exception is Aceh, where districts are divided into mukim before being subdivided further into gampong. In Indonesian, as in English, a village has rural connotations. In the context of administrative divisions, a desa can be defined as a body which has authority over the local people in accordance with acknowledged local traditions of the area. A desa is headed by a "head of village", elected by popular vote. Most Indonesian villages use the term "desa", but other terms are used in some regions: Gampong in Aceh Nagari in West Sumatra Dusun in Bungo Regency Kampung in some places in Indonesia:Lampung East Kalimantan Papua West Papua Pekon in Pringsewu and West Lampung regencies In Bali, there are two forms of "desa", i.e. desa dinas and desa adat. Desa dinas deals with administrative functions, while desa adat deals with religious and cultural functions. Lembang in Toraja and North Toraja regencies Although desa and kelurahan are part of a district, a kelurahan has less autonomy than a desa.
A kelurahan is headed by a lurah. Lurahs are civil servants; the following table lists the number of current provinces and cities in Indonesia. List of Indonesian floral emblems
West Papua (province)
West Papua is a province of Indonesia. It covers the two western peninsulas of the island of New Guinea along with nearby islands; the province is bordered to the north by the Pacific Ocean, to the west by the Halmahera Sea and the Ceram Sea, to the south by the Banda Sea, to the east by the province of Papua and the Cenderawasih Bay. Manokwari is the capital, while Sorong is the main gateway to the province. According to the 2010 census by Statistics Indonesia, West Papua recorded a population of 760,422. Inaugurated as a province in 2003, West Papua was named West Irian Jaya until 2007; the name West Papua itself is used by the Free Papua Movement to refer the whole Western New Guinea. Consisting of twelve regencies and one city, the province enjoys a special autonomous status as granted by the Indonesian legislation. West Papua is well known by its Raja Ampat Islands which contains the richest marine biodiversity in the world. Parts of the Bird's Head Peninsula has been colonized in the past.
During the reign of the Srivijaya Empire between the 7th century and the 13th century, traders from Srivijaya conducted trade with the local people of the Bird's Head Peninsula. The influence of the Majapahit kingdom centered on Java was reached up to the westernmost part of the island of New Guinea. A Kakawin dating from the 14th century Majapahit Nagarakretagama mentions Wwanin or Onin as one of the regions known in the east known as Onin Peninsula in Fakfak Regency, western part Bomberai Peninsula larger, in the south of the Bird's Head region of West Papua. In the 16th century, Europeans began arriving in the region, resulting in a competition between the Portuguese and the Dutch Empire to exert influence in the region. In the end, the Dutch emerged colonize the region; the Dutch was briefely ousted by the Japanese during World War II, but returned after the Japanese surrenders. The Dutch remained in New Guinea until 1963 when they transferred the control of the region to the Republic of Indonesia as part of the New York Agreement.
As of 2018, West Papua is still one of the least developed provinces in Indonesia out of Indonesia's 34 provinces, only ranking above the neighbouring province Papua. However, the government is attempting to improve West Papua's infrastructure, such as building the Trans Papua highway to connect all major cities in Indonesian New Guinea and building more airports and improving existing airports; the term'Papua' first appeared in a Malay dictionary made by William Marsden in 1812. Sollewijn Gelpke, a Dutch colonial official conducted a study of the origin of the word'Papua'. In the Portuguese and Spanish archives the word'Papua' is a term for residents who inhabit the Raja Ampat Islands and coastal areas of the Bird's Head Peninsula. According to F. C. Kamma, a missionary, a linguist,'sup-i-papwah' comes from the Biak language which means'land under the sunset'. At that time, residents of Biak Island during sunny weather could see a large island located on the west, the island under the sunset.
During the pre-colonial era in the Nusantara archipelago, the Srivijaya Empire was recorded as having sent birds native from the island of New Guinea which at that time were called Janggi to the Emperor of the Song dynasty in China. From some of the past names given to Papua, it seems clear that since this region has been known there has been a close relationship between this region and other regions in the archipelago at that time. Another name from Papua in the past was "Samudranta", which shows that the New Guinea region was known by Sanskrit-speaking people living in the Indonesian archipelago, both in terms of geo-politics and socio-economic. and culture in the broadest sense. Ramandey wrote that in the 1st Century the influence of Hinduism and India had spread throughout the archipelago at that time and was not only confined to Java and Sumatra but spread to the east including Papua, it might be called "Ujung Samudranta Island", New Guinea Island. Indian sailors have arrived here, because it is evident from the records of Indians who call Irian Samudranta, which means the island is at the edge of the ocean.
There is a high probability. If this is related to the Srivijaya Empire, it is that the name was given by the maritime kingdom, an indication that the island of Irian has been under the control of its power. In the 13th century, a Chinese traveler named Chau Yu Kua wrote that in the Indonesian Archipelago there was an area called Tung-ki, part of a country in Maluku. Tung-ki is the Chinese name for Irian. During the era of the Majapahit Empire, the Nagarakretagama written by Mpu Prapanca explicitly mentioned the Western New Guinea region as part of the Majapahit. In 1511, António de Abreu, a Portuguese sailor, referred to New Guinea as "Os Papuas" or llha de Papo. Don Jorge de Menetes, a Spanish sailor had stopped in Papua a few years he still used the name Papua, he himself knew the Papuan name in the diary of Antonio Figafetta, the clerk of the Magellan voyage that surrounded the world by the name of Papua. This Papuan name was known to Figafetta. Next, in 1528, Álvaro de Saavedra Cerón, a Spanish marine fleet leader named the island of Papua Isla de Oro or Island of Gold which means the Golden Island.
He is the only sailor who managed to plant his anchor on the north coast of New Guinea. With the mention of Isla Del Oro, there were not a few European sailors who came in droves to find gold on the golden island. On June 13, 1545, Ortiz de Retez, a Spani
Bhutan the Kingdom of Bhutan, is a landlocked country in Southeast Asia. Located in the Eastern Himalayas, it is bordered by Tibet Autonomous Region of China in the north, the Sikkim state of India and the Chumbi Valley of Tibet in the west, the Arunachal Pradesh state of India in the east, the states of Assam and West Bengal in the south. Bhutan is geopolitically in East Asia and is the region's second least populous nation after the Maldives. Thimphu is largest city, while Phuntsholing is its financial center; the independence of Bhutan has endured for centuries and it has never been colonized in its history. Situated on the ancient Silk Road between Tibet, the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia, the Bhutanese state developed a distinct national identity based on Buddhism. Headed by a spiritual leader known as the Zhabdrung Rinpoche, the territory was composed of many fiefdoms and governed as a Buddhist theocracy. Following a civil war in the 19th century, the House of Wangchuck reunited the country and established relations with the British Empire.
Bhutan fostered a strategic partnership with India during the rise of Chinese communism and has a disputed border with China. In 2008, Bhutan transitioned from an absolute monarchy to a constitutional monarchy and held the first election to the National Assembly of Bhutan; the National Assembly of Bhutan is part of the bicameral parliament of the Bhutanese democracy. The country's landscape ranges from lush subtropical plains in the south to the sub-alpine Himalayan mountains in the north, where there are peaks in excess of 7,000 metres. Gangkhar Puensum is the highest peak in Bhutan, it may be the highest unclimbed mountain in the world; the wildlife of Bhutan is notable for its diversity. In South Asia, Bhutan ranks first in economic freedom, ease of doing business, peace. However, Bhutan continues to be a least developed country. Hydroelectricity accounts for the major share of its exports; the government is a parliamentary democracy. Bhutan maintains diplomatic relations with 52 countries and the European Union, but does not have formal ties with the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council.
It is a member of SAARC, BIMSTEC and the Non-Aligned Movement. The Royal Bhutan Army maintains a close relationship with the Indian Armed Forces. Bhutan is notable for pioneering the concept of gross national happiness; the precise etymology of "Bhutan" is unknown, although it is to derive from the Tibetan endonym "Bod" used for Tibet. Traditionally, it is taken to be a transcription of the Sanskrit Bhoṭa-anta "end of Tibet", a reference to Bhutan's position as the southern extremity of the Tibetan plateau and culture. Since the 17th century the official name of Bhutan has been Druk yul and Bhutan only appears in English-language official correspondence. Names similar to Bhutan — including Bohtan, Bottanthis and Bottanter — began to appear in Europe around the 1580s. Jean-Baptiste Tavernier's 1676 Six Voyages is the first to record the name Boutan. However, in every case, these seem to have been describing not modern Bhutan but the Kingdom of Tibet; the modern distinction between the two did not begin until well into the Scottish explorer George Bogle's 1774 expedition — realizing the differences between the two regions and states, his final report to the East India Company formally proposed labelling the Druk Desi's kingdom as "Boutan" and the Panchen Lama's as "Tibet".
The EIC's surveyor general James Rennell first anglicized the French name as Bootan and popularized the distinction between it and greater Tibet. Locally, Bhutan has been known by many names. One of the earliest Western records of Bhutan, the 1627 Relação of the Portuguese Jesuits Estêvão Cacella and João Cabral, records its name variously as Cambirasi and Mon; the first time a separate Kingdom of Bhutan appeared on a western map, it did so under its local name as "Broukpa". Others including Lho Mon, Lho Tsendenjong, Lhomen Khazhi and Lho Menjong. Stone tools, weapons and remnants of large stone structures provide evidence that Bhutan was inhabited as early as 2000 BC, although there are no existing records from that time. Historians have theorized that the state of Lhomon, or Monyul may have existed between 500 BC and AD 600; the names Lhomon Tsendenjong, Lhomon Khashi, or Southern Mon, have been found in ancient Bhutanese and Tibetan chronicles. Buddhism was first introduced to Bhutan in the 7th century AD.
Tibetan king Songtsän Gampo, a convert to Buddhism, who had extended the Tibetan Empire into Sikkim and Bhutan, ordered the construction of two Buddhist temples, at Bumthang in central Bhutan and at Kyichu in the Paro Valley. Buddhism was propagated in earnest in 746 under King Sindhu Rāja, an exiled Indian king who had established a government in Bumthang at Chakhar Gutho Palace. Much of early Bhutanese history is unclear because most of the records were destroyed when fire ravaged the ancient capital, Punakha, in 1827. By the 10th century, Bhutan's political development was influenced by its
Provinces of Indonesia
The Provinces of Indonesia are the 34 largest subdivisions of the country and the highest tier of the local government. Provinces are further divided into regencies and cities, which are in turn subdivided into subdistricts; each province has its own local government, headed by a governor, has its own legislative body. The governor and members of local representative bodies are elected by popular vote for five-year terms. Indonesia has 34 provinces, eight of which have been created since 1999, namely: North Maluku, West Papua, Bangka Belitung Islands, Riau Islands, West Sulawesi and North Kalimantan. Five provinces have special status: Aceh, for the use of the sharia law as the regional law of the province. Special Capital Region of Jakarta as the capital city. Special Region of Yogyakarta, has sultan Hamengkubuwono as hereditary Governor and Paku Alam as hereditary vice-governor. Papua and West Papua, for granting implementation of sustainable development; the provinces are grouped into seven geographical units.
This clickable map shows provinces of Indonesia as of 25 October 2012. Click on a province name to go to its main article. Upon the independence of Indonesia, eight provinces were established: West Java, Central Java, East Java, Maluku still exist as of today despite divisions, while Sumatra, Kalimantan and Lesser Sunda were liquidated; the province of Central Sumatra existed from 1948 to 1957, while East Timor was annexed as a province from 1976 until its independence as a country in 1999. List of Indonesian provinces by Human Development Index List of Indonesian provinces by GRP per capita List of Indonesian floral emblems List of Indonesian animal emblems Armorial of IndonesiaGeneral: Subdivisions of Indonesia List of regencies and cities of Indonesia Daftar 34 Provinsi Di Indonesia Map at Indonesian Wikipedia