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List of doping cases in cycling

The following is an incomplete list of doping cases and recurring accusations of doping in professional cycling, where doping means "use of physiological substances or abnormal method to obtain an artificial increase of performance". It is neither a'list of shame' nor a list of illegality, as the first laws were not passed until 1965 and their implementation is an ongoing developing process, thus the list contains doping incidents, those who have tested positive for illegal performance-enhancing drugs, prohibited recreational drugs or have been suspended by a sports governing body for failure to submit to mandatory drug testing. It contains and clarifies cases where subsequent evidence and explanation has shown the parties to be innocent of illegal practice. In 1963, the Council of Europe gave a definition of doping. "Doping is the administration to a normal subject in any possible way of a foreign agent or abnormal quantities of physiological substances with the sole purpose of increasing artificially and in an unfair manner the performance of the subject participating in a contest.

". The International Olympic Committee modified this, adopted this definition: "The administration of or use by a competing athlete of any substance foreign to the body or any physiologic substance taken in abnormal quantity or taken by an abnormal route of entry into the body with the sole intention of increasing in an artificial and unfair manner his/her performance in competition; when necessity demands medical treatment with any substance which, because of its nature, dosage, or application is able to boost the athlete's performance in competition in an artificial and unfair manner, this too is regarded as doping." In 1886, a Welsh cyclist is popularly reputed to have died after drinking a blend of cocaine and strychnine in the Bordeaux–Paris race. This was included in the 1997 International Olympic Committee study on the Historical Evolution of Doping Phenomenon, listed as the presumed first death due to doping during a competition; the report did allow that in this period it was common practice, not illegal.

This is alternatively reported as trimethyl poisoning. However, the main Bordeaux–Paris race did not start until 1891, the cyclist who died in 1886, Arthur Linton finished second in 1896 and died a few weeks reportedly from a combination of drug-induced exhaustion and typhoid fever. Linton was managed by the notorious Choppy Warburton - See 1896 below; the story may be apocryphal. Arthur Linton from Aberdare in Wales died aged 24 of'exhaustion and typhoid fever' a few weeks after finishing second in the Bordeaux–Paris race and a race at Catford. Linton was managed by the notorious Choppy Warburton, whose success was questioned, with claims that he drugged his charges. Jimmy Michael is said to have accused Warburton of poisoning him, before he was taken to court for libel. Rudiger Rabenstein claims; the British and French cycling union announced that Michael would be banned though there was no rule at that time against doping. In the end, Michael was not banned. Nitroglycerine was used to stimulate the heart after cardiac attacks and was credited with improving riders' breathing.

Riders suffered hallucinations from the exhaustion and the drugs. The American champion Major Taylor refused to continue a New York race, saying: "I cannot go on with safety, for there is a man chasing me around the ring with a knife in his hand." Choppy Warburton of Haslingden, England died aged 52. He was described by the Lancashire Family History Society:Warburton was banned from the sport after unproven claims of massive doping in the 1896 Bordeaux–Paris, his activities may have contributed to the early deaths of Arthur Linton, Tom Linton and Jimmy Michael. Jimmy Michael of Wales, world cycling champion, died aged 27, en voyage to New York City; the cause of death was noted as delirium tremens brought on by drinking. Michael was managed by Choppy Warburton, whose success was questioned, with claims that he drugged his charges. Michael was reported to have taken a potion and within a few laps collapsed on the track, picked himself up and in a daze, set off in the wrong direction. Michael is said to have accused Warburton of "poisoning him", before he was taken to court for libel.

Paul Duboc of France was poisoned during the Tour de France. He was favourite but collapsed in a ditch in the Pyrenees after drinking from a spiked or poisoned bottle given by a rival team manager, he finished in second place. Henri Pélissier, Francis Pélissier, Charles Pélissier of France – In 1924, following their abandoning of the Tour de France, the first real drug scandal arose when the Pélissier brothers gave an extraordinary interview to journalist Albert Londres, they said that they used strychnine, chloroform, aspirin, "horse ointment" and other drugs to keep going. The story was published in Le Petit Parisien under the title "Les Forçats de la Route". Francis is reported as saying "In short, we run on dynamite." Henri is reported as saying "Do you know how we keep going? Look, this is cocaine, too, and pills? You want to see pills? Here are three boxes - We run on dynamite." Francis Pélissier said much later: "Londres was a famous reporter but he didn't know about cycling. We kidded him a bit with our cocaine and our pills."

So, the Tour de France in 1924 was no picnic. See Doping at the Tour de France - The Convicts of the Road; the acceptance of drug-taking in the Tour de France was so complete by 1930 that the rule book, distributed by Henri Desgrange, reminded riders that drugs would not be provided by the organisers. Fausto Coppi of Ita

Todd Hennig

Todd Hennig is an American punk and hardcore drummer. He was a drummer for Death by Heckle. Hennig joined Death by Stereo after previous drummer Tim Bender left, mid-late 2001, he has drummed on two Death by Stereo albums Into the Valley of Death for Life. In 2002, Todd was hit by a car, had to get his appendix removed, but he recovered in time for the band to be able to play on the 2002 Warped Tour. In August 2006, Hennig left Death by Stereo to pursue other creative endeavors, he played with punk rock group Sex n violence featuring Gene Bullets, Brent Clawson, Kevin Besignano from Bullets And Octane, Criterion Records owner Jeremy Miller. He plays drums for the punk/rock/hardcore band Nations Afire. Ranks of the Common People The Complicated Futility of Ignorance CD/12" LP Into the Valley of Death Death for Life The Uprising The Ghosts We Will Become

The RCA Albums Collection (Harry Nilsson box set)

The RCA Albums Collection is a 17-disc compilation album dedicated to American singer-songwriter Harry Nilsson. It was released in July 2013 by Legacy Recordings; the album includes 14 of Nilsson's solo albums from the 1960s and 1970s and three CDs worth of unreleased session recordings. Assembled by Andrew Sandoval and Rob Santos the set includes 11 of Nilsson's albums remastered by Vic Anesini; the three albums not remastered for this set were mastered by Anesini and include The Point, Nilsson Schmilsson and Son of Schmilsson. The set includes each album in mini-cardboard replicas of the original vinyl packaging. Nilsson's first two albums include both mono and stereo mixes of the respective tracks with the mono tracks receiving their first CD release. Missing from this set are the albums Son of Dracula, the instrumental portion of the soundtrack Skidoo, Flash Harry and the soundtrack to the film Popeye; the boxed set includes a booklet with brief comments on each album, full credits and rare pictures

Poland at the 1976 Winter Olympics

Poland competed at the 1976 Winter Olympics in Innsbruck, Austria. Men Men Men's 4 x 7.5 km relay MenMen's 4 × 10 km relayWomenWomen's 4 × 5 km relay WomenIce Dancing Winners entered the Medal Round. Other teams played a consolation round for 7th-12th places. West Germany 7-4 Poland USSR 16-1 Poland Poland 1-0* Czechoslovakia USA 7-2 Poland Finland 7-1 Poland* Note: The score after the Czechoslovakia vs Poland match was 7-1, but due to the positive doping test of one of the Czechoslovakian players, the team was recorded a 0-1 loss. Poland didn't receive any points. Team RosterWalery Kosyl Andrzej Tkacz Robert Góralczyk Andrzej Iskrzycki Kordian Jajszczok Marek Marcińczak Jerzy Potz Andrzej Słowakiewicz Stefan Chowaniec Mieczysław Jaskierski Wiesław Jobczyk Marian Kajzerek Leszek Kokoszka Tadeusz Obłój Henryk Pytel Andrzej Zabawa Walenty Ziętara Karol Żurek Men Doubles Women Events: normal hill ski jumping 15 km cross-country skiing Women Official Olympic Reports Olympic Winter Games 1976, full results by

Lenzie Academy

Lenzie Academy is a co-educational comprehensive secondary school located in Lenzie, East Dunbartonshire, Scotland. The catchment area covers Lenzie and southern parts of Kirkintilloch; the school is managed by the senior management team, composed of the Head Teacher and six Deputy Head Teachers, each in charge of a year group. In 2014–2015 the headteacher was Brian Paterson; the most reported school roll is 1296, taught by a teaching staff of 101. The S1 intake cap is 240, based on an average annual first year intake of eight classes of thirty pupils each coming from four associated primary schools, namely Auchinloch, Millersneuk and Lenzie Meadow Primary. 40% of the total roll are from outside the catchment area, attending as placing requests. The S1 rolls have reduced in recent years and in early 2012 the reported 2012/2013 intake was 226 pupils, consisting of 125 from the zoned area and 101 through placing requests; the total school roll has been falling every year for the last 8 years with the 2011/2012 figure being 25 pupils lower than the previous years 1321 pupils.

In October 1995, two 12-year-old boys were suspended for dealing with drugs. It followed a string of other drug-related incidents. In 1994, a 16-year-old was expelled for drug dealing re-admitted; that year, four pupils were suspended over claims of drug taking, a 15-year-old boy was arrested outside school and charged with possessing cannabis." Eight pupils who smoked cannabis on a school trip to Alton Towers were suspended for a fortnight following a disciplinary hearing at the school in June 1998. The school has received continuing attention for problems with gangs/bullying as well as knife crime. In 2016 a boy of 14 was reported to the police after a knife incident at the school; the suicide of Nicola Ann Raphael, a pupil at Lenzie Academy, in 2001 was covered in local and national press and came after Raphael had suffered years of bullying. The current red brick Academy building was built in 1960 and extensions have been added to it over the years; the original school building dating from when the Academy was founded in 1886 has since served as Lenzie Primary school.

More than 110 years after opening the school admitted its first physically disabled student in 1996 which meant the school had to install a lift and ramps to make the whole building accessible. There have been ten head teachers of Lenzie Academy. For 125 years until 2011, the head teacher was referred to as Rector. Moira Anderson, Singer Sir Andrew Baker, High Court judge Martin Creed, Turner Prize-winning artist Rona Dougall, Scotland Tonight presenter, broadcast journalist Jane Duncan, Author Andy Dunlop, Travis guitarist Alasdair Graham, Scottish concert pianist. Andrew Henderson, Scottish rugby union footballer. Tom Johnston, Secretary of State for Scotland during the Second World War in Churchill's cabinet Jimmy Mack, broadcaster Gus MacPherson, footballer. Ian McCartney, former MP, chairman of the Labour Party and member of Tony Blair's cabinet He left the school at the age of 15 "under a bit of a cloud" without any qualifications or school prizes. Rhona McLeod, news reader. Nicola Raphael – A pupil whose suicide and preceding bullying at the school led to press coverage and legal action.

Melissa Reid Attempted cocaine smuggler Michael Shea, Press Secretary to Queen Elizabeth II He left the Academy after winning a scholarship to Gordonstoun at the age of 14. Billy Williamson, footballer. In 2014 the school was ranked in STV's league table of Scottish state schools. This builds upon the 19th position achieved in 2013 and the 16th position achieved in 2012 based on the percentage of pupils obtaining 5 or more Highers at bands A-C. List of places in East Dunbartonshire List of places in Scotland Category:People educated at Lenzie Academy Lenzie Academy Website Lenzie Academy's page on Scottish Schools Online


Mikulášovice is a town in the Czech Republic. Mikulášovice is a city with 2,375 inhabitants in the Czech Republic; the elongated village in the valley of the brook Mikulášovický is 414 m above sea level in the west of the Bohemian low country near the border with Germany and belongs to the Děčín District. Between Mikulášovice and 7 km north-west German neighbor Sebnitz is the 598 m high Tanečnice, the mountain of the community, it is the home town of the famous German soprano Anni Frind. The company Mikov, producing popular knife Rybička, has its seat in Mikulášovice. Franz Dittrich, native of Mikulášovice. Anni Frind, soprano opera singer, was born in Mikulášovice. Oskar Schäfer, Knight's Cross holder Municipal website