São Gabriel da Cachoeira
"Uaupes" redirects here. For the river, see Vaupés River. São Gabriel da Cachoeira is a municipality located on the northern shore of the Rio Negro River, in the region of Cabeça do Cachorro, Amazonas state, Brazil. São Gabriel da Cachoeira is the third largest municipality in Brazil by territorial area, the second largest in Amazonas, it is the northernmost city of Amazonas, part of its territory is within the Pico da Neblina National Park. However, the peak itself is located in Santa Isabel do Rio Negro, São Gabriel da Cachoeira is in the lowlands, it is not far from the equator, the climate is correspondingly hot and humid. The city is served by São Gabriel da Cachoeira Airport; the municipality contains the 36,900 hectares Morro dos Seis Lagos Biological Reserve, created in 1990. The reserve is within the 257,000 hectares Balaio Indigenous Territory, approved in 2009; the municipality contains the 809,000 hectares Cué-cué/Marabitanas Indigenous Territory, declared in 2013. It contains the greater part of the 7,999,000 hectares Alto Rio Negro Indigenous Territory, created in 1998.
Most of the inhabitants of São Gabriel da Cachoeira are indigenous people. The city's population is somewhere around 13,000, but the entire region has 40,806 people, scattered over 109,185 km2 indigenous peoples in surrounding tribes and villages. Most of the non-indigenous residents of the city are affiliated with the Brazilian army serving a term of two years or more; the City was founded in 1668 as an aldea by Franciscan Friar Teodósio da Veiga and Captain Pedro da Costa Favela on the Rio Negro, near the mouth of the Rio Aruím. In 1761, a fort was built on the location, the settlement became the town of São Gabriel da Cachoeira. Between 1952 and 1966, it was called Uaupés, after the nearby Vaupés River. In 2003, Nheengatu became an official language along with Portuguese in São Gabriel da Cachoeira. Roman Catholic Diocese of São Gabriel da Cachoeira São Gabriel da Cachoeira travel guide from Wikivoyage
Amapá is a municipality located in the easternmost portion of the state of Amapá in Brazil. Its population is 7,745 and its area is 9,169 square kilometres; the municipality is home to part of the Lago Piratuba Biological Reserve. It contains the Maracá-Jipioca Ecological Station, which covers two low-lying islands just off the coast with rich biodiversity, it contains 6.32% of the 2,369,400 hectares Amapá State Forest, a sustainable use conservation unit established in 2006. It contains 3.08% of the 460,353 hectares Amapá National Forest, a sustainable use conservation unit created in 1989
Delmiro Gouveia is a municipality located in the westernmost point of the Brazilian state of Alagoas. Its population is 47,991 and its area is 609 km²; the municipality holds part of the 26,736 hectares Rio São Francisco Natural Monument, which protects the spectacular canyons of the São Francisco River between the Paulo Afonso Hydroelectric Complex and the Xingó Dam
Rio Grande do Sul
Rio Grande do Sul is a state located in the southern region of Brazil. It is the ninth largest by area. Located in the southernmost part of the country, Rio Grande do Sul is bordered clockwise by Santa Catarina to the north and northeast, the Atlantic Ocean to the east, the Uruguayan departments of Rocha, Treinta y Tres, Cerro Largo and Artigas to the south and southwest, the Argentine provinces of Corrientes and Misiones to the west and northwest; the capital and largest city is Porto Alegre. The state has the highest life expectancy in Brazil, the crime rate is considered to be low. Despite the high standard of living, unemployment is still high and according to census data, it is one of the most difficult states in Brazil for foreigners to find jobs; the state has a gaucho culture like its foreign neighbors. It was inhabited by Guarani people; the first Europeans there were Jesuits, followed by settlers from the Azores. In the 19th century it was the scene of conflicts including the Farroupilha Revolution and the Paraguayan War.
Large waves of German and Italian migration have shaped the state. Rio Grande do Sul is bordered to the northeast by the Brazilian State of Santa Catarina, to the southeast by the Atlantic Ocean, on the southwest by Uruguay, to the northwest by the Argentine provinces of Corrientes and Misiones; the northern part of the state lies on the southern slopes of the elevated plateau extending southward from São Paulo across the states of Paraná and Santa Catarina, is much broken by low mountain ranges whose general direction across the trend of the slope gives them the appearance of escarpments. A range of low mountains extends southward from the Serra do Mar of Santa Catarina and crosses the state into Uruguay. West of this range is a vast grassy plain devoted principally to stock-raising — the northern and most elevated part being suitable in pasturage and climate for sheep, the southern for cattle. East of it is a wide coastal zone only elevated above the sea; the coast is one great sand beach, broken only by the outlet of the two lakes, called the Rio Grande, which affords an entrance to navigable inland waters and several ports.
There are two distinct river systems in Rio Grande do Sul – that of the eastern slope draining to the lagoons, that of the Río de la Plata basin draining westward to the Uruguay River. The larger rivers of the eastern group are the Jacuí, Sinos, Caí, Gravataí and Camaquã, which flow into the Lagoa dos Patos, the Jaguarão which flows into the Lagoa Mirim. All of the first named, except the Camaquã, discharge into one of the two arms or estuaries opening into the northern end of Lagoa dos Patos, called the Guaíba River, though technically it is not a river but a lake; the Guaíba River is broad, comparatively deep and about 56 kilometres long, with the rivers discharging into it affords upwards of 320 kilometres of fluvial navigation. The Jacuí is one of the most important rivers of the state, rising in the ranges of the Coxilha Grande of the north and flowing south and southeast to the Guaíba estuary, with a course of nearly 480 kilometres It has two large tributaries, the Vacacaí from the south and the Taquari from the north, many small streams.
The Jaguarão, which forms part of the boundary line with Uruguay, is navigable 42 km up to and beyond the town of Jaguarão. In addition to the Lagoa dos Patos and Lagoa Mirim there are a number of small lakes on the sandy, swampy peninsulas that lie between the coast and these two, there are others of a similar character along the northern coast; the largest lake is the Lagoa dos Patos, which lies parallel with the coastline and southwest, is about 214 kilometres long exclusive of the two arms at its northern end, 40 58 km long and of its outlet, the Rio Grande, about 39 km long. Its width varies from 35 to 58 km; the lake is comparatively shallow and filled with sand banks, making its navigable channels tortuous and difficult. The Lagoa Mirim occupies a similar position farther south, on the Uruguayan border, is about 175 kilometres long by 10 to 35 km wide, it is more irregular in outline and discharges into Lagoa dos Patos through a navigable channel known as the São Gonçalo Channel. A part of the lake lies in Uruguayan territory, but its navigation, as determined by treaty, belongs to Brazil.
Both of these lakes are evidently the remains of an ancient depression in the coastline shut in by sand beaches built up by the combined action of wind and current. They are of the same level as the ocean, but their waters are affected by the tides and are brackish only a short distance above the Rio Grande outlet. One-third of the state belongs to the Río de la Plata drainage basin. Of the many streams flowing northward and westward to the Uruguay, the largest are the Ijuí of the plateau region, the Ibicuí, which has its source near Santa Maria in the central part of the state and flows westward to the Uruguay a short distance above Uruguaiana, the Quaraí River which forms part of the boundary line with Uruguay; the Uruguay River itself is formed by the confluence of the Pelotas rivers. The Pelotas, which has its source in the Serra do Mar on the Atlantic coast, the Uruguay River forms the northern and western boundary line of the state down to the mouth of the Quaraí, on the Uruguayan frontier.
Rio Grande do Sul lies within the south temperate zone and is predom
Santa Vitória do Palmar
Santa Vitória do Palmar is Brazil's southernmost municipality, located in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. To the west of the municipality is the Lagoa Mirim and beyond, Uruguay. To the south it borders the municipality of Uruguay; the city proper is located 16 km inland from the Atlantic, 8 km east of Lagoa Mirim and 20 km north of the Uruguayan border at Chuí. The city is traversed by the Brazilian federal highway BR-471, the most important road link between Brazil and Uruguay, it is 504 km by road from the state capital, Porto Alegre, about 370 km from Uruguay's capital, Montevideo. Santa Vitória do Palmar used to be the southernmost city in Brazil, until the former village of Chuí was split from its territory and incorporated as a new city in 1997. However, while the urban seat of Chuí is more southerly, the territory of Santa Vitória do Palmar still extends further south than Chuí's, contains Brazil's southernmost geographic point, located on a bend of the Chuí River just upstream from its mouth on the Atlantic Ocean, near the village of Barra do Chuí, which belongs to the municipality.
The municipality lies on a windy coastal plain, a mosaic of sand dunes, marshland spots and rice farms. This variety of different ecosystems side by side ensures a rich biodiversity, protected in the municipality's northern part in the Taim Ecological Station, shared with Rio Grande; the city's economy is based on rice growing, beef cattle and sheep raised for wool, in addition to being a transit point on BR-471, the main highway linking Brazil and Uruguay. Santa Vitória do Palmar is about 160 km long North-South, its coast includes the larger part of Cassino Beach, the world's longest uninterrupted stretch of sandy ocean shore, over 240 km from the stony breakwaters of Rio Grande in the north to the mouth of Chuí River in the south. Two small beach resort villages are located in the municipality: Praia do Hermenegildo and Barra do Chuí, Brazil's southernmost inhabited place. Four stones from the Santa Vitoria do Palmar meteorite was found near the town in 2003 and 2004
Brazil the Federative Republic of Brazil, is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers and with over 208 million people, Brazil is the world's fifth-largest country by area and the fifth most populous. Its capital is Brasília, its most populated city is São Paulo; the federation is composed of the union of the 26 states, the Federal District, the 5,570 municipalities. It is the largest country to have Portuguese as an official language and the only one in the Americas. Bounded by the Atlantic Ocean on the east, Brazil has a coastline of 7,491 kilometers, it borders all other South American countries except Ecuador and Chile and covers 47.3% of the continent's land area. Its Amazon River basin includes a vast tropical forest, home to diverse wildlife, a variety of ecological systems, extensive natural resources spanning numerous protected habitats; this unique environmental heritage makes Brazil one of 17 megadiverse countries, is the subject of significant global interest and debate regarding deforestation and environmental protection.
Brazil was inhabited by numerous tribal nations prior to the landing in 1500 of explorer Pedro Álvares Cabral, who claimed the area for the Portuguese Empire. Brazil remained a Portuguese colony until 1808, when the capital of the empire was transferred from Lisbon to Rio de Janeiro. In 1815, the colony was elevated to the rank of kingdom upon the formation of the United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves. Independence was achieved in 1822 with the creation of the Empire of Brazil, a unitary state governed under a constitutional monarchy and a parliamentary system; the ratification of the first constitution in 1824 led to the formation of a bicameral legislature, now called the National Congress. The country became a presidential republic in 1889 following a military coup d'état. An authoritarian military junta came to power in 1964 and ruled until 1985, after which civilian governance resumed. Brazil's current constitution, formulated in 1988, defines it as a democratic federal republic. Due to its rich culture and history, the country ranks thirteenth in the world by number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites.
Brazil is considered an advanced emerging economy. It has the ninth largest GDP in the world by nominal, eight and PPP measures, it is one of the world's major breadbaskets, being the largest producer of coffee for the last 150 years. It is classified as an upper-middle income economy by the World Bank and a newly industrialized country, with the largest share of global wealth in Latin America. Brazil is a regional power and sometimes considered a great or a middle power in international affairs. On account of its international recognition and influence, the country is subsequently classified as an emerging power and a potential superpower by several analysts. Brazil is a founding member of the United Nations, the G20, BRICS, Union of South American Nations, Organization of American States, Organization of Ibero-American States and the Community of Portuguese Language Countries, it is that the word "Brazil" comes from the Portuguese word for brazilwood, a tree that once grew plentifully along the Brazilian coast.
In Portuguese, brazilwood is called pau-brasil, with the word brasil given the etymology "red like an ember", formed from brasa and the suffix -il. As brazilwood produces a deep red dye, it was valued by the European textile industry and was the earliest commercially exploited product from Brazil. Throughout the 16th century, massive amounts of brazilwood were harvested by indigenous peoples along the Brazilian coast, who sold the timber to European traders in return for assorted European consumer goods; the official Portuguese name of the land, in original Portuguese records, was the "Land of the Holy Cross", but European sailors and merchants called it the "Land of Brazil" because of the brazilwood trade. The popular appellation eclipsed and supplanted the official Portuguese name; some early sailors called it the "Land of Parrots". In the Guarani language, an official language of Paraguay, Brazil is called "Pindorama"; this was the name the indigenous population gave to the region, meaning "land of the palm trees".
Some of the earliest human remains found in the Americas, Luzia Woman, were found in the area of Pedro Leopoldo, Minas Gerais and provide evidence of human habitation going back at least 11,000 years. The earliest pottery found in the Western Hemisphere was excavated in the Amazon basin of Brazil and radiocarbon dated to 8,000 years ago; the pottery was found near Santarém and provides evidence that the tropical forest region supported a complex prehistoric culture. The Marajoara culture flourished on Marajó in the Amazon delta from 800 CE to 1400 CE, developing sophisticated pottery, social stratification, large populations, mound building, complex social formations such as chiefdoms. Around the time of the Portuguese arrival, the territory of current day Brazil had an estimated indigenous population of 7 million people semi-nomadic who subsisted on hunting, fishing and migrant agriculture; the indigenous population of Brazil comprised several large indigenous ethnic groups. The Tupí people were subdivided into the Tupiniquins and Tupinambás, there were many subdivisions of the other gro
Atalaia do Norte
Atalaia do Norte is the most western municipality in the Brazilian state of Amazonas. Its population was 13,682 and its area is 76,355 km², thus making it the third largest municipality in Amazonas and the seventh largest in Brazil