President of the United States
The president of the United States is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America. The president directs the executive branch of the federal government and is the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces. In contemporary times, the president is looked upon as one of the world's most powerful political figures as the leader of the only remaining global superpower; the role includes responsibility for the world's most expensive military, which has the second largest nuclear arsenal. The president leads the nation with the largest economy by nominal GDP; the president possesses international hard and soft power. Article II of the Constitution establishes the executive branch of the federal government, it vests the executive power of the United States in the president. The power includes the execution and enforcement of federal law, alongside the responsibility of appointing federal executive, diplomatic and judicial officers, concluding treaties with foreign powers with the advice and consent of the Senate.
The president is further empowered to grant federal pardons and reprieves, to convene and adjourn either or both houses of Congress under extraordinary circumstances. The president directs the foreign and domestic policies of the United States, takes an active role in promoting his policy priorities to members of Congress. In addition, as part of the system of checks and balances, Article I, Section 7 of the Constitution gives the president the power to sign or veto federal legislation; the power of the presidency has grown since its formation, as has the power of the federal government as a whole. Through the Electoral College, registered voters indirectly elect the president and vice president to a four-year term; this is the only federal election in the United States, not decided by popular vote. Nine vice presidents became president by virtue of a president's intra-term resignation. Article II, Section 1, Clause 5 sets three qualifications for holding the presidency: natural-born U. S. citizenship.
The Twenty-second Amendment precludes any person from being elected president to a third term. In all, 44 individuals have served 45 presidencies spanning 57 full four-year terms. Grover Cleveland served two non-consecutive terms, so he is counted twice, as both the 22nd and 24th president. Donald Trump of New York is the current president of the United States, he assumed office on January 20, 2017. In July 1776, during the American Revolutionary War, the Thirteen Colonies, acting jointly through the Second Continental Congress, declared themselves to be 13 independent sovereign states, no longer under British rule. Recognizing the necessity of coordinating their efforts against the British, the Continental Congress began the process of drafting a constitution that would bind the states together. There were long debates on a number of issues, including representation and voting, the exact powers to be given the central government. Congress finished work on the Articles of Confederation to establish a perpetual union between the states in November 1777 and sent it to the states for ratification.
Under the Articles, which took effect on March 1, 1781, the Congress of the Confederation was a central political authority without any legislative power. It could make its own resolutions and regulations, but not any laws, could not impose any taxes or enforce local commercial regulations upon its citizens; this institutional design reflected how Americans believed the deposed British system of Crown and Parliament ought to have functioned with respect to the royal dominion: a superintending body for matters that concerned the entire empire. The states were out from under any monarchy and assigned some royal prerogatives to Congress; the members of Congress elected a President of the United States in Congress Assembled to preside over its deliberation as a neutral discussion moderator. Unrelated to and quite dissimilar from the office of President of the United States, it was a ceremonial position without much influence. In 1783, the Treaty of Paris secured independence for each of the former colonies.
With peace at hand, the states each turned toward their own internal affairs. By 1786, Americans found their continental borders besieged and weak and their respective economies in crises as neighboring states agitated trade rivalries with one another, they witnessed their hard currency pouring into foreign markets to pay for imports, their Mediterranean commerce preyed upon by North African pirates, their foreign-financed Revolutionary War debts unpaid and accruing interest. Civil and political unrest loomed. Following the successful resolution of commercial and fishing disputes between Virginia and Maryland at the Mount Vernon Conference in 1785, Virginia called for a trade conference between all the states, set for September 1786 in Annapolis, with an aim toward resolving further-reaching interstate commercial antagonisms; when the convention failed for lack of attendance due to suspicions among most of the other states, Alexander Hamilton led the Annapolis delegates in a call for a convention to offer revisions to the Articles, to be held the next spring in Philadelphia.
Prospects for the next convention appeared bleak until James Madison and Edmund Randolph succeeded in securing George Washington's attendance to Philadelphia as a delegate for Virginia. When the Constitutional Convention convened in May 1787, the 12 state delegations in attendance (Rh
John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum
The John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum is the presidential library and museum of John Fitzgerald Kennedy, the 35th President of the United States, it is located on Columbia Point in the Dorchester neighborhood of Boston, next to the University of Massachusetts at Boston, the Edward M. Kennedy Institute for the United States Senate, the Massachusetts Archives and Commonwealth Museum. Designed by the architect I. M. Pei, the building is the official repository for original papers and correspondence of the Kennedy Administration, as well as special bodies of published and unpublished materials, such as books and papers by and about Ernest Hemingway; the library and museum is part of the Presidential Library System, administered by the Office of Presidential Libraries, a part of the National Archives and Records Administration. The library and Museum were dedicated in 1979 by 39th President Jimmy Carter and members of the Kennedy family, it can be reached from nearby Interstate 93 or via shuttle bus or walk from the JFK/UMass stop on the Boston Subway's Red Line.
During a weekend visit to Boston on October 19, 1963, President Kennedy, along with John Carl Warnecke — the architect who would design the President's tomb in Arlington — viewed several locations offered by Harvard as a site for the library and museum. At the time there were only four other Presidential Libraries: the Hoover Presidential Library, the Franklin D. Roosevelt Library, the Truman Library, the Dwight D. Eisenhower Library, they were all scattered around the country in small towns from New York to Iowa. Kennedy had not decided on any design concept yet, but he felt that the existing presidential libraries were placed too "far away from scholarly resources."Kennedy chose a plot of land next to the Harvard Graduate School of Business Administration. The building would face the Charles River, a few feet away, on the other side of which, the dormitories that included Winthrop House where Kennedy spent his upperclassman days. Since Kennedy encouraged his administration to save effects of both personal and official nature, the complex would not just be a collection of the President's papers, but "a complete record of a Presidential era."
Therefore, the building would have the word "museum" appended to its name: John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum. After President Kennedy was assassinated in November 1963, his family and friends discussed how to construct a library that would serve as a fitting memorial. A committee was formed to advise Kennedy's widow Jacqueline; the group deliberated for months, visited with architects from around the world including Pietro Belluschi and others from the United States, Brazil's Lucio Costa, Italy's Franco Albini. Mrs. Kennedy and others met with the candidates together at the Kennedy Compound in Hyannis and visited several in their offices; the committee conducted a secretive process whereby the architects voted anonymously for the most capable of their colleagues. Progress on the building began shortly after his death. On January 13, 1964, Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy announced that a taped oral-history project was to be undertaken for inclusion in the library; the project would feature administration staff, friends and politicians from home and abroad.
The Attorney General announced that Eugene R. Black, Sr. agreed to serve as chairman of the board of trustees and that $1 million of Black's $10 million goal had been given to the trust by the Joseph P. Kennedy, Jr. Foundation; the death of the President was still fresh in the hearts and minds of the American public and by March of that year $4.3 million had been pledged, including 18,727 unsolicited donations from the public. Large donations came from the Hispanic world with Venezuela pledging $100,000 and Governor of Puerto Rico Luis Muñoz Marín offering the same; the oral-history project began recording, starting with Jacqueline Kennedy and Robert Kennedy. Projected to consist of interviews with 150 people, 178 had agreed to participate and the total number of expected participants doubled to 300, with just one person declining to take part. By this time fourteen architects were named to serve on a design advisory committee: Over the following months pledges continued to funnel in for the building still being conceptualized by the various architects.
Some notable donations include $900,000 handed over to Postmaster General John A. Gronouski on July 9, 1964, it was the sum of a campaign encompassing 102 Federal agencies. Gronouski said many of the Federal employee contributions were in the form of a $5 withholding each payday for a period of three years; the next day the Indian ambassador to the United States, Braj Kumar Nehru. Presented Black with a check for $100,000 during a ceremony at the River Club. Nehru said that the Indian people were hit by a "sad blow" when the President died, that they held him "in the highest regard and affection." He desired for Indian students abroad in the United States to use the library still planned for construction at Harvard along the banks of the Charles River. On December 13, 1964, the Kennedy family announced that I. M. Pei was unanimously chosen by a subcommittee as the architect of the library. Though Pei was unknown amongst the list of candidates, Mrs. Kennedy, who viewed him as filled with promise and imagination and after spending several months inspecting the many architects' offices and creations, selected him to create the vision she held for the project.
Pei did not have a design yet, but the idea as described by Robert Kennedy was to "stimulate interest in politics." Meanwhile, the suggestion that Harvard may not be a suitable site for
Warren G. Harding High School
Warren G. Harding High School is a public high school in Warren, United States, it is the only high school in the Warren City School District. Sports teams are called the Raiders, they compete in the Ohio High School Athletic Association as a member of the All-American Conference. Athletic programs include football, fastpitch, soccer, bowling and diving, golf, tennis and field, cheerleading, with talks of forming a lacrosse team. Baseball – 1933 Football – 1972*, 1974, 1990 Track and Field – 2010*Titles won by Warren Western Reserve High School prior to consolidation in 1990. Warren High Schools' Distinguished Alumni Hall of Fame was launched in 1993. 145 distinguished alumni include: Harriet Taylor Upton – leader in women's suffrage movement Earl Derr Biggers – creator of Charlie Chan Bill White – former MLB player, New York Yankees broadcaster and National League president Roger Ailes – president and CEO of Fox News Network Paul Warfield – wide receiver in the Pro Football Hall of Fame played for the Cleveland Browns and Miami Dolphins of the NFL John Ness Beck – composer of religious music Michael Capellas – current CEO of WorldCom Ronald Parise – former astronaut Kenneth Patchen – poet Ross Browner – Cincinnati Bengals defensive end, star defensive end at University of Notre Dame 1973–77, Outland Trophy winner 1976, first-round NFL draft pick 1978 James Daniels - Chicago Bears offensive lineman Mario Manningham – San Francisco 49ers, New York Giants wide receiver Prescott Burgess – Baltimore Raven's 6th-round pick in 2007 NFL draft Maurice Clarett – Ohio State.
Daniel Herron – Ohio State tailback David Herron – Kansas City Chiefs linebacker Sean Jones – musician, lead trumpeter for Jazz at Lincoln Center Orchestra, composer Korey Stringer – former Minnesota Vikings right tackle and first-round pick in the 1995 NFL Draft, 1974–2001 Ed Stroud – Major League Baseball player The school's broadcasting class. Each day the class put together a show of the days announcements. To be in WSCN, students must pass a Beginning Broadcasting class and obtain permission from the teacher. Students produce music videos, PTVs, Public Service Announcements, several other projects which are broadcast on the school's television station, other local television channels; the school's Computer Graphics program offers students the chance to design computer graphics. The Warren G. Harding "Raider" marching band is the school's band, they participated in the 2004 Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade. The band was invited to play in the 65th Pearl Harbor anniversary in Hawaii; the band received the honor of being invited to play at the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing.
The "Raider Band" was invited to march in the national memorial day parade in 2009, did so in late May 2010. They participated in the Pittsburgh Celebrate the Season parade in 2007 and 2009; the 2013-14 "Raider Band" participated in the 2014 National Tartan Day Parade in New York City, in which they were the only high school marching band and the largest performing group. In March 2016 the band participated in Chicago's St. Patrick's Day parade. In the Spring of 2018, the band traveled to Virgina to participate in the 75th annual Apple Blossom Parade. There are various types of choirs at Harding, including the madrigals and new tomorrows where the students dance and sing on stage. Traditional groups include the a cappella choir, the concert choir, the freshman chorale. Warren G. Harding Team E. L. I. T. E. 48 is a member of the worldwide FIRST Robotics Competition. Each year FIRST creates a new game/challenge, every team has six weeks to design and manufacture a robot to complete the given tasks; the Warren G. Harding quizbowl team is ranked within the top 100 of the nation.
In 2012 the team won the school's first state championship in the activity, led by senior Michael Coates. School website wscn website WGHRAIDERS Website
Lyndon B. Johnson School of Public Affairs
The Lyndon B. Johnson School of Public Affairs is a graduate school at The University of Texas at Austin, founded in 1970 to offer professional training in public policy analysis and administration for students interested in pursuing careers in government and public affairs-related areas of the private and nonprofit sectors. Degree programs include a Master of Public Affairs, a mid-career MPAff sequence, 16 MPAff dual degree programs, a Master of Global Policy Studies, eight MGPS dual degree programs, an Executive Master of Public Leadership, a Ph. D. in public policy. The LBJ School offers a Master of Public Affairs program in public policy analysis and administration that prepares graduates to assume leadership positions in government and non-profit organizations. In addition, 16 master's-level dual degree programs blend public affairs study with specialized professions or area studies and are structured so that students can earn the Master of Public Affairs degree and a second degree in less time than it would take to earn them separately."
Program offerings include a traditional Master of Public Affairs program, a mid-career master's program, seventeen master's-level programs leading to dual degrees including: Advertising. The school offers a Ph. D. in public policy. Master's students have the option to specialize in one of seven areas: international affairs; as of 2011-2012, the LBJ School has graduated 3,508 master's degree students since its first inaugural class of 1972, as well as 56 Ph. D. students from 1992 to August 2013. In 2008, the LBJ School introduced a Master of Global Policy Studies that offers a multidisciplinary approach to the complex economic, political and social issues of the 21st century. Program offerings include specializations in the areas of security and diplomacy. Program offerings include ten dual degree programs with the following programs: Asian Studies; the school offers a Portfolio Program in Arts and Cultural Management and Entrepreneurship and a Portfolio Program in Nonprofit Studies. The school sponsors a variety of non-degree programs for public affairs professionals.
In 2013, the LBJ School launched a new Executive Master in Public Leadership for mid-career professionals. The first of its kind in Texas; the school's goals are stated as to: Prepare students and professionals, from a variety of backgrounds, for leadership positions in public service by providing educational opportunities grounded in theory, analytical skills, practice. The LBJ School of Public Affairs features five research centers. Many of the School's centers sponsor a range of other activities, including conferences and publications; the Center for Politics and Governance is dedicated to producing leaders and ideas to improve the political process and governance through innovative teaching and programming combining academics and the real world. The Ray Marshall Center is a university-based research center; the Center's activities and services include: Program evaluation, including process and implementation and benefit/cost analysis. CHASP studies how health and social policy can be improved and designs and conducts research in policymaking and health and social program outcomes.
The Center's research addresses pressing issues in philanthropy, nonprofit management, social entrepreneurship, global civil society. The Center trains students through a university-wide graduate program in nonprofit studies; the Great Society Fund was created by the class of 2005 to finance innovative social entrepreneurship projects started by LBJ students and alumni. The Baines Report is the officially-sponsored student publication of the LBJ School of Public Affairs. Led by students, the Baines Report publishes student opinion pieces and event coverage for the LBJ School. 1972 Allen E. Pritchard, Jr. incoming Vice President, National League of Cities 1973 J. J. "Jake" Pickle, U. S. Congressman from Texas. S. Congressman from Missouri.
Iowa is a state in the Midwestern United States, bordered by the Mississippi River to the east and the Missouri River and Big Sioux River to the west. It is bordered by six states. In colonial times, Iowa was a part of Spanish Louisiana. After the Louisiana Purchase, people laid the foundation for an agriculture-based economy in the heart of the Corn Belt. In the latter half of the 20th century, Iowa's agricultural economy made the transition to a diversified economy of advanced manufacturing, financial services, information technology and green energy production. Iowa is the 26th most extensive in land area and the 30th most populous of the 50 U. S states, its capital and largest city by population is Des Moines. Iowa has been listed as one of the safest states in, its nickname is the Hawkeye State. Iowa derives its name from the Ioway people, one of the many Native American tribes that occupied the state at the time of European exploration. Iowa is bordered by the Mississippi River on the east.
The southern border is the Des Moines River and a not-quite-straight line along 40 degrees 35 minutes north, as decided by the U. S. Supreme Court in Missouri v. Iowa after a standoff between Missouri and Iowa known as the Honey War. Iowa is the only state whose east and west borders are formed by rivers. Iowa has 99 counties; the state capital, Des Moines, is in Polk County. Iowa's bedrock geology increases in age from west to east. In northwest Iowa, Cretaceous bedrock can be 74 million years old. Iowa is not flat. Iowa can be divided into eight landforms based on glaciation, soils and river drainage. Loess hills lie along the western border of the state. Northeast Iowa along the Upper Mississippi River is part of the Driftless Area, consisting of steep hills and valleys which appear mountainous. Several natural lakes exist, most notably Spirit Lake, West Okoboji Lake, East Okoboji Lake in northwest Iowa. To the east lies Clear Lake. Man-made lakes include Lake Odessa, Saylorville Lake, Lake Red Rock, Coralville Lake, Lake MacBride, Rathbun Lake.
The state's northwest area has many remnants such as Barringer Slough. Iowa's natural vegetation is tallgrass prairie and savanna in upland areas, with dense forest and wetlands in flood plains and protected river valleys, pothole wetlands in northern prairie areas. Most of Iowa is used for agriculture; the Southern part of Iowa is categorised as the Central forest-grasslands transition ecoregion. The Northern, drier part of Iowa is categorised as the Central tall grasslands and is thus considered to be part of the Great Plains. There is a dearth of natural areas in Iowa; as of 2005 Iowa ranked 49th of U. S. states in public land holdings. Threatened or endangered animals in Iowa include the interior least tern, piping plover, Indiana bat, pallid sturgeon, the Iowa Pleistocene land snail, Higgins' eye pearly mussel, the Topeka shiner. Endangered or threatened plants include western prairie fringed orchid, eastern prairie fringed orchid, Mead's milkweed, prairie bush clover, northern wild monkshood.
There is little proof to suggest that the explosion in the number of high-density livestock facilities in Iowa has led to increased rural water contamination and a decline in air quality. In fact, covered manure storage in modern barns prevent that manure from washing away into surface water, as it does in open lots as snow melts and thunderstorms occur. Other factors negatively affecting Iowa's environment include the extensive use of older coal-fired power plants and pesticide runoff from crop production, diminishment of the Jordan Aquifer. Iowa has a humid continental climate throughout the state with extremes of both cold; the average annual temperature at Des Moines is 50 °F. Winters are harsh and snowfall is common. Spring ushers in the beginning of the severe weather season. Iowa averages about 50 days of thunderstorm activity per year; the 30 year annual average Tornadoes in Iowa is 47. In 2008, twelve people were killed by tornadoes in Iowa, making it the deadliest year since 1968 and the second most tornadoes in a year with 105, matching the total from 2001.
Iowa summers are known for heat and humidity, with daytime temperatures sometimes near 90 °F and exceeding 100 °F. Average winters in the state have been known to drop well below freezing dropping below −18 °F. Iowa's all-time hottest temperature of 118 °F was recorded at Keokuk on July 20, 1934. Iowa has a smooth gradient of var
Indiana is a U. S. state located in the Midwestern and Great Lakes regions of North America. Indiana is the 17th most populous of the 50 United States, its capital and largest city is Indianapolis. Indiana was admitted to the United States as the 19th U. S. state on December 11, 1816. Indiana borders Lake Michigan to the northwest, Michigan to the north, Ohio to the east, Kentucky to the south and southeast, Illinois to the west. Before becoming a territory, various indigenous peoples and Native Americans inhabited Indiana for thousands of years. Since its founding as a territory, settlement patterns in Indiana have reflected regional cultural segmentation present in the Eastern United States. Indiana has a diverse economy with a gross state product of $359.12 billion in 2017. Indiana has several metropolitan areas with populations greater than 100,000 and a number of smaller industrial cities and towns. Indiana is home to professional sports teams, including the NFL's Indianapolis Colts and the NBA's Indiana Pacers, hosts several notable athletic events, such as the Indianapolis 500 and Brickyard 400 motorsports races.
The state's name means "Land of the Indians", or "Indian Land". It stems from Indiana's territorial history. On May 7, 1800, the United States Congress passed legislation to divide the Northwest Territory into two areas and named the western section the Indiana Territory. In 1816, when Congress passed an Enabling Act to begin the process of establishing statehood for Indiana, a part of this territorial land became the geographic area for the new state. A resident of Indiana is known as a Hoosier; the etymology of this word is disputed, but the leading theory, as advanced by the Indiana Historical Bureau and the Indiana Historical Society, has "Hoosier" originating from Virginia, the Carolinas, Tennessee as a term for a backwoodsman, a rough countryman, or a country bumpkin. The first inhabitants in what is now Indiana were the Paleo-Indians, who arrived about 8000 BC after the melting of the glaciers at the end of the Ice Age. Divided into small groups, the Paleo-Indians were nomads, they created stone tools made out of chert by chipping and flaking.
The Archaic period, which began between 5000 and 4000 BC, covered the next phase of indigenous culture. The people developed new tools as well as techniques to cook food, an important step in civilization; such new tools included different types of spear knives, with various forms of notches. They made ground-stone tools such as woodworking tools and grinding stones. During the latter part of the period, they built earthwork mounds and middens, which showed that settlements were becoming more permanent; the Archaic period ended at about 1500 BC, although some Archaic people lived until 700 BC. The Woodland period commenced around 1500 BC. During this period, the people created ceramics and pottery, extended their cultivation of plants. An early Woodland period group named the Adena people had elegant burial rituals, featuring log tombs beneath earth mounds. In the middle portion of the Woodland period, the Hopewell people began developing long-range trade of goods. Nearing the end of the stage, the people developed productive cultivation and adaptation of agriculture, growing such crops as corn and squash.
The Woodland period ended around 1000 AD. The Mississippian culture emerged, lasting from 1000 AD until the 15th century, shortly before the arrival of Europeans. During this stage, the people created large urban settlements designed according to their cosmology, with large mounds and plazas defining ceremonial and public spaces; the concentrated settlements depended on the agricultural surpluses. One such complex was the Angel Mounds, they had large public areas such as plazas and platform mounds, where leaders lived or conducted rituals. Mississippian civilization collapsed in Indiana during the mid-15th century for reasons that remain unclear; the historic Native American tribes in the area at the time of European encounter spoke different languages of the Algonquian family. They included the Shawnee and Illini, they were joined by refugee tribes from eastern regions including the Delaware who settled in the White and Whitewater River Valleys. In 1679, French explorer René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle was the first European to cross into Indiana after reaching present-day South Bend at the Saint Joseph River.
He returned the following year to learn about the region. French-Canadian fur traders soon arrived, bringing blankets, tools and weapons to trade for skins with the Native Americans. By 1702, Sieur Juchereau established the first trading post near Vincennes. In 1715, Sieur de Vincennes built Fort Miami at Kekionga, now Fort Wayne. In 1717, another Canadian, Picote de Beletre, built Fort Ouiatenon on the Wabash River, to try to control Native American trade routes from Lake Erie to the Mississippi River. In 1732, Sieur de Vincennes built a second fur trading post at Vincennes. French Canadian settlers, who had left the earlier post because of hostilities, returned in larger numbers. In a period of a few years, British colonists arrived from the East and contended against the Canadians for control of the lucrative fur trade. Fighting between the French and British colonists occurred throughout the 1750s as a result; the Native American tribes of Indiana sided with th
Kennedy Scholarships provide full funding for up to ten British post-graduate students to study at either Harvard University or the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Susan Hockfield, the sixteenth President of MIT, described the scholarship program as a way to "offer exceptional students unique opportunities to broaden their intellectual and personal horizons, in ways that are more important than in an era defined by global interaction.". In 2007, 163 applications were received, of which 10 were selected, for an acceptance rate of 6.1%. Following the assassination of President John F. Kennedy in 1963, Sir Alec Douglas-Home, the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, set about creating a national British memorial in his memory, he consulted with Sir David Ormsby-Gore, Dean Rusk and the Kennedy family. It was agreed that Douglas-Home would establish a committee, chaired by Lord Franks, to make recommendations on the form of the memorial to President Kennedy. Following wide consultation, Franks wrote to the Prime Minister to recommend that the memorial should be in two parts: a living memorial, in the form of a scholarship to attend either Harvard or MIT, a permanent memorial site in Runnymede, the site of the Magna Carta.
This location was chosen because it was regarded as the birthplace of the freedoms which President Kennedy promised to uphold. The John F. Kennedy Memorial Act 1964 was passed into legislation to enact and manage the two memorials; the Kennedy family have been strong supporters of the British Kennedy memorial since its creation. Prior to the United States' entry into the Second World War, Joseph P. Kennedy Sr. served as the United States Ambassador to the United Kingdom. In 1965, Jacqueline Kennedy and Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom unveiled the memorial at Runnymede, it consists of a Portland stone memorial tablet within natural woodland and meadow, where the visitor is invited on a journey, resembling that in Pilgrim's Progress. The stone is inscribed with the famous quote from Kennedy's Inaugural Address given on 20 January 1961: Let every Nation know, whether it wishes us well or ill, that we shall pay any price, bear any burden, meet any hardship, support any friend or oppose any foe, in order to assure the survival and success of liberty.
Senator Edward Kennedy described the program as the most ambitious of all the memorials to his brother, he was a passionate supporter of the Kennedy Scholarships until his death in August 2009. Since 1964, all Kennedy Memorial Trust trustees have been appointed by the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. Various prominent individuals have served as trustees; these include: Professor Sir Isaiah Berlin OM FBA – philosopher, President of the British Academy Professor Sir David Cannadine FBA – Dodge Professor of History, Princeton University and Visiting Professor of History, Oxford University Professor Peter Hennessy, Baron Hennessy of Nympsfield FBA – Mervyn King, Lord King of Lothbury – former Governor of the Bank of England Professor Jack Lewis, Baron Lewis of Newnham Roger Makins, 1st Baron Sherfield GCB GCMG FRS – Professor Roderick MacFarquhar – Leroy B Williams Professor of History and Political Science, Harvard University. David Ormsby-Gore, 5th Baron Harlech PC – Professor Anthony Quinton, Baron Quinton –, former Master of Trinity College, Oxford Professor Martin Rees, Baron Rees of Ludlow – Master of Trinity College, Cambridge Andrew Stuart Winckler Professor Emma Rothschild –, Honorary Professor of History and Economics University of Cambridge, Director of the Center for History and Economics and Professor of History, Harvard University Robin Russell, 14th Duke of Bedford – Jonathan Glover - Professor of Philosophy at New College, Oxford The current trustees are: Professor Tony Badger – former Master of Clare College and Paul Mellon Professor of American History, Cambridge University.
Dr Peter Englander – former Kennedy Scholar, venture capitalist. Stephanie Flanders – former Kennedy Scholar, Chief Market Strategist for Europe with JP Morgan Asset Management. Johnny Grimond – Editor at large The Economist. Professor Fiona Macpherson – former Kennedy Scholar, Head of Philosophy and Director of the Centre for the Study of Perceptual Experience, Glasgow University. United States Ambassador to the United Kingdom –. Professor Anthony Saich – Director of the Ash Centre for Democratic Governance and Innovation, Daewoo Professor of International Affairs, Harvard Kennedy School Dr Martin Weale CBE, Monetary Policy Committee, Bank of England Professor Andrew Whittle – A former Kennedy Scholar and Head of Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering; the Lord Mayor of London The Governor of the Bank of England In total, 505 individuals have been awarded a Kennedy Scholarship. Selection follows a national competition. A long-list and short-list are chosen and around twenty-five individuals are invited to London for interview by the trustees.
When evaluating applications and interviewing candidates, the trustees take into consideration candidates': intellectual attainment readiness and ability to express themselves the suitability of their proposed course of study at Harvard or MIT. They may look for: originality of m