List of earthquakes in Turkey

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Map of earthquakes in Turkey 1900-2017
Map of plate boundaries affecting Turkey

This is a list of earthquakes in Turkey, including any notable historical earthquakes that have epicenters within the current boundaries of Turkey, or which caused significant effects in this area. This list is incomplete.

Tectonic setting[edit]

Turkey is a seismically active area within the complex zone of collision between the Eurasian Plate and both the African and Arabian Plates. Much of the country lies on the Anatolian Plate, a small plate bounded by two major strike-slip fault zones, the North Anatolian Fault and East Anatolian Fault. The western part of the country is also affected by the zone of extensional tectonics in the Aegean Sea caused by the southward migration of the Hellenic arc. The easternmost part of Turkey lies on the western end of the Zagros fold and thrust belt, which is dominated by thrust tectonics.

Seismic hazard[edit]

Seismic hazard for Turkey from the Global Seismic Hazard Assessment Program (GSHAP) in terms of peak ground acceleration with a 10% chance of being exceeded (or a 90% chance of not being exceeded) within the next 50 years

Seismic hazard in Turkey is highest along the plate boundaries, but there is a significant risk of damaging earthquakes almost anywhere in the country.

List of notable earthquakes[edit]

Date Time‡ Place Lat Long Deaths Mag. Comments Sources
17 CE n/a Philadelphia (Alaşehir) 38.21 28.31 n/a n/a see AD 17 Lydia earthquake [1]
December 13, 115 Antioch 36.1 36.1 ~260,000 7.5 Ms see 115 Antioch earthquake [2]
141 (or 142) Lycia, Caria, Dodecanese 36.7 28.0 n/a VIII Triggered a severe tsunami that caused inundation at Rhodes; see 141 Lycia earthquake [3]
262 South and west coasts of Anatolia 36.5 27.8 n/a IX Damaged many buildings at Ephesus and triggered a tsunami that hit coastal cities; see 262 Southwest Anatolia earthquake [4]
May 19, 526 Antioch 250,000 VIII The city of Antioch was greatly damaged, and some decades later the city's population was just 300,000. see 526 Antioch earthquake [5]
December 14, 557 just before midnight Constantinople 40.9 28.7 n/a X (Intense) Constantinople was "almost completely razed to the ground" by the earthquake. see 557 Constantinople earthquake [6]
1268 Cilicia, Anatolia 37.5 35.5 60,000 ~7 see 1268 Cilicia earthquake
September 10, 1509 Constantinople 40.9 28.7 10,000 7.2 Mw see 1509 Constantinople earthquake
February 23, 1653 Smyrna 38.2 28.2 2,500 7.5 see 1653 East Smyrna earthquake [7]
August 17, 1668 Anatolia 40 36 8,000 8 USGS
July 10, 1688 11:45 Smyrna 38.4 26.9 16,000 7.0 Ms see 1688 Smyrna earthquake [8]
February 28, 1855 01:00 Bursa 40.2 29.1 1,900 6.7 see 1855 Bursa earthquake [9]
June 2, 1859 10:30 Erzurum 39.9 41.3 15,000 6.1 Ms see 1859 Erzurum earthquake [10]
April 3, 1881 11:30 Chios, Çeşme, Alaçatı 38.25 26.25 7,866 7.3 Mw see 1881 Chios earthquake [11]
October 10, 1883 13:30 Çeşme, Izmir, Ayvalik 38.3 26.2 15,000 7.3 Ms see 1883 Çeşme earthquake [12]
July 10, 1894 12:24 Gulf of Izmit 40.73 29.25 1,300 7.0 see 1894 Istanbul earthquake [13]
April 29, 1903 01:46 local time Malazgirt 39.14 42.65 600 6.7 Ms see 1903 Malazgirt earthquake [14][15]
August 9, 1912 03:29 local time Mürefte 40.75 27.2 216 7.3 MS see 1912 Mürefte earthquake [14][15]
October 4, 1914 00:07 local time Burdur 37.82 30.27 300 6.9 MS see 1914 Burdur earthquake [14][15]
September 13, 1924 16:34 local time Horasan 40.0 42.1 60 6.8 see 1924 Pasinler earthquake [14][15]
October 22, 1926 21:59 local time Kars 40.7 43.7 360 6.0 Ms see 1926 Kars earthquake [16]
March 31, 1928 02:29 local time Smyrna 38.5 28.0 50 6.5 MS Possible M=6.2 foreshock previous day [14][15]
May 18, 1929 08:37 local time Suşehri 40.2 37.9 64 6.1 Ms [14][15]
May 7, 1930 00:34 local time Hakkâri 38.1 44.7 2,514 7.2–7.5 Ms see 1930 Salmas earthquake [17]
January 4, 1935 16:41 local time Erdek 40.4 27.5 5 6.4 Ms [14][15]
April 19, 1938 12:59 local time Kırşehir 39.1 34.0 160 6.6 MS see 1938 Kırşehir earthquake [14][15]
September 22, 1939 02:36 local time Dikili 39.1 26.8 60 6.6 MS [14][15]
December 26, 1939 23:57 Erzincan 39.77 39.53 32,700 7.8 MS see 1939 Erzincan earthquake USGS
November 15, 1942 19:01 local time Bigadiç 39.2 28.2 16 6.1 MS [14][15]
December 20, 1942 14:03 Erbaa 40.87 36.47 3000 7.0 see North Anatolian Fault [18]
June 20, 1943 17:32 local time Hendek 40.6 30.5 336 6.6 MS [14][15]
November 26, 1943 22:20 Ladik 40.87 33.65 2,824–5,000 7.5 see 1943 Tosya–Ladik earthquake
February 1, 1944 03:25 Gerede 40.8 32.2 3959 7.5 see North Anatolian Fault [18]
October 6, 1944 04:34 local time Ayvalık 39.37 26.53 30 6.8 MS [14][15]
August 17, 1949 Karlıova 39.54 40.57 450 6.8 see North Anatolian Fault [18]
August 13, 1951 18:36 Kurşunlu 40.88 32.87 50 6.9 see North Anatolian Fault [18]
March 18, 1953 21:06 local time Yenice 40.02 27.53 265 7.2 MS see 1953 Yenice–Gönen earthquake [14][15]
July 16, 1955 09:07 local time Söke 37.55 27.05 23 6.8 MS [14][15]
April 25, 1957 04:25 local time Fethiye 36.5 28.6 67 7.1 MS see 1957 Fethiye earthquakes [14][15]
May 26, 1957 6:36 Abant 40.67 31.00 52 7.1 see North Anatolian Fault [18]
October 6, 1964 16:31 local time Manyas 40.1 27.93 23 7.0 MS [14][15]
August 19, 1966 12:23 Varto 39.17 41.56 2396 6.7 see 1966 Varto earthquake [18]
July 22, 1967 16:56 Mudurnu 40.67 30.69 89 7.2 see North Anatolian Fault [18]
September 3, 1968 10:19 local time Bartın 41.79 32.31 29 6.5 MS [14][15]
March 28, 1969 03:48 local time Alaşehir 38.5 28.4 53 6.5 MS [14][15]
March 28, 1970 23:02 local time Gediz 39.2 29.5 1086 7.2 MS see 1970 Gediz earthquake [14][15]
May 22, 1971 16:44 Bingöl 38.83 40.52 1000+ 6.9 see North Anatolian Fault [19]
September 6, 1975 12:20 local time Lice 38.5 40.7 2385 6.6 MS [14][15]
November 24, 1976 14:22 local time Muradiye 39.12 44.03 3840 7.5 MS see 1976 Çaldıran–Muradiye earthquake [14][15]
October 30, 1983 07:12 local time Erzurum 40.33 42.19 1155 6.9 MS [14][15]
March 13, 1992 17.18 Erzincan 39.70 39.69 498 6.8 see North Anatolian Fault [20]
October 1, 1995 17:57 local time Dinar 38.06 30.13 90 6.1 MS see 1995 Dinar earthquake [14][15]
June 27, 1998 16:55 local time Ceyhan 36.88 35.31 146 6.2 MS see 1998 Adana–Ceyhan earthquake [14][15]
August 17, 1999 03:02 local time Izmit 40.77 30 17,127 7.6 see 1999 İzmit earthquake USGS
November 12, 1999 18:57 local time Düzce 40.75 31.16 894 7.2 M (PDE Monthly Listing); see 1999 Düzce earthquake USGS
February 3, 2002 07:11 Afyon 38.573 31.271 44 6.5 Mw (HRV) [22]
January 27, 2003 05:26 Pülümür 39.46 39.79 1 6.1 Mw (HRV, USGS) USGS
May 1, 2003 00:27 Bingöl 39.01 40.46 177 6.4 Mw (HRV, USGS); see 2003 Bingöl earthquake [23]
March 8, 2010 02:32 Elâzığ 38.87 39.99 41 6.1 Mw (HRV); see 2010 Elâzığ earthquake [24]
May 19, 2011 23:15 Kütahya Province 39.14 29.07 2 5.8 Mw (HRV); see 2011 Kütahya earthquake [25]
October 23, 2011 13:41 Van Province 38.63 43.49 604 7.2 Mw (HRV); see 2011 Van earthquake [26]
July 21, 2017 01:31 local time Muğla Province 36.92 27.41 2 6.6 Mw (HRV); see 2017 Aegean Sea earthquake [27]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ The Internet Classics Archive. "Tacitus Annales Book 2, 47". Retrieved 21 June 2013. 
  2. ^ National Geophysical Data Center. "Comments for the Significant Earthquake". Retrieved 19 October 2011. 
  3. ^ "Comments for the tsunami event". Significant Earthquake Database. National Geophysical Data Center. Retrieved 8 February 2015. 
  4. ^ "Turkey: S Coasts; Libya: Comments for the Earthquake Event". Significant Earthquake Database. National Geophysical Data Center. Retrieved 4 October 2016. 
  5. ^ Procopius, II.14.6; sources based on John of Ephesus
  6. ^ Agathias; Frendo, Joseph D. (1975), The histories, Walter de Gruyter, ISBN 978-3-11-003357-1 
  7. ^ NGDC. "Comments for the 1653 Earthquake". Retrieved 1 February 2011. 
  8. ^ NGDC. "Comments for the 1688 Earthquake". Retrieved 1 February 2011. 
  9. ^ NGDC. "Comments for the 1855 Earthquake". Retrieved 2 February 2011. 
  10. ^ NGDC. "Comments for the 1859 Earthquake". Retrieved 1 February 2011. 
  11. ^ NGDC. "Comments for the 1881 Earthquake". Retrieved 2 February 2011. 
  12. ^ NCEI. "Comments for the 1883 earthquake". Retrieved 3 March 2018. 
  13. ^ Ambraseys, N. (January 2001). "The earthquake of 10 July 1894 in the Gulf of Izmit (Turkey) and its relation to the earthquake of 17 August 1999". Journal of Seismology. Kluwer Academic Publishers. 5 (1): 117–128. Bibcode:2001JSeis...5..117A. doi:10.1023/A:1009871605267. ISSN 1573-157X. 
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x Bogazici University Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute National Earthquake Monitoring Center (NEMC) List of earthquakes 1900–2004 (In Turkish)
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x IISEENET (Information Network of Earthquake disaster Prevention Technologies) – Search Page
  16. ^ NGDC. "Comments for the 1926 Earthquake". Retrieved 3 February 2011. 
  17. ^ NGDC. "Comments for the 1930 Earthquake". Retrieved 3 February 2011. 
  18. ^ a b c d e f g Toksoz, M.N., Shakal, A.F. & Michael, A.J. 1979. Space-Time Migration of Earthquakes Along the North Anatolian Fault Zone and Seismic Gaps. Pageophys, 117, 1258–1270.
  19. ^ USGS list of earthquakes with 1,000 or More Deaths since 1900 Archived 2008-10-11 at the Wayback Machine.
  20. ^ Bernard, P., Gariel, J-C. & Dorbath L. 1997. Fault location and rupture kinematics of the magnitude 6.8, 1992 Erzincan earthquake, Turkey, from strong ground motion and regional records. Bulletin Seismological Society of America, 87, 1230–1243.
  21. ^ Marza, Vasile I. (2004). "On the death toll of the 1999 Izmit (Turkey) major earthquake" (PDF). ESC General Assembly Papers, Potsdam: European Seismological Commission. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-04-09. 
  22. ^ USGS. "Significant Earthquakes of the World 2002". 
  23. ^ USGS. "Significant Earthquakes of the World 2003". 
  24. ^ USGS. "Magnitude 6.1 – eastern Turkey". Archived from the original on 2010-03-11. 
  25. ^ USGS. "Magnitude 5.8 – WESTERN TURKEY". 
  26. ^ USGS. "Magnitude 7.2 – EASTERN TURKEY". Archived from the original on 2011-10-24. 
  27. ^ USGS. "Magnitude 6.6 – WESTERN TURKEY".