The Tibetan people are an ethnic group native to Tibet. Their current population is estimated to be around 6 million. In addition to living in Tibet, significant numbers of Tibetans live in other parts of China, as well as India and Bhutan. Tibetans speak Tibetic languages, many varieties of which are mutually unintelligible, which belongs to the Tibeto-Burman language group; the traditional, or mythological, explanation of the Tibetan people's origin is that they are the descendants of the human Pha Trelgen Changchup Sempa and rock ogress Ma Drag Sinmo. It is thought that most of the Tibeto-Burman speakers in Southwest China, including Tibetans, are direct descendants from the ancient Qiang people. Most Tibetans practice Tibetan Buddhism, although some observe the indigenous Bön religion and there is a small Muslim minority. Tibetan Buddhism influences Tibetan art and architecture, while the harsh geography of Tibet has produced an adaptive culture of Tibetan medicine and cuisine; as of the 2014 Census, there are about 6 million Tibetans living in the Tibet Autonomous Region and the 10 Tibetan Autonomous Prefectures in Gansu and Sichuan, China.
The SIL Ethnologue in 2009 documents an additional 189,000 Tibetic speakers living in India, 5,280 in Nepal, 4,800 in Bhutan. The Central Tibetan Administration's Green Book counts 145,150 Tibetans outside Tibet: a little over 100,000 in India. There are Tibetan communities in the United States, Brazil, Costa Rica, Mexico, Mongolia and the United Kingdom. In the Baltistan region of northern Pakistan, the Balti people are a Muslim ethnicity of Tibetan descent numbering around 300,000. There is some dispute over the historical number of Tibetans; the Central Tibetan Administration claims that the 5.4 million number is a decrease from 6.3 million in 1959 while the Chinese government claims that it is an increase from 2.7 million in 1954. However, the question depends on the definition and extent of "Tibet"; the Tibetan administration did not take a formal census of its territory in the 1950s. PRC officials attribute growth of the Tibetan population to the improved quality of health and lifestyle of the average Tibetan since the beginning of reforms under the Chinese governance.
According to Chinese sources, the death rate of women in childbirth dropped from 5,000 per 100,000 in 1951 to 174.78 per 100,000 in 2010, the infant mortality rate dropped from 430 infant deaths per 1,000 in 1951 to 20.69 per 1,000 by the year of 2010. The average life expectancy for Tibetans rose from 35.5 years in 1951 to over 67 years by the end of 2010. The Tibetic languages are a cluster of mutually unintelligible Sino-Tibetan languages spoken by 8 million people Tibetan, living across a wide area of eastern Central Asia bordering the Indian subcontinent, including the Tibetan Plateau and Baltistan, Nepal and Bhutan the northern Indian subcontinent. Classical Tibetan is a major regional literary language for its use in Buddhist literature; the Central Tibetan language, Khams Tibetan, Amdo Tibetan are considered to be dialects of a single language since they all share the same literary language, while Dzongkha, Sikkimese and Ladakhi are considered to be separate languages. Although some of the Qiang peoples of Kham are classified by China as ethnic Tibetans, the Qiangic languages are not Tibetic, but rather form their own branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family.
Tibetans are phenotypically diverse, exhibit high-altitude adaptations. The genetic basis of Tibetan adaptations have been attributed to a mutation in the EPAS1 gene, has become prevalent in the past 3,000 years. Recent research into the ability of Tibetans' metabolism to function in the oxygen-deficient atmosphere above 4,400 metres shows that, although Tibetans living at high altitudes have no more oxygen in their blood than other people, they have ten times more nitric oxide and double the forearm blood flow of low-altitude dwellers. Tibetans inherited this adaptation thanks to their Denisovan admixture. Nitric oxide causes dilation of blood vessels allowing blood to flow more to the extremities and aids the release of oxygen to tissues. Modern Tibetan populations are genetically most similar to other modern East Asian populations, they show more genetic affinity for modern Central Asian than modern Siberian populations. Within Tibetan mythology, the origins of Tibetans are said to be rooted in the marriage of the monkey Pha Trelgen Changchup Sempa and rock ogress Ma Drag Sinmo.
Most Tibetans observe Tibetan Buddhism or a collection of native traditions known as Bön. There is a minority Tibetan Muslim population. There is a small Tibetan Christian population in the eastern Tibet and northwestern Yunnan of China. There are some Tibetan Hindus who live in China and Nepal. According to legend, the 28th king of Tibet, Thothori Nyantsen, dreamed of a sacred treasure falling from heaven, which contained a Buddhist sutra and religious objects. However, because the Tibetan script had not been invented, the text could not be translated in writing and no one knew what was written in it. Buddhism did not t
The Wa people are an ethnic group that lives in northern Myanmar, in the northern part of Shan State and the eastern part of Kachin State and along Burma's border with China, as well as in Yunnan, China. The Wa have inhabited the Wa States, a territory that they have claimed as their ancestral land since time immemorial, it is a rugged mountainous area located between the Mekong and the Salween River, with the Nam Hka flowing across it. The Wa traditionally practiced subsistence agriculture by cultivating rice, beans and walnuts, they bred water buffaloes, which they used for sacrificial purposes. The traditional customs of the Wa, as well as their lifestyle, are similar to those of the Naga people further to the Northwest. According to Sir George Scott in the Wa origin myths the first Wa originated from two female ancestors Ya Htawm and Ya Htai who spent their early phase as tadpoles in a small lake known as Nawng Hkaeo; the lake is located in the northeastern Wa territory in the border area between Myanmar.
Little is known about the early history of the Wa. What is known is made up of local legends telling that in the distant past the historical Wa States and all the territories of eastern Shan State, as well as large swathes of the adjacent areas of present-day China had belonged to the Wa. In the area of the former Kengtung State the Wa were displaced around 1229 and were defeated by King Mangrai. At the time of British rule in Burma the Shan were the majority in Kengtung state, with other groups such as Akha and Lahu forming sizable communities; the Wa now form a minority of only about 10% in Kengtung District despite having been the original inhabitants. The Wa had animist religious beliefs centered around ritual blood sacrifices. Villages had a spirit healer and the traditional way of dealing with sickness or other problems was to sacrifice a chicken, a pig or a larger animal, depending from the magnitude of the affliction. According to local legend, the practice of cutting a human head was intended as a ritual sacrifice in order to improve the fertility of the rice fields.
Traditional villages had shrines where a buffalo was sacrificed once every year at a special Y-shaped post named Khaox Si Gang with an offering of the blood and skin performed at it. Animals were sacrificed at celebrations such as marriages and funerary rituals among the traditional spirit-worshiping Wa, a practice that still endures among the Christian Wa. However, the Wa that were under Buddhist influence developed different traditions. In the traditional Wa society monogamous marriage was the norm and there was sexual freedom for both men and women before marriage; the chewing of betel with areca nut was also an important custom. The Wa have different kinds of traditional dances. One important dance in their culture is accompanied by the beating of a large hollow wooden drum; this way of dancing, among other Wa dances such as the hair dance and festivals, is being promoted as a tourist attraction by the Yunnan tourism authorities in China. The Wa people have a well-engrained drinking culture, with large amounts of local moonshine being produced and are believed to on average consume the largest amount of alcohol in China.
The Wa language forms a language group belonging to the Palaungic branch of the Austroasiatic language family. It had no script and the few Wa that were literate used Chinese characters, while others used the Shan language and its script. Christian missionary work among the Wa began at the beginning of the 20th century first in the Burmese and in the Chinese areas of the Wa territory, it was led by William Marcus Young of Nebraska. The first transcription of the Wa language was devised by Young and Sara Yaw Shu Chin in 1931 with the purpose of translating the Bible; this first Wa alphabet was based on the Latin script and the first publication was a compilation of Wa hymns in 1933, the Wa New Testament being completed in 1938. This transcription, known as "Bible orthography" is known as lǎowǎwén, 老佤文 "old Wa orthography" in Chinese, is now used in the Burmese Wa areas and among the Wa in Thailand. A revised Bible orthography has been adopted as "official Wa spelling" by the authorities of the Wa Self-Administered Division in Pangkham, which have published a series of primers in order to improve the literacy of the United Wa State Army troops.
After 2000 Wa people in social networks such as Facebook and other online media, as well as Wa songwriters in karaoke lyrics of Wa songs use this Myanmar "official Wa orthography" in its main variations. In China, a transcription adapted to the new pinyin romanization, known as "PRC orthography" or "China official orthography", was developed for the Wa people in 1956. However, its publications propagated through the Yunnan administration, are yet to reach a wider public beyond academics; this new Wa alphabet is treated as the first formal script of the Wa. The Western Lawa are considered part of the Wa minority in China and are known as'tame Wa'. Little has been written about the Wa people except in the Chinese language; the area where they live had been traditionally administered by a Shan hereditary chief. In the second half of the 19th century, the British authorities in Burma judged the Wa territory remote and of difficult access. Thus, excepting Mang Lon where the Saopha resided, the British left the Wa State without administration, its border with China undefined.
That situation suited the Wa well, for throughout their history they had preferred being left alone. The Wa were portrayed
The Salar people are an Turkic ethnic minority of China who speak the Salar language, an Oghuz language. The Salar people numbered 130,607 people in the last census of 2010, they live in the Qinghai-Gansu border region, on both sides of the Yellow River, namely in Xunhua Salar Autonomous County and Hualong Hui Autonomous County of Qinghai and the adjacent Jishishan Bonan and Salar Autonomous County of Gansu and in some parts of Henan and Shanxi. There are Salars in northern Xinjiang, they are a patriarchal agricultural society and are predominantly Muslim with some Animist minorities. According to Salar tradition and Chinese chronics, the Salars are the descendants of the Salur tribe, belonging to the Oghuz Turk tribe of the Western Turkic Khaganate. During the Tang dynasty, the Salur tribe dwelt within China's borders and lived since in the Qinghai-Gansu border region. According to a legend, two brothers Haraman and Ahman forefathers of the present day Salar tribe once lived in the Samarkand area.
They were ranked at local Islamic mosques, which led to persecution from local rulers. The two brothers fled along with eighteen members of the tribe on a white camel with water, a Koran before heading east; the group trekked through the northern route of the Tian Shan mountain ranges into the Jiayuguan pass and passing through the present day Suzhou District, Ganzhou district, Qinzhou District, Gangu County, stopping at the present Xiahe County. Another forty people from Samarkand joined the group; the group passed through the southern route of the Tian Shan mountain entered Qinghai. They arrived at the present Guide County, twelve of them settled there; the Koran, the two brothers brought on their journey to China is to this day still preserved in Xunhua at Jiezi Mosque. The Nanjing Museum has repaired the Koran to protect it from decay; the Salar clan leaders voluntarily capitulated to the Ming dynasty around 1370. The chief of the four upper clans around this time was Han Baoyuan and the Ming government granted him office of centurion, it was at this time the people of his four clans took Han as their surname.
The other chief Han Shanba of the four lower Salar clans got the same office from the Ming government, his clans were the ones who took Ma as their surname. The ethnogenesis of the Salar started from when they pledged allegiance to the Ming dynasty under their leader Han Bao. Han Bao's father was Omar, Omar's father was Haraman, who led the Salars on their journey from Central Asia to China; the Kargan Tibetans, who live next to the Salar, have become Muslim due to the Salars. The Salar oral tradition recalls; the Salars were permitted an enormous amount of autonomy and self-rule by the Ming dynasty, which gave them command of taxes and the courts. The Ming and Qing dynasties mobilized Salars into their militaries as soldiers, with the Ming government recruiting them at 17 different times for service and the Qing government at five different times. In the 1670s, the Kashgarian Sufi master Āfāq Khoja preached among the Salars, introducing Sufism into their community. In the mid-18th century, one of Āfāq Khoja's spiritual descendants, Ma Laichi, spread his teaching, known as Khufiyya among the Salars, just as he did among their Chinese-speaking and Tibetan-speaking neighbors.
Throughout the 1760s and 1770s, another Chinese Sufi master, Ma Mingxin, was spreading his version of Sufi teaching, known as Jahriyya throughout the Gansu province. Many Salars became adherents of Jahriyya, or the "New Teaching", as the Qing government officials dubbed it. While the external differences between the Khufiyya and the Jahriyya would look comparatively trivial to an outsider, the conflict between their adherents became violent. Sectarian violence between the Jahriyya and Khufiyya broke out until the major episode of violence in 1781. In 1781, the authorities, concerned with the spread of the "subversive" "New Teaching" among the Salars, whom they viewed as a fierce and troublesome lot, arrested Ma Mingxin and sent an expedition to the Salar community of Xunhua County to round up his supporters there. In the Jahriyya revolt sectarian violence between two suborders of the Naqshbandi Sufis, the Jahriyya Sufi Muslims and their rivals, the Khafiyya Sufi Muslims, led to a Jahriyya Sufi Muslim rebellion which the Qing dynasty in China crushed with the help of the Khafiyya Sufi Muslims.
The Jahriyya Salars of Xunhua, led by their ahong nicknamed Su Sishisan, responded by killing the government officials and destroying their task force at the place called Baizhuangzi, rushed across the Hezhou region to the walls of Lanzhou, where Ma Mingxin was imprisoned. When the besieged officials brought Ma Mingxin, wearing chains, to the Lanzhou city wall, to show him to the rebels, Su's Salars at once showed respect and devotion to their imprisoned leaders. Scared officials took Ma down from the wall, beheaded him right away. Su's Salars tried attacking the Lanzhou city walls, not having any siege equipment, failed to penetrate into the walled city; the Salar fighters set up a fortified camp on a hill south of Lanzhou. Some Han Chinese, Hui, a
The Hani or Ho people are an Lolo speaking ethnic group in southern China and northern Laos and Vietnam. They form one of the 56 recognized nationalities of the People's Republic of China, one of the 54 recognized ethnic groups of Vietnam. In Laos, the Hani are more known as Ho. There are 12,500 Hani living in Lai Châu Lào Cai Province of Vietnam; the Ho reside in the mountainous northern regions of Phongsaly Province in Laos, near the Chinese and Vietnamese borders. Over ninety percent of present-day Hani peoples live in the Province of Yunnan in southern China, located across the Ailao Mountains, between the Mekong River and the Red River. Subdivisions of Hani autonomous counties within prefecture-level cities, a prefecture, within Yunnan are: Mojiang Hani Autonomous County — Pu'er City Jiangcheng Hani and Yi Autonomous County — Pu'er City Ning'er Hani and Yi Autonomous County — Pu'er City Yuanjiang Hani, Yi and Dai Autonomous County — Yuxi Zhenyuan Yi, Hani and Lahu Autonomous County — Pu'er City Honghe Hani and Yi Autonomous Prefecture The origins of the Hani are not known, though their ancestors, the ancient Qiang tribe, are believed to have migrated southward from the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau prior to the third century CE.
The Hani oral traditions state that they are descended from the Yi people, that they split off as a separate tribe fifty generations ago. One of their oral traditions is the recital of the names of Hani ancestors from the first Hani family down to oneself. Hani houses are two or three stories high, built with bamboo, mud and wood; the traditional clothing of the Hani is made with dark blue fabric. The men dress in long wide pants, they wear white or black turbans. The women dress depending on. There is no gender difference in the clothing of children under the age of seven. Hani are known for their vocal polyphonic singing. Eight-part polyphony was recorded in the 1990s, they play traditional musical instruments, end-blown flute labi. and three-stringed plucked lute lahe. Terraced fields are a feature of their agricultural practices; the Hani are polytheists and they profess a special adoration toward the spirits of their ancestors. They are used to practicing rituals to venerate to the different gods and thus to obtain their protection.
The religious hierarchy of the Hani is divided into three main personages: the zuima that directs the main celebrations. This last charge can be performed indistinctly by women; some Hani practice Theravada Buddhism. The Hani language spoken by many of the Hani belongs to the Lolo-Burmese branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family. Many Hani speak languages related to Lolo-Burmese languages. Oral tradition tells of an ancient written script, tradition says it was lost on the migration from Sichuan, they now use a romanization of the Luchun dialect as a written script. According to You Weiqiong, Hani subgroups were classified as follows in 1954, with 11 primary branches. Respective locations are listed as well. Hani 哈尼 Nuobi 糯比: in Xinping, Mojiang Qidi 其弟/期弟: in Honghe, Puer, Sipsongpanna Mahei 麻黑: in Puer, Zhenyuan Luomian 罗勉: in Luquan, Wuding Lami 腊米: in Zhenyuan, Honghe, Sipsongpanna Kabie 卡别: in Mojiang Duota 堕塔: in Puer, Zhenyuan Sanda 三达: in Sipsongpanna; the Sanda people live in Sanda Township 三达乡 of Jinghong City, speak a Yi language with many Hani loanwords.
There are 2 elderly women in Dazhai 大寨 who can only remember just over 40 words in the Sanda language. The Chinese name for this group is Sanda 三达, while the Dai name is Lanqian 兰千; the Sanda claim to have migrated from Yibang 倚邦 and Yiwu 易武. They were classified by the Chinese government as ethnic Yi, but they are classified as ethnic Hani. Haini 海尼: in Jinggu Huagu 花姑: in Yuanyang Aka 阿卡: in Puer Yeni 耶尼: in Mojiang, Puer, Jingdong, Sipsongpanna Biyue 碧约: in Mojiang, Honghe, Zhenyuan, Jinggu, Jingdong Haoni 豪尼 Budu 布都: in Mojiang, Honghe, Zhenyuan, Simao, Xinping Bujiao 补角: in Sipsongpanna Baike 白壳: in Zhenyuan Gecuo 哥搓: in Zhenyuan, Jinping, Puer, Sipsongpanna, Jinggu, Shuangbai Axiluma 阿西鲁吗: in Mojiang, Honghe, Zhenyuan, Simao, Jingdong Duoni 多尼: in Yuanyang, Jinping Amu 阿木: in Mojiang, Puer Suoni 梭尼: in Jinping Luomei 罗美: in Xinping Bukong 布孔: in Mojiang, Puer, Zhenyuan, Jingdong The Hani of Vietnam consist of the following subgroups; the Flowery Hani, who are found in Lai Chau Province and are further split into two subgroups.
Hà Nhì Cồ Chồ Hà Nhì La Mí The Black Hani, who are found in Bát Xát District, Lao Cai ProvinceIn Vietnam, communes consisting exclusively of ethnic Hani include Sín Thầu, Chúng Chải, Mù Cả, Ka Lăng, Thu Lủm, Y Tý and A Lù. The Hani of A Lù had come from Jinping County of Yunnan and had spread from A Lù to the communes of Lao Chải, Nậm Pung, Ngài Thầu. Honghe Hani and Yi Autonomous Prefecture Yuanyang County, with its Hani majority and immense rice terraced mountains Akha people, a re
Ethnic minorities in China
Ethnic minorities in China are the non-Han Chinese population in the People's Republic of China. China recognizes 55 ethnic minority groups within China in addition to the Han majority; as of 2010, the combined population of recognized minority groups comprised 8.49% of the population of mainland China. In addition to these recognized ethnic minority groups, there are Chinese nationals who classify themselves as members of unrecognized ethnic groups; the ethnic minority groups recognized by the PRC reside within mainland China and Taiwan, whose minorities are called the Taiwanese aborigines. The Republic of China in Taiwan recognises 14 Taiwanese aborigine groups, while the PRC classifies them all under a single ethnic minority group, the Gaoshan. Hong Kong and Macau do not use this ethnic classification system, figures by the PRC government do not include the two territories. By definition, these ethnic minority groups, together with the Han majority, make up the greater Chinese nationality known as Zhonghua Minzu.
Chinese minorities alone are referred to as "Shaoshu Minzu". The Chinese-language term for ethnic minority is shaoshu minzu. In early PRC documents, such as the 1982 constitution, the word "minzu" was translated as "nationality", following the Soviet Union's use of Marxist-Leninist jargon. However, the Chinese word does not imply that ethnic minorities in China are not Chinese citizens, as in fact they are. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union and scholarly publications have retranslated "minzu" in the ethnic minority sense into English as "ethnic groups"; some scholars, to be more precise, use the neologism zuqun to unambiguously refer to ethnicity when "minzu" is needed to refer to nationality. Throughout much of recorded Chinese history, there was little attempt by Chinese authors to separate the concepts of nationality and ethnicity; those outside of the reach of imperial control and dominant patterns of Chinese culture were thought of as separate groups of people regardless of whether they would today be considered as a separate ethnicity.
The self-conceptualization of Han revolved around this center-periphery cultural divide. Thus, the process of Sinicization throughout history had as much to do with the spreading of imperial rule and culture as it did with actual ethnic migration; this understanding persisted up until the Communists took power in 1949. Their understanding of minorities had been influenced by the Soviet models of Joseph Stalin—as has been the case for the neighbouring Communist regimes of Vietnam and Laos—and the Soviet's definition of minorities did not map cleanly onto this Chinese historical understanding. Stalinist thinking about minorities was that a nation was made up of those with a common language, historical culture, territory; each nation of these people had the theoretical right to secede from a proposed federated government. This differed from the previous way of thinking in that instead of defining all those under imperial rule as Chinese, the nation and ethnicity were now separate; the Stalinist model as applied to China gave rise to the autonomous regions in China.
During World War II, the American Asiatic Association published an entry in the text "Asia: journal of the American Asiatic Association, Volume 40", concerning the problem of whether Chinese Muslims were Chinese or a separate "ethnic minority", the factors which lead to either classification. It tackled the question of why Muslims who were Chinese were considered a different race from other Chinese, the separate question of whether all Muslims in China were united into one race; the first problem was posed with a comparison to Chinese Buddhists, who were not considered a separate race. It concluded that the reason Chinese Muslims were considered separate was because of different factors like religion, military feudalism, that considering them a "racial minority" was wrong, it came to the conclusion that the Japanese military spokesman was the only person, propagating the false assertion that Chinese Muslims had "racial unity", disproven by the fact that Muslims in China were composed of multitudes of different races, separate from each other as were the "Germans and English", such as the Mongol Hui of Hezhou, Salar Hui of Qinghai, Chan Tou Hui of Turkistan, Chinese Muslims.
The Japanese were trying to spread the lie that Chinese Muslims were one race, in order to propagate the claim that they should be separated from China into an "independent political organization". To determine how many of these nations existed within China after the revolution of 1949, a team of social scientists was assembled to enumerate the various ethnic nations; the problem that they ran into was that there were many areas of China in which villages in one valley considered themselves to have a separate identity and culture from those one valley over. According each village the status of nation would be absurd and would lead to the nonsensical result of filling the National People's Congress with delegates all representing individual villages. In response, the social scientists attempted to construct coherent groupings of minorities using language as the main criterion for
The Lahu people are an ethnic group of China and Mainland Southeast Asia. The Lahu are one of the 56 ethnic groups recognized by the People's Republic of China, where about 720,000 live in Yunnan province in Lancang Lahu Autonomous County. In Thailand, the Lahu are one of the six main groups categorized as hill tribes; the Tai refer to them by the exonym Muso, meaning'hunter'. They are one of 54 ethnic groups in Vietnam, live in Lai Châu Province. A few Lahu, along with the Hmong and Mien were recruited by the United States Central Intelligence Agency to help fight against the communist Pathet Lao, known as the secret war, during the Laotian Civil War. In fear of retribution when the Pathet Lao took over the Laotian government in 1975, those who had helped the United States fled to neighboring Thailand seeking political asylum. A couple thousand Lahu have resettled in the United States as refugees, in the states of California, North Carolina and Utah; the Lahu divide themselves into a number of subgroups, such as the Lahu Na, Lahu Nyi, Lahu Hpu, Lahu Shi and the Lahu Shehleh.
Where a subgroup name refers to a color, it refers to the traditional color of their dress. These groups do not function as tribes or clans - there are no kin groups above that of the family. Lahu trace descent bilaterally, practice matrilocal residence. Bradley lists the following Lahu ethnic subgroups. Black LahuLahu Na Meuneu Meun Pulon Shehvi Bawfa Hkahka: Panai Divergent Lahu Na dialects Kaishin: Hpu: Hu:paw Kulao Namhpehn Lalaw Laba Huli Lahu Nyi Nyi Venya Kulao: Shehleh Laho Na / Shehleh Laho Namoe Laho A:lehYellow Lahu'Like Black Lahu' A:ga / A:do'aga A:hpube:le: Shi: Bankeo: Laho Shi Banlan Menhke DivergentLahu Meh Lahu Lawmeh Lahu Velon UnclassifiedKawsung Pawla Khapaw Cili Senling Nambawpe Si Pyeng Si Pü Hai Non-Lahu Micha Bana The Lahu language is part of the Loloish branch of the Lolo–Burmese subgroup of the Tibeto-Burman family. Like most of its relatives, it is a isolating language with subject–object–verb word order, a set of numeral classifiers. There are seven tones, consonants cannot close syllables.
The language spoken by the Lahu Shi is notably divergent from that spoken by the other groups. In Thailand, Lahu Na serves as a lingua franca among the various hill tribes. Written Lahu uses the Latin alphabet. Among Christian villages, the language has been enriched by loanwords from English and Greek via Bible translation, plus neologisms in the areas of hygiene and education; the traditional Lahu religion is polytheistic. Buddhism became widespread. Many Lahu people in China are Buddhists. Christianity has been spreading since; the Lahu of Northeastern Thailand had encounters with Theravada Buddhist forest monks around the years 1930–1940. The leader of such a group of monks, Mun Bhuridatta, spent some time in Lahu territory; these Lahu asked him for a "gatha that would protect them from ghosts and demons." Lahu people used to have just a given name. About 90 % of the Lahu people are either named two of the most common Chinese surnames. Lahu given names are made of two syllables: one that shows the gender and one that gives information on the day of birth, based on the zodiac.
For example, a person born on the Ox day will be named “Zanu” if he is a boy and “Nanu” if she is a girl. Phạm Huy. 1997. Một phần chân dung: dân tộc La Hủ. Lai Châu: Sở Văn Hóa Thông Tin Lai Châu. Media related to Lahu people at Wikimedia Commons Video documentary about Lahu Opium People The Virtual Hilltribe Museum Lahu/Mussur in Thailand Lahu Bible Lahu Audio Resources FEBC http://blog-en.namepedia.org/2015/03/lahu-names-china/
The Nakhi or Nashi are an ethnic group inhabiting the foothills of the Himalayas in the northwestern part of Yunnan Province, as well as the southwestern part of Sichuan Province in China. The Nashi are thought to have come from northwestern China, migrating south toward Tibetan populated regions, inhabiting the most fertile river-side land, driving the other competing tribes farther up the hillsides onto less fertile land; the Nashi, along with Bai and Tibetans, traded over the dangerous overland trading links with Lhasa and India, on the so-called Tea and Horse Caravan routes. They were brought to the attention of the Western world by two men: the American botanist Joseph Rock and the Russian traveller and writer Peter Goullart, both of whom lived in Lijiang and travelled throughout the area during the early 20th century. Peter Goullart's book Forgotten Kingdom describes the life and beliefs of the Nashi and neighbouring peoples, while Joseph Rock's legacy includes diaries and photographs of the region, many of which were published in National Geographic.
The two left the region together when the Communist troops came in. The Nashi form one of the 56 ethnic groups recognized by the People's Republic of China; the official Chinese government classification includes the Mosuo as part of the Nashi people, although neither ethnicity support this categorization. Although both groups are descendents of the Qiang people, together with the Pumi and Yi, notwithstanding striking resemblances between their respective languages, the two groups are now understood to be culturally distinct, the Nakhi more influenced by the patriarchal Han Chinese culture, the Mosuo more influenced by Tibetan culture and their own matriarchal family practices. Nashi culture is its own native Dongba religious and farming practices, influenced by the Confucian roots of Han Chinese history, by the group's Tibetan neighbors. In the case of their musical scores, it acts as the foundation of the Nashi literature; the Nashi have their own distinct language and their own native dress.
Nashi native music is thousands of years old, is presently being energetically kept alive by He Wen Guang, who writes and performs Nashi music in both traditional and modern styles. Another form of music, labelled Nashi ancient music by its supporters, is about 500 years old and came from Nanjing traders who were encouraged by various emperors to trade with, live in and inter-marry with the Western tribes as a way of improving controls over the unruly western regions abutting Han China. Along with the Han music are included literary lyrics, poetic topics, musical styles which are understood to derive from themes prevalent in the Tang and Yuan dynasties; this music was played as a living tradition by the Nashi long after it was all but lost in the rest of Han China. There are three main styles, relating to the location of the music playing groups: Baisha and Huangjing, all using traditional Chinese instruments; the origin of Baisha music is said to come from a gift from the first emperor of the Yuan Dynasty, Kublai Khan.
On his expedition to Dali, he had difficulty crossing the Jinsha River, received help from Mailiang, the chief of the Nakhi people. To show his appreciation, Kublai Khan left half of his band and many musical scores as a gift to the chief. "Baisha Fine Music" is one of ancient China's few large-scale, classical orchestral forms of music and has twenty four tunes, locally known as qupai. Although archaic and very slow in style, modern Baisha music is euphonious, sometimes energetic in character. Taoist in origin, fused with some indigenous elements, Dongjing music was introduced to the Nashi from the central plains during the Ming and Qing dynasties, today it is the most well-preserved of the ancient musical forms in China. In addition to its intrinsic stateliness and elegance, Dongjing music has incorporated some local musical elements and styles. Reserved for the ceremonies of the gentry, the local passion for music resulted in enthusiastic participation by the lower classes. There are many arts that are native to the Nashi People, such as the seen Nashi handmade embroidery, Dongba painting, Dongba wooden carving and so on.
Much of the wood carving. Absorbing architectural styles of the Han, Nashi houses are built in a standard Han style of one courtyard with one, three or four buildings around it, sometimes with linked adjoining courtyards; the mud brick and wood structures at first sight have been described as crude and simple in appearance, but a closer inspection reveals elaborate and delicate patterns on casements and doors, elegant pillars and pillar supports, a comfortable and airy living environment. Nashi temples are decorated on the interior with carvings on poles and wall paintings that exhibit a unique combination of dongba and Buddhist influences; the decorations include depictions of episodes from epics, warriors and birds, flowers. The mural paintings depict Dongba gods, stylistically are derived from Han Chinese interpretations of Tibetan Buddhist themes. A good example is the Delwada Temple. "There are strong arguments that support the idea that in the past the main ritual activity performed on a temporal basis was the worship of Shu nature spirits on the first days of the second lunar month, that this was the traditional New Year of the Naxi.
In Baidi, where the old traditions have been preserved, this is th