Phillip Emmons Isaac Bonewits was an American Neo-Druid who published a number of books on the subject of Neopaganism and magic. He was a public speaker, liturgist and songwriter, founder of the Neopagan organizations Ár nDraíocht Féin and the Aquarian Anti-Defamation League. Born in Royal Oak, Bonewits had been involved in occultism since the 1960s. Bonewits was born on October 1949 in Royal Oak, Michigan, as the fourth of five children, his mother and father were Roman Catholics. Spending much of his childhood in Ferndale, he was moved at age 12 to San Clemente, where he spent a short time in a Catholic high school before he went back to public school to graduate from high school a year early, he enrolled at UC Berkeley in 1966. In 1966, while enrolled at UC Berkeley, Bonewits joined the Reformed Druids of North America. Bonewits was ordained as a Neo-druid priest in 1969. During this period, the 18-year-old Bonewits was recruited by the Church of Satan, but left due to political and philosophical conflicts with Anton LaVey.
During his stint in the Church of Satan, Bonewits appeared in some scenes of the 1970 documentary Satanis: The Devil's Mass. Bonewits, in his article "My Satanic Adventure", asserts that the rituals in Satanis were staged for the movie at the behest of the filmmakers and were not authentic ceremonies, his first book, Real Magic, was published in 1972. Between 1973 and 1975 Bonewits was employed as the editor of Gnostica magazine in Minnesota, he established an offshoot group of the Reformed Druids of North America called the Schismatic Druids of North America, helped create a group called the Hasidic Druids of North America. He founded the short-lived Aquarian Anti-Defamation League, an early Pagan civil rights group. In 1976, Bonewits moved back to Berkeley and rejoined his original grove there, now part of the New Reformed Druids of North America, he was elected Archdruid of the Berkeley Grove. Throughout his life Bonewits had varying degrees of involvement with occult groups including Gardnerian Wicca and the New Reformed Orthodox Order of the Golden Dawn.
Bonewits was a regular presenter at Neopagan conferences and festivals all over the US, as well as attending gaming conventions in the Bay Area. He promoted his book'Authentic Thaumaturgy' to gamers as a way of organizing Dungeons and Dragons games and to give a background to games of Magic: the Gathering. In 1983, Bonewits founded Ár nDraíocht Féin, incorporated in 1990 in the state of Delaware as a U. S. 5013 non-profit organization. Although illness curtailed many of his activities and travels for a time, he remained Archdruid of ADF until 1996. In that year, he resigned from the position of Archdruid but retained the lifelong title of ADF Archdruid Emeritus. A songwriter and recording artist, he produced two CDs of pagan music and numerous recorded lectures and panel discussions and distributed by the Association for Consciousness Exploration, he lived in Rockland County, New York, was a member of the Covenant of Unitarian Universalist Pagans. Bonewits encouraged charity programs to help Neopagan seniors, in January 2006 was the keynote speaker at the Conference On Current Pagan Studies at the Claremont Graduate University in Claremont, CA.
Bonewits was married five times. He was married to Rusty Elliot from 1973 to 1976, his second wife was Selene Kumin Vega, followed by marriage to Sally Eaton. His fourth wife was author Deborah Lipp, from 1988 to 1998. On July 23, 2004, he was married in a handfasting ceremony to a former vice-president of the Covenant of Unitarian Universalist Pagans, Phaedra Heyman Bonewits. At the time of the handfasting, the marriage was not yet legal because he had not yet been divorced from Lipp, although they had been separated for several years. Paperwork and legalities caught up on December 31, 2007, making them married. Bonewits' only child, Arthur Shaffrey Lipp-Bonewits, was born to Deborah Lipp in 1990. In 2017, Moira Greyland, the daughter of Marion Zimmer Bradley and Walter H. Breen, published a book entitled The Last Closet: The Dark Side of Avalon. In it she recounts a harrowing tale of a childhood with two parents who sexually abused both her and her brother, she writes about Isaac Bonewits asking her mother's permission to have sex with her when she was six years old, telling her mother that another girl her age who lived in his commune "had sex with all the men there" and was "free" and "uninhibited".
In 1990, Bonewits was diagnosed with Eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome. The illness was a factor in his eventual resignation from the position of Archdruid of the ADF. On October 25, 2009, Bonewits was diagnosed with a rare form of colon cancer, for which he underwent treatment, he died on August 12, 2010, surrounded by his family. In his book Real Magic, Bonewits proposed his "Laws of Magic." These "laws" are synthesized from a multitude of belief systems from around the world to explain and categorize magical beliefs within a cohesive framework. Many interrelationships exist, some belief systems are subsets of others; this work was chosen by Dennis Wheatley in the 1970s to be part of his publishing project'Library of the Occult'. Bonewits coined much of the modern terminology used to articulate the th
The Cleric Quintet
The Cleric Quintet is a series of five fantasy novels by American writer R. A. Salvatore, set in the Forgotten Realms campaign setting of the Dungeons & Dragons fantasy role-playing game, they follow the story of Cadderly Bonaduce, a scholar-cleric, as he attempts to stop the "Chaos Curse" unleashed upon the world. It is a spiritual journey for Cadderly, where he begins to see things in a new light and becomes closer to his god. Recurring characters in this series include Cadderly Bonaduce, Danica Maupoissant, the dwarven brothers Ivan and Pikel Bouldershoulder and Shayleigh, an elf maiden of Shilmista Forest; the character of Cadderly was created specially for Cleric Quintet, after six Drizzt books were completed – as Salvatore wrote in his introduction, "We were done with Drizzt. Or at least, we thought we were"; the new protagonist was planned to be a monk, but it got rejected due to changes in Dungeons & Dragons 2nd Edition, where the class of monks was absent. Mary Kirchoff proposed. Salvatore invented a concept of spiritual journey for his character, who treats his religion as just a lifestyle, but becomes more tied to his god, Deneir.
The evil wizard Aballister has spent two years collecting and brewing a potion of power, as told to him by the imp, sent by the Goddess of Poison, Talona. When he reveals it to his evil fellowship at the hidden stronghold Castle Trinity, the priest Barjin takes control of it and sets off to the major stronghold of the Snowflake Mountains — the Edificant Library, he finds an innocent and young, low-ranking priest, to open the potion, the Chaos Curse, which makes all who breathe it lose self-control. Cadderly must fight a memory-blocking spell in order to save the Library. R. A. Salvatore introduction Review RPGnet review Wizards of the Coast rasalvatore.com
Asterix or The Adventures of Asterix is a series of French comics. The series first appeared in the Franco-Belgian comics magazine Pilote on 29 October 1959, it was written by René Goscinny and illustrated by Albert Uderzo until the death of Goscinny in 1977. Uderzo took over the writing until 2009, when he sold the rights to publishing company Hachette. In 2013, a new team consisting of Jean-Yves Ferri and Didier Conrad took over; as of 2017, 37 volumes have been released. The series follows the adventures of a village of Gauls as they resist Roman occupation in 50 BC, they do so by means of a magic potion, brewed by their druid Panoramix, which temporarily gives the recipient superhuman strength. The protagonists, the title character Asterix and his friend Obelix, have various adventures; the "ix" ending of both names alludes to the "rix" suffix present in the names of many real Gaulish chieftains such as Vercingetorix and Dumnorix. In many of the stories, they travel to foreign countries, though others are set in and around their village.
For much of the history of the series, settings in Gaul and abroad alternated, with even-numbered volumes set abroad and odd-numbered volumes set in Gaul in the village. The Asterix series is one of the most popular Franco-Belgian comics in the world, with the series being translated into 111 languages and dialects; the success of the series has led to the adaptation of its books into 13 films: nine animated, four live action. There have been a number of games based on the characters, a theme park near Paris, Parc Astérix; the first French satellite, Astérix, launched in 1965, was named after the comics character. As of 2017, 370 million copies of Asterix books have been sold worldwide, with co-creators René Goscinny and Albert Uderzo being France's best-selling authors abroad. Prior to creating the Asterix series and Uderzo had had success with their series Oumpah-pah, published in Tintin magazine. Astérix was serialised in Pilote magazine, debuting in the first issue on 29 October 1959. In 1961 the first book was put together, titled Asterix the Gaul.
From on, books were released on a yearly basis. Their success was exponential. In 1963, the third sold 40,000. A year the fifth sold 300,000; the ninth Asterix volume, when first released in 1967, sold 1.2 million copies in two days. Uderzo's first sketches portrayed Asterix as a strong traditional Gaulish warrior, but Goscinny had a different picture in his mind. He visualized Asterix as a shrewd small sized warrior. However, Uderzo felt that the small sized hero needed a strong but dim companion to which Goscinny agreed. Hence, Obelix was born. Despite the growing popularity of Asterix with the readers, the financial backing for Pilote ceased. Pilote was taken over by Georges Dargaud; when Goscinny died in 1977, Uderzo continued the series alone on the demand of the readers who implored him to continue. He continued the series but on a less frequent basis. Most critics and fans of the series prefer Goscinny's albums. Uderzo created his own publishing company, Les Editions Albert-René, which published every album drawn and written by Uderzo alone since then.
However, the initial publisher of the series, kept the publishing rights on the 24 first albums made by both Uderzo and Goscinny. In 1990, the Uderzo and Goscinny families decided to sue Dargaud to take over the rights. In 1998, after a long trial, Dargaud lost the rights to sell the albums. Uderzo decided to sell these rights to Hachette instead of Albert-René, but the publishing rights on new albums were still owned by Albert Uderzo, Sylvie Uderzo and Anne Goscinny. In December 2008, Uderzo sold his stake to Hachette. In a letter published in the French newspaper Le Monde in 2009, Uderzo's daughter, attacked her father's decision to sell the family publishing firm and the rights to produce new Astérix adventures after his death, she said:... the co-creator of Astérix, France's comic strip hero, has betrayed the Gaulish warrior to the modern-day Romans – the men of industry and finance. However, René Goscinny's daughter, Anne gave her agreement to the continuation of the series and sold her rights at the same time.
She is reported to have said that "Asterix has had two lives: one during my father's lifetime and one after it. Why not a third?". A few months Uderzo appointed three illustrators, his assistants for many years, to continue the series. In 2011, Uderzo announced that a new Asterix album was due out in 2013, with Jean-Yves Ferri writing the story and Frédéric Mébarki drawing it. A year in 2012, the publisher Albert-René announced that Frédéric Mébarki had withdrawn from drawing the new album, due to the pressure he felt in following in the steps of Uderzo. Comic artist Didier Conrad was announced to take over drawing duties from Mébarki, with the due date of the new album in 2013 unchanged. In January 2015, after the murders of seven cartoonists at the satirical Paris weekly Charlie Hebdo, Astérix creator Albert Uderzo came out of retirement to draw two Astérix pictures honouring the memories of the victims. Numbers 1–24, 32
Godfrey Higgins was an English magistrate and landowner, a prominent advocate for social reform and antiquarian. He is now known best for his writings concerning ancient myths his book Anacalypsis, published posthumously, in which he asserts a commonality among various religious myths, which he traces back to the supposed lost religion of Atlantis, he has been termed a "political radical, reforming county magistrate and idiosyncratic historian of religions". Higgins was the son of Godfrey Higgins of Skellow Grange, near Doncaster, he was educated in Hemsworth before being admitted to Emmanuel College, Cambridge in 1790, transferring to Trinity Hall in 1791. He studied law at the Inner Temple, but was not granted a license to practice law, refrained from practice; when Napoleon threatened an invasion of the United Kingdom, Higgins joined the Volunteer Corps and became a Captain of the Third West York Militia. In 1800 he married Jane Thorpe, who gave birth to his son named Godfrey, two daughters and Charlotte.
After Higgins' promotion to the rank of major in 1808, he resigned from the Volunteer Corps citing a severe fever as reason. Soon thereafter he was appointed as justice of the peace in Yorkshire. Higgins' work as a magistrate featured reformist campaigns, as part of which he "courageously exposed the scandalous treatment of pauper lunatics and campaigned for Parliamentary Reform, criticizing excessive taxation, the Corn Laws, the exploitation of children in factories", he was favoured disestablishing the Church of Ireland. In 1814 he had a major role in uncovering the abuse of patients at the York Lunatic Asylum after rumours of serious misconduct had come to his attention, he joined Quaker William Tuke in agitating for reform. In a surprise visit he forced staff to open doors which revealed female patients kept in "a number of secret cells in a state of filth, horrible beyond description...the most miserable objects I beheld." Most of the staff were dismissed and Higgins was able to secure a government enquiry into the management of the asylum, at which he gave evidence.
Higgins was appointed as a Governor of the Asylum. He proceeded to investigate a suspicious fire that had destroyed many of the asylum's records, concluding that it was unlikely to have started by accident. Meanwhile, he developed a regimen to study the meaning of life and religion, wrote: I came to a resolution to devote six hours a day to this pursuit for ten years. Instead of six hours daily for ten years, I believe I have, upon the average, applied myself to it for nearly ten hours daily for twenty years. In the first ten years of my search I may say, I found nothing which I sought for. A keen antiquarian, Higgins was a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries. According to Ross Nichols, Higgins was a "Chosen Chief" of the Order of Druids, founded by John Toland in 1717. Higgins was claimed a member of An Uileach Druidh Braithreaches, an ancient Druid order that predates the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn. Regardless, Higgins demonstrated extensive knowledge and familiarity with the traditions of Druid orders in his work, The Celtic Druids.
Higgins' wife died on 18 May 1822. Higgins' own death, on 9 August 1833, resulted from an illness which he suffered while attending a meeting of The British Association for the Advancement of Science at Cambridge. Higgins' main writings were part of the syncretism of the day, an attempt to associate Biblical narratives to evidence emerging about other religious traditions. Higgins discussed, argued with, other authors of this tradition such as Jacob Bryant, Roger O'Connor and William Jones. Higgins' own writings Anacalypsis, were to have a major influence on the development of Theosophy, through the publications of Helena Blavatsky. According to Ronald Hutton, Higgins' Anacalypsis says that, the megalithic remains scattered across the world had been the works of a great nation unknown to history, which had discovered religion and writing; this had given its system of spirituality and philosophy to the ancient Indians, Hebrews and Druids alike, based on a veneration of the sun with a threefold personification of deity and a myth of a saviour god who dies and returns.
Higgins identified this nation with the drowned land of Atlantis, hitherto regarded as a myth in itself. This device not only dealt with the question of why no objective evidence of the ancestral civilization remained, but turned the Atlanteans into a blank sheet upon which an ideal religion could be delineated, composed of the writer's favourite aspects of those known to history. In Higgins's scheme, the ancient knowledge had been hopelessly corrupted by the Christian churches, needed now to be reconstructed; these ideas "lay dormant for about forty years, was taken up and given a considerable popularity by one of the century's international figures, Helena Petrovna Blavatsky". Hutton describes Higgins as an "occultist and mystic", Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke terms him an "occultist". Wouter Hanegraaff, who has written a detailed history of esotericism, says that Higgins had no interest in either occultism or esotericism. Higgins main interests were the history of practical sociology. Horae Sabbaticae, published in 1826, was a study of the Sabbath.
Higgins recommended. The Celtic Druids, published in 1827 and 1829 as three parts, was intended as a precursor to Anacalypsis
Taliesin was an early Brythonic poet of Sub-Roman Britain whose work has survived in a Middle Welsh manuscript, the Book of Taliesin. Taliesin was a renowned bard, believed to have sung at the courts of at least three Brythonic kings. Ifor Williams identified eleven of the medieval poems ascribed to Taliesin as originating as early as the sixth century, so being composed by a historical Taliesin; the bulk of this work praises King Urien of Rheged and his son Owain mab Urien, although several of the poems indicate that he served as the court bard to King Brochfael Ysgithrog of Powys and his successor Cynan Garwyn, either before or during his time at Urien's court. Some of the events to which the poems refer, such as the Battle of Arfderydd, are referred to in other sources. In legend and medieval Welsh poetry, he is referred to as Taliesin Ben Beirdd, he is mentioned as one of the five British poets of renown, along with Talhaearn Tad Awen, Aneirin and Cian Gwenith Gwawd, in the Historia Brittonum, is mentioned in the collection of poems known as Y Gododdin.
Taliesin was regarded in the mid-12th century as the supposed author of a great number of romantic legends. According to legend Taliesin was adopted as a child by Elffin, the son of Gwyddno Garanhir, prophesied the death of Maelgwn Gwynedd from the Yellow Plague. In stories he became a mythic hero, companion of Bran the Blessed and King Arthur, his legendary biography is found in several late renderings, the earliest surviving narrative being found in a manuscript chronicle of world history written by Elis Gruffydd in the 16th century. Details of Taliesin's life are sparse; the first mention of him occurs in the Saxon genealogies appended to four manuscripts of the Historia Brittonum. The writer names five poets, among them Taliesin, who lived in the time of Ida of Bernicia and a British chieftain, utigirn; this information is considered credible, since he is mentioned by Aneirin, another of the five mentioned poets, famed as the author of Y Gododdin, a series of elegies to the men of the kingdom of Gododdin who died fighting the Angles at the Battle of Catraeth around 600.
Taliesin's authorship of several praise-poems to Urien Rheged is accepted, these poems mention The Eden Valley and an enemy leader, identified as Ida or his son Theodric. These poems refer to victories of Urien at the battles of Argoed Llwyfain, The Ford of Clyde and Gwen Ystrad. Taliesin sang in praise of Cynan Garwyn, king of Powys and Cynan's predecessor Brochwel Ysgithrog is mentioned in poems. According to legends that first appear in the Book of Taliesin Taliesin's early patron was Elffin, son of Gwyddno Garanhir, a lord of a lost land in Cardigan Bay, called Cantre'r Gwaelod, Taliesin defended Elffin and satirised his enemy, the powerful Maelgwn Gwynedd, shortly before the latter died. According to the Welsh Triads Taliesin had a son, accounted a great warrior who suffered a violent death in Lothian. Taliesin's own grave is held in folk-lore to be one near the village of Tre Taliesin near Llangynfelyn called Bedd Taliesin, but this is a Bronze Age burial chamber, the village of Tre-Taliesin, located at the foot of the hill, was named after the burial chamber in the 19th century though legend was traced by Edward Lhuyd to the 17th century.
More detailed traditions of Taliesin's biography arose from about the 11th century, in Historia Taliesin. In the mid-16th-century, Elis Gruffydd recorded a legendary account of Taliesin that resembles the story of the boyhood of the Irish hero Fionn mac Cumhail and the salmon of wisdom in some respects; the tale was recorded in a different version by John Jones of Gellilyfdy. This story agrees in many respects with fragmentary accounts in the Book of Taliesin. According to the Hanes Taliesin, he was known as Gwion Bach ap Gwreang, he was a servant of Cerridwen and was made to stir the Cauldron of Inspiration for one year to allow for Cerridwen to complete her potion of inspiration. Upon completion of this potion, three drops landed upon Gwion Bach's thumb. Gwion placed his thumb in his mouth to soothe his burns resulting in Gwion's enlightenment. Out of fear of what Cerridwen would do to him, Gwion fled and transformed into a piece of grain before being consumed by Cerridwen. Gwion was reborn and given the name Taliesin.
According to these texts Taliesin was the foster-son of Elffin ap Gwyddno, who gave him the name Taliesin, meaning "radiant brow", who became a king in Ceredigion, Wales. The legend states that he was raised at his court in Aberdyfi and that at the age of 13, he visited King Maelgwn Gwynedd, Elffin's uncle, prophesied the manner and imminence of Maelgwn's death. A number of medieval poems attributed to Taliesin allude to the legend but these postdate the historical poet's floruit considerably; the idea that he was a bard at the court of King Arthur dates back at least to the tale of Culhwch and Olwen a product of the 11th century. It is elaborated upon in modern English poetry, such as Tennyson's Idylls of the King and Charles Williams's Taliessin Through Logres, but the historical Taliesin's career can be shown to have fallen in the last half of the 6th century, while historians who argue for Arthur's existence date his victory at Mons Badonicus in the years either si
Erwan Berthou was a French and Breton language poet and neo-Druidic bard. His name is spelled Erwan Bertou and Yves Berthou, he used the bardic pseudonyms Kaledvoulc'h, Alc'houeder Treger and Erwanig. He was born in Côtes-d'Armor, he studied at the small seminary of Tréguier at the college of Lannion. He worked as an engineer in Le Havre moving in 1892 to Rochefort. On 12 June 1892, he married Elisa Mézeray, he joined the Navy for five years. During his service he visited the Caribbean and China. Berthou returned to Le Havre in 1896, he began contributing to the journals L'Hermine and Revue des provinces de l'Ouest. In 1897, he published a magazine La Trêve de Dieu, he continued to work as an engineer in construction of settlements in 1898 in Paris. In the following year was one of twenty-two Bretons who went to Cardiff to establish links with Welsh neo-Druidism, being received at the Gorsedd, he joined the Union Régionaliste Bretonne, helping to create the Breton nationalist movement. He participated in all stages of the creation of the Gorsedd of Brittany, of which he was Archdruid from 1903 to 1933, using the bardic name Kaledvoulc'h.
He participated in Emile Masson's journal Brug. Much of his writing is imbued with pantheist ideas. In 1906 Berthou and Jean Le Fustec published Eur to gir of rear Varzed, Triades des druides de Bretagne, a translation into Breton of the 46 theological Triads of the neo-Bards, according to a text first published by Iolo Morganwg with his own Lyric Poems in the Barddas of J. William ab Ithel; the collection, in fact a forgery by Morganwg, was claimed to have been a translation of works by Llywelyn Siôn detailing the history of the Welsh bardic system from its ancient origins to the present day. Based on these ideas Berthou published Sous le chêne des druides, which described a mystical history of human spiritual and cultural evolution culminating in the achievement of "pure whiteness". In 1918, he returned to take over his parents' farm, he found it difficult to keep it solvent, was reduced to great poverty a result of the inflation after the war. His last years were impoverished, leading to his wife's mental breakdown.
Members of the Breton national movement organised financial assistance for him. Cœur breton, premières poésies, 1892 La Lande fleurie, 1894 Les Fontaines miraculeuses, 1896 Âmes simples, dramatic poem, 1896 La Semaine des Quatre Jeudis, ballads, 1898 Le Pays qui Parle, poem, 1903. Dre an dellen hag ar c'horn-boud.. Saint-Brieuc/ Paris René Prud'homme & Moriz an Dault 1904 Triades des Bardes de l’île de Bretagne, 1906 Istor Breiz, 1910. Kevrin Barzed Breiz, treatise of Breton language versification, 1912. Les Vessies pour des Lanternes, tract, 1913. Lemenik, skouer ar Varzed, 1914. Ivin ha Lore, gwerziou, 1914. Dernière Gerbe, poems, 1914. Avalou Stoup, rimadellou, 1914. Hostaliri Surat, 1914. Daouzek Abostol, 1928. Sous le chêne des druides P. Heugel Editeur 1931 En Bro-Dreger a-dreuz parkoù, republished Lemenik: skouer ar varzhed. - Lesneven: "Hor yezh", 2001
Bernard Cornwell, is an English author of historical novels and a history of the Waterloo Campaign. He is best known for his novels about Napoleonic Wars rifleman Richard Sharpe, he has written historical novels on English history in five series, one series of contemporary thriller novels. A feature of his historical novels is an end note on how they match or differ from history, what one might see at the modern site of the battles described. One series is set in the American Civil War, he wrote a nonfiction book on the battle of Waterloo, in addition to the fictional story of the famous battle in the Sharpe Series. Two of the historical novel series have been adapted for television: the Sharpe television series by ITV and The Last Kingdom by BBC, he lives in the US with his wife, alternating between Cape Cod and Charleston, South Carolina. Cornwell was born in London in 1944, his father was Canadian airman William Oughtred and his mother was Englishwoman Dorothy Cornwell, a member of the Women's Auxiliary Air Force.
He was brought up in Thundersley, Essex by the Wiggins family. Reacting to being raised by Christian Fundamentalists, he grew up rejecting all religions and became an atheist. After his adoptive father died, he changed his last name by deed poll from Wiggins to Cornwell, his birth mother's maiden name. Prior to that, he used Bernard Cornwell as a pen name, he met his father for the first time when he was 58, after telling a journalist on a book tour, "what I wanted to see in Vancouver was my real father." There he met his half-siblings, with whom he shares many traits, learned his genealogy. Cornwell was sent to Monkton Combe School in Somerset, he read history at University College London between 1963 and 1966 and worked as a teacher after graduating. He attempted to enlist in the British armed services at least three times, but was rejected on the grounds of myopia. Following his work as a teacher, Cornwell joined the BBC's Nationwide and was promoted to head of current affairs at BBC Northern Ireland.
He joined Thames Television as editor of Thames News. His first marriage ended in divorce in 1970s, he met his second wife in 1978 in Edinburgh. He relocated to the United States in 1979 after marrying her, he was unable to get a United States Permanent Resident Card, so he started writing novels, as this did not require a work permit. He became a United States citizen; as a child, Cornwell loved the novels of C. S. Forester chronicling the adventures of fictional British naval officer Horatio Hornblower during the Napoleonic Wars, he was surprised to find that there were no such novels following Lord Wellington's campaign on land, so he wrote that series himself—further motivated by the need to support himself through writing. He created his chief protagonist as a rifleman involved in most of the major battles of the Peninsular War, taking the character's name from rugby player Richard Sharp. Cornwell wanted to start the series with the Siege of Badajoz but decided instead to start with a couple of "warm-up" novels.
These were Sharpe's Eagle and Sharpe's Gold, both published in 1981. He went on to tell the story of Badajoz in Sharpe's Company published in 1982, he had a seven-book deal after linking with Toby Eady as his agent. Cornwell and wife Judy co-wrote a series of novels published under the pseudonym "Susannah Kells": A Crowning Mercy published in 1983, Fallen Angels in 1984, Coat of Arms in 1986. Cornwell's strict Protestant upbringing forms the background of A Crowning Mercy, which takes place during the English Civil War, he published Redcoat in 1987, an American Revolutionary War novel set in Philadelphia during its 1777 occupation by the British. Cornwell was approached by a production company interested in making television adaptations of the first eight books of his Sharpe series, they asked him to write a background novel to give them a starting point to the series, they requested that the story feature a large role for Spanish characters in order to secure co-funding from Spain. The result was Sharpe's Rifles, published in 1987 and set when the English retreated at A Coruña until Wellesley arrived in Spain.
It resulted in a series of Sharpe television films starring Sean Bean. This was followed by a series of modern thrillers with sailing as a background and common themes: Wildtrack published in 1988, Sea Lord in 1989, Crackdown in 1990, Stormchild in 1991, the political thriller Scoundrel in 1992. Cornwell wrote two books a year for a long time, he views historical fiction as presenting a big story in the historical events and a little story in the fictional plot. Patrick O'Brian wrote the Aubrey-Maturin series of historical adventures set in the Napoleonic era, he said that there was "too much plot, not enough lifestyle" in both Cornwell's novels and those of C. S. Forester. Cornwell took that as a compliment and an accurate appraisal of the difference between their styles, while appreciating the favorable comparison to Forester. With the success of the Sharpe series, Cornwell began to write about other time periods and historical events of English and American history, both in series and in single novels.
Azincourt was released in the UK in October 2008. The protagonist is an archer who participates in the Battle of Agincourt, a devastating defeat suffered by the French during the Hundred Years' War. In 2004, he released The Last Kingdom, beginning th