Oran is a major coastal city located in the north-west of Algeria. It is considered the second most important city of Algeria after the capital Algiers, due to its commercial and cultural importance, it is 432 km from Algiers. The total population of the city was 759,645 in 2008, while the metropolitan area has a population of 1,500,000 making it the second largest city in Algeria. A legend says; the last two lions were hunted on a mountain near Oran and are elsewhere referred to as "mountain lions". The word derives from the Berber root hr; the name is attested for instance as uharu and ahra. A locally popular legend tells that in the period around AD 900, there were sightings of lions in the area; the two last lions were killed on a mountain near Oran, it became known as La montagne des lions. Two giant lion statues stand in front of Oran's city hall. See also: Timeline of Oran and History of Oran During the Roman empire, a small settlement called Unica Colonia existed in the area of current Oran, but this settlement disappeared after the Arab conquest of the Maghreb.
Present-day Oran was founded in 903 by Moorish Andalusi traders. It was captured by the Castilians under Cardinal Cisneros in 1509, Spanish sovereignty lasted until 1708, when the city was conquered by the Ottomans. Spain recaptured the city in 1732. However, its value as a trading post had decreased so King Charles IV sold the city to the Turks in 1792. Ottoman rule lasted until 1831. Under French rule during the 19th and 20th centuries, Oran was the capital of a département of the same name. In July 1940, the British navy shelled French warships in the port after they refused a British ultimatum to surrender; the action increased the hatred of the Vichy regime for Britain but convinced the world that the British would fight on alone against Nazi Germany and its allies. The Vichy government held Oran during World War II until its capture by the Allies in late 1942, during Operation Torch. During French rule, Jews were encouraged to modernize and take on jobs they had not before including agriculture.
Jews In the city were allowed to join the French Army starting October 24, 1870 when Algerian Jews were granted citizenship. French Jews would soon be targeted after not choosing to side with the Algerian Muslims who fought for independence against France. Before the Algerian War, 1954–1962, Oran had one of the highest proportions of Europeans of any city in North Africa. In July 1962, after a ceasefire and accords with France, the FLN entered Oran and were shot at by a European. A mob massacred thousands of Europeans in Oran; this triggered a larger exodus of Europeans to France, underway. Shortly after the end of the war, most of the Europeans and Algerian Jews living in Oran fled to France. In less than three months, Oran lost about half its population; this population lost is similar to the Jews as many fled after siding with France in the Algerian War for Independence. As the war progressed, those who supported independence in Algeria threatened those who sided with Europe causing these people to flee.
With its location as the closest port to Spain and its prominence on the Mediterranean, Jewish refugees first immigrated to Oran to flee persecution and conversion to Christianity in Spain in 1391. This refuge brought other religious refugees that included both Jews again and Muslims in both 1492 and 1502. On October 24, 1870, with the French dominance, Algerian Jews were given French citizenship with the Cremieux Decree. Despite a World War II sentiment that favored acceptance, Oran still had a history marked by intolerance. There was a decrease in the Jewish population as Muslims were the only group granted citizenship protection in 1963, one year after Algerian independence. Before the Spaniards, the Portuguese launched a failed expedition to capture the city in July 1501. Four years the Spanish took Mers-el-Kébir, located just four miles to the west of the Oran, thus began the first organized incursions against the city which, at the time, numbered 25,000 inhabitants and counted 6,000 fueros.
Count Pedro Navarro, on the orders of Cardinal Francisco Jiménez de Cisneros captured the city on May 17, 1509. The occupying forces set fire to the archives of the town. By 1554, the Turks had reached Algiers; the governor of Oran, Count Alcaudete, allied himself with Moroccan Sultan Mohammed ash-Sheikh against them. Nine years in 1563, Álvaro de Bazán, Marquis de Santa Cruz, built the fort of Santa-Cruz, strategically placed at the top of a mountain, l'Aïdour, more than 1,000 ft above the sea, directly to the west of the city. Pedro Garcerán de Borja, Grand Master of the Order of Montesa, was captain of Oran when, on July 14, 1568, John of Austria, led a flotilla of 33 galleys against the Algerians. In April 1669 the Spanish governor, the Marquis of Los Vélez, expelled all the Jews who lived in Oran and Mers El Kébir sending them to be resettled in either Nice, or Livorno; the Spanish rebuilt Santa Cruz Fort to accommodate their city governors. "The fortifications of the place were composed of thick and continuous walls of over two and a half km in circumference, surmounted by strong towers spaced between them," with a central castle or kasbah where the Spanish
Boumedfaa a town in northern Algeria. It is located at 36°22′13″n, 2° 28′ 35″e, 100 km west of Algiers and 60 km north-east of Aïn Defla and 37 km north-west of Medea and 40 km west of Blida. In 2008 the population of the district was 21 509; the population density is 860 per km². During the Roman Empire a town of the Roman province of Mauretania Caesariensis called Flumenzer, was located at Boumedfaâ. During the rule of the Vandals in late antiquity, the town's Christian bishop, was sent into exile in 484AD, by the king Huneric. January 1, 1855, Bou Medfa merged with the township of Aïn Benian 1869 saw the Opening of the Bou Medfa-Affreville section of the Algiers to Oran railway and branch lines An earthquake in 1959 with magnitude 5.3 earthquake struck this area of Algeria on November 7 at a depth of 15.0 km. Some damage was caused. An ancient Christian bishopric was established in the town during the Roman Empire. Although the bishopric ceased to function with the Muslim conquest of the Maghreb the diocese of Flumenzer survives as a titular bishop.
The current bishop is Adel Zaky, apostolic vicar of Alexandria, Egypt
Seismic magnitude scales
Seismic magnitude scales are used to describe the overall strength or "size" of an earthquake. These are distinguished from seismic intensity scales that categorize the intensity or severity of ground shaking caused by an earthquake at a given location. Magnitudes are determined from measurements of an earthquake's seismic waves as recorded on a seismogram. Magnitude scales vary how they are measured. Different magnitude scales are necessary because of differences in earthquakes, the information available, the purposes for which the magnitudes are used; the Earth's crust is stressed by tectonic forces. When this stress becomes great enough to rupture the crust, or to overcome the friction that prevents one block of crust from slipping past another, energy is released, some of it in the form of various kinds of seismic waves that cause ground-shaking, or quaking. Magnitude is an estimate of the relative "size" or strength of an earthquake, thus its potential for causing ground-shaking, it is "approximately related to the released seismic energy."
Intensity refers to the strength or force of shaking at a given location, can be related to the peak ground velocity. With an isoseismal map of the observed intensities an earthquake's magnitude can be estimated from both the maximum intensity observed, from the extent of the area where the earthquake was felt; the intensity of local ground-shaking depends on several factors besides the magnitude of the earthquake, one of the most important being soil conditions. For instance, thick layers of soft soil can amplify seismic waves at a considerable distance from the source, while sedimentary basins will resonate, increasing the duration of shaking; this is why, in the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake, the Marina district of San Francisco was one of the most damaged areas, though it was nearly 100 km from the epicenter. Geological structures were significant, such as where seismic waves passing under the south end of San Francisco Bay reflected off the base of the Earth's crust towards San Francisco and Oakland.
A similar effect channeled seismic waves between the other major faults in the area. An earthquake radiates energy in the form of different kinds of seismic waves, whose characteristics reflect the nature of both the rupture and the earth's crust the waves travel through. Determination of an earthquake's magnitude involves identifying specific kinds of these waves on a seismogram, measuring one or more characteristics of a wave, such as its timing, amplitude, frequency, or duration. Additional adjustments are made for distance, kind of crust, the characteristics of the seismograph that recorded the seismogram; the various magnitude scales represent different ways of deriving magnitude from such information as is available. All magnitude scales retain the logarithmic scale as devised by Charles Richter, are adjusted so the mid-range correlates with the original "Richter" scale. Most magnitude scales are based on measurements of only part of an earthquake's seismic wave-train, therefore are incomplete.
This results in systematic underestimation of magnitude in certain cases, a condition called saturation. Since 2005 the International Association of Seismology and Physics of the Earth's Interior has standardized the measurement procedures and equations for the principal magnitude scales, ML , Ms , mb , mB and mbLg ; the first scale for measuring earthquake magnitudes, developed in 1935 by Charles F. Richter and popularly known as the "Richter" scale, is the Local magnitude scale, label ML or ML. Richter established two features now common to all magnitude scales. First, the scale is logarithmic, so that each unit represents a ten-fold increase in the amplitude of the seismic waves; as the energy of a wave is 101.5 times its amplitude, each unit of magnitude represents a nearly 32-fold increase in the energy of an earthquake. Second, Richter arbitrarily defined the zero point of the scale to be where an earthquake at a distance of 100 km makes a maximum horizontal displacement of 0.001 millimeters on a seismogram recorded with a Wood-Anderson torsion seismograph.
Subsequent magnitude scales are calibrated to be in accord with the original "Richter" scale around magnitude 6. All "Local" magnitudes are based on the maximum amplitude of the ground shaking, without distinguishing the different seismic waves, they underestimate the strength: of distant earthquakes because of attenuation of the S-waves, of deep earthquakes because the surface waves are smaller, of strong earthquakes because they do not take into account the duration of shaking. The original "Richter" scale, developed in the geological context of Southern California and Nevada, was found to be inaccurate for earthquakes in the central and eastern parts of the continent because of differences in the continental crust. All these problems prompted the development of other scales. Most seismological authorities, such as the United States Geological Survey, report earthquake magnitudes above 4.0 as moment magnitude, which the press describes as "Richter magnitude". Richter's original "local" scale has been adapted for other localities.
These may be with a lowercase "l", either Ml, or Ml. Whether the values are comparable depends on whether the local conditions have been adequately determined and the formula suitably adjusted. In Japan, for shallow earthquakes within 600 km, the Japanese Meteorological Agenc
The Hodna Mountains are a mountain massif in northeastern Algeria. It rises on the northern side of the Hodna natural region in the M'Sila Province, near the town of Maadid around 200 km southeast of Algiers; these mountains are one of the ranges of the Saharan Atlas, part of the Atlas Mountain System. The Hodna Mountain ridge is located south of Kabylie, it sits at a parallel latitude in a east–west direction between the Bibans in the northwest and the Belezma Range in the east. The highest peak, at 1,902 meters, is the Djebel Tachrirt; the Maadid Range, the Kiyāna Range and the'Aqqār Range are other subranges of the Hodna Mountains. The Hodna Range has a zone of about 8,000 ha of natural cedar forest near Boutaleb growing in xerophile conditions; the former inhabitants of the Hodna Mountains built a complex system of water retention walls named jessour. They were built parallel to the level curves forming steps in the talwegs. On the northern slopes of the Djebel Tachrirt the walls were constructed above the ground level, allowing the snow to accumulate and to melt in order to distribute the available water resulting from the snow melting period.
Most of these traditional water management works are now in ruins. The Beni Hammad Fort or Al Qal'a of Beni Hammad is the ruin of a fortified Muslim city belonging to the Hammadid dynasty, built and settled in 1007 and abandoned in 1090, it includes a 7 km-long line of walls. Inside the walls are four residential complexes, the largest mosque built in Algeria after that of Mansourah, similar to the Grand Mosque of Kairouan, with a tall minaret; the remains of the emir's palace, known as Dal al-Bahr, include three separate residences separated by gardens and pavilions. Excavations of the area have brought to light numerous terracotta items, jewels and ceramics, including a number of decorative fountains using the lion as a motif. In 1980 the Beni Hammad Fort was inscribed as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO. In 945, as Abu Yazid besieged Sousse, Caliph al-Qa'im Bi-Amrillah died and was succeeded by his son al-Mansur. Under al-Mansur's leadership, the Fatimid forces recovered their position, first breaking the siege of Sousse and driving Abū Yazīd's forces out of Kairouan back into the Aurès Mountains.
In 947, the Fatimids defeated them in the Kiyana Mountains of this massif near what became the Beni Hammad Fort. Geography of Algeria Abu Yazid Recueil des Notices et Memoires de la Societe Archeologique du Departement de Constantine Commune mixte des Maâdid puis sous-préfecture de Bordj Bou Arreridj Jessour Histoire Et Archeologie de l'Afrique du Nord - Colloque 1983 Geographie Militaire - Le Hodna
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration is an American scientific agency within the United States Department of Commerce that focuses on the conditions of the oceans, major waterways, the atmosphere. NOAA warns of dangerous weather, charts seas, guides the use and protection of ocean and coastal resources, conducts research to provide understanding and improve stewardship of the environment. NOAA was formed in 1970 and in 2017 had over 11,000 civilian employees, its research and operations are further supported by 321 uniformed service members who make up the NOAA Commissioned Corps. Since October 2017, NOAA has been headed by Timothy Gallaudet, as acting Under Secretary of Commerce for Oceans and Atmosphere and NOAA interim administrator. NOAA plays several specific roles in society, the benefits of which extend beyond the US economy and into the larger global community: A Supplier of Environmental Information Products. NOAA supplies to its customers and partners information pertaining to the state of the oceans and the atmosphere.
This is clear through the production of weather warnings and forecasts via the National Weather Service, but NOAA's information products extend to climate and commerce as well. A Provider of Environmental Stewardship Services. NOAA is a steward of U. S. coastal and marine environments. In coordination with federal, local and international authorities, NOAA manages the use of these environments, regulating fisheries and marine sanctuaries as well as protecting threatened and endangered marine species. A Leader in Applied Scientific Research. NOAA is intended to be a source of accurate and objective scientific information in the four particular areas of national and global importance identified above: ecosystems, climate and water, commerce and transportation; the five "fundamental activities" are: Monitoring and observing Earth systems with instruments and data collection networks. Understanding and describing Earth systems through research and analysis of that data. Assessing and predicting the changes of these systems over time.
Engaging and informing the public and partner organizations with important information. Managing resources for the betterment of society and environment. NOAA traces its history back to multiple agencies, some of which were among the oldest in the federal government: United States Coast and Geodetic Survey, formed in 1807 Weather Bureau of the United States, formed in 1870 Bureau of Commercial Fisheries, formed in 1871 Coast and Geodetic Survey Corps, formed in 1917Another direct predecessor of NOAA was the Environmental Science Services Administration, into which several existing scientific agencies such as the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey, the Weather Bureau and the uniformed Corps were absorbed in 1965. NOAA was established within the Department of Commerce via the Reorganization Plan No. 4 and formed on October 3, 1970 after U. S. President Richard Nixon proposed creating a new agency to serve a national need for "better protection of life and property from natural hazards …for a better understanding of the total environment… for exploration and development leading to the intelligent use of our marine resources."
In 2007, NOAA celebrated 200 years of service in its role as successor to the United States Survey of the Coast. In 2013, NOAA closed 600 weather stations. Since October 25, 2017 Timothy Gallaudet, Assistant Secretary of Commerce for Oceans and Atmosphere, has served as acting Under Secretary of Commerce for Oceans and Atmosphere at the US Department of Commerce and NOAA's interim administrator. Gallaudet succeeded Benjamin Friedman, who served as NOAA's interim administrator since the end of the Obama Administration on January 20, 2017. In October 2017, Barry Lee Myers, CEO of AccuWeather, was proposed to be the agency's administrator by the Trump Administration. NOAA works toward its mission through six major line offices, the National Environmental Satellite and Information Service, the National Marine Fisheries Service, the National Ocean Service, the National Weather Service, the Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research and the Office of Marine & Aviation Operations, and in addition more than a dozen staff offices, including the Office of the Federal Coordinator for Meteorology, the NOAA Central Library, the Office of Program Planning and Integration.
The National Weather Service is tasked with providing "weather and climate forecasts and warnings for the United States, its territories, adjacent waters and ocean areas, for the protection of life and property and the enhancement of the national economy." This is done through a collection of national and regional centers, 13 river forecast centers, more than 120 local weather forecast offices. They are charged with issuing weather and river forecasts, advisories and warnings on a daily basis, they issue more than 734,000 weather and 850,000 river forecasts, more than 45,000 severe weather warnings annually. NOAA data is relevant to the issues of global warming and ozone depletion; the NWS operates NEXRAD, a nationwide network of Doppler weather radars which can detect precipitation and their velocities. Many of their products are broadcast on NOAA Weather Radio, a network of radio transmitters that broadcasts weather forecasts, severe weather statements and warnings 24 hours a day; the National Ocean Service focuses on ensuring that ocean and coastal areas are safe and productive.
NOS scientists, natural resource managers, specialists serve America by ensuring safe and efficient marine transportation, promoting innovative solutions to protect coastal communities, conserving mari
M'Sila. It has a population of over 100,000. M'Sila University is located in this city. M'Sila was the location of the first village constructed as part of a government-run program to transition nomadic Algerians to sedentary life using local materials; the village, now complete, was dubbed Maader and consists of houses and trading areas, a mosque. Today it is much more developed with many companies, business offices, religious centers and schools. M'Sila has a cold semi-arid climate. Rainfall is higher in winter than in summer; the average annual temperature in M'Sila is 15.8 °C. About 229 mm of precipitation falls annually. M'Sila is known for its farming and small business. Encycloepaedia of the Orient-a brief description of M'Sila, focusing on its capital BBC - a news article about some recent violence in M'Sila Archnet - focuses on the Maader village project Wetlands International - an in-depth description of M'Sila's wetland
Geology of Algeria
The geology of Algeria is diverse. In the south and west is the West African Craton which consists of Precambrian granitic basement and surrounding Neoproterozoic mobile belts. Further south the Tuareg Shield comprises the Hoggar, Adrar des Iforas and Air sub-shields which have each been affected by tectono-thermal events touching much of the continent. In the north are the Alpine chain mountains with a succession of folded and over-thrusted strata; the production of oil and gas are important to Algeria’s economy, being Africa’s main producer of the latter. Its reserves were estimated at 4.502 trillion m3 at the end of 2008. Productive fields are found in faulted anticlines or domes. Caprocks include Triassic Carboniferous to Devonian shales; the major source rocks for the hydrocarbons were Silurian shales rich in organic material. In 2008, Algeria was the fourth largest oil producer in Africa accounting for about one sixth of the continent’s production; the country’s proven reserves of crude petroleum are out at 1.66 billion tonnes, or about 1 percent of the global reserve.
In Northern Algeria, earthquakes occur damaging infrastructure and property, as well as causing human loss of life. The 1980 El Asnam earthquake left 300,000 homeless; the search for hydrocarbons has induced pollutants into aquifers and groundwater. List of earthquakes in Algeria