Denmark the Kingdom of Denmark, is a Nordic country and the southernmost of the Scandinavian nations. Denmark lies southwest of Sweden and south of Norway, is bordered to the south by Germany; the Kingdom of Denmark comprises two autonomous constituent countries in the North Atlantic Ocean: the Faroe Islands and Greenland. Denmark proper consists of a peninsula, an archipelago of 443 named islands, with the largest being Zealand and the North Jutlandic Island; the islands are characterised by flat, arable land and sandy coasts, low elevation and a temperate climate. Denmark has a total area of 42,924 km2, land area of 42,394 km2, the total area including Greenland and the Faroe Islands is 2,210,579 km2, a population of 5.8 million. The unified kingdom of Denmark emerged in the 10th century as a proficient seafaring nation in the struggle for control of the Baltic Sea. Denmark and Norway were ruled together under one sovereign ruler in the Kalmar Union, established in 1397 and ending with Swedish secession in 1523.
The areas of Denmark and Norway remained under the same monarch until Denmark -- Norway. Beginning in the 17th century, there were several devastating wars with the Swedish Empire, ending with large cessions of territory to Sweden. After the Napoleonic Wars, Norway was ceded to Sweden, while Denmark kept the Faroe Islands and Iceland. In the 19th century there was a surge of nationalist movements, which were defeated in the 1864 Second Schleswig War. Denmark remained neutral during World War I. In April 1940, a German invasion saw brief military skirmishes while the Danish resistance movement was active from 1943 until the German surrender in May 1945. An industrialised exporter of agricultural produce in the second half of the 19th century, Denmark introduced social and labour-market reforms in the early 20th century that created the basis for the present welfare state model with a developed mixed economy; the Constitution of Denmark was signed on 5 June 1849, ending the absolute monarchy, which had begun in 1660.
It establishes a constitutional monarchy organised as a parliamentary democracy. The government and national parliament are seated in Copenhagen, the nation's capital, largest city, main commercial centre. Denmark exercises hegemonic influence in the Danish Realm, devolving powers to handle internal affairs. Home rule was established in the Faroe Islands in 1948. Denmark negotiated certain opt-outs, it is among the founding members of NATO, the Nordic Council, the OECD, OSCE, the United Nations. Denmark is considered to be one of the most economically and developed countries in the world. Danes enjoy a high standard of living and the country ranks in some metrics of national performance, including education, health care, protection of civil liberties, democratic governance and human development; the country ranks as having the world's highest social mobility, a high level of income equality, is among the countries with the lowest perceived levels of corruption in the world, the eleventh-most developed in the world, has one of the world's highest per capita incomes, one of the world's highest personal income tax rates.
The etymology of the word Denmark, the relationship between Danes and Denmark and the unifying of Denmark as one kingdom, is a subject which attracts debate. This is centered on the prefix "Dan" and whether it refers to the Dani or a historical person Dan and the exact meaning of the -"mark" ending. Most handbooks derive the first part of the word, the name of the people, from a word meaning "flat land", related to German Tenne "threshing floor", English den "cave"; the -mark is believed to mean woodland or borderland, with probable references to the border forests in south Schleswig. The first recorded use of the word Danmark within Denmark itself is found on the two Jelling stones, which are runestones believed to have been erected by Gorm the Old and Harald Bluetooth; the larger stone of the two is popularly cited as Denmark's "baptismal certificate", though both use the word "Denmark", in the form of accusative ᛏᛅᚾᛘᛅᚢᚱᚴ tanmaurk on the large stone, genitive ᛏᛅᚾᛘᛅᚱᚴᛅᚱ "tanmarkar" on the small stone.
The inhabitants of Denmark are there called "Danes", in the accusative. The earliest archaeological findings in Denmark date back to the Eem interglacial period from 130,000–110,000 BC. Denmark has been inhabited since around 12,500 BC and agriculture has been evident since 3900 BC; the Nordic Bronze Age in Denmark was marked by burial mounds, which left an abundance of findings including lurs and the Sun Chariot. During the Pre-Roman Iron Age, native groups began migrating south, the first tribal Danes came to the country between the Pre-Roman and the Germanic Iron Age, in the Roman Iron Age; the Roman provinces maintained trade routes and relations with native tribes in Denmark, Roman coins have been found in Denmark. Evidence of strong Celtic cultural influence dates from this period in Denmark and much of North-West Europe and is among other things reflected in the finding of the Gundestrup cauldron; the tribal Danes came from the east Danish islands and Scania and spoke an early form of North Germanic.
Historians believe that before their arrival, most of Jutland and the nearest islands were settled by tribal J
Blåvandshuk is a headland on the North Sea coast of Jutland northwest of Esbjerg, is the westernmost point of metropolitan Denmark. The Blåvand Lighthouse is the westernmost located building in Denmark. Before January 1, 2007, Blåvandshuk was the name of a municipality that contained the headland; the municipality covered an area of 223 km², had a total population of 4,378. Its latest mayor was Hans Chr. Thoning, a member of the Venstre political party; the main town and site of its municipal council was the town of Oksbøl. Because Blåvandshuk is on the coast and has a peninsula which stretches to the southeast, it is surrounded by much water. To the northwest is the North Sea. To the southeast of Skallingen is Fanø Bay and the island Fanø. Beyond Fanø Bay is the Wadden Sea. To the northeast of Skallingen lies Ho Bay and the small island of Langli. Skallingen and the waters off its coast are protected, a part of the Wadden Sea wildlife reserve and protection area being discussed as a potential national park.
Located on Skallingen's southwestern coast is Denmark's last minefield, left over from Second World War, when 1,389,289 landmines were placed in Denmark by the German occupation forces as part of their defence line. 10,000 of these mines, two-thirds of which are anti-personnel mines, remain in a closed-off area on the peninsula. Demining efforts are hampered by the shifting sands that can bury mines several meters underground, the drift of the sea which has moved the beach some 200 meters to the east since the end of the war; the field will be cleared out at the latest according to the Ottawa Convention in 2009. A significant portion of Blåvandshuk is marsh land, moor and beaches. Blåvandshuk municipality ceased to exist due to Kommunalreformen, it was merged with former Blaabjerg, Varde, Ølgod municipalities to form a new Varde municipality. Varde municipality's official website Varde municipality's official tourist information website Municipal statistics: NetBorger Kommunefakta, delivered from KMD aka Kommunedata Municipal mergers and neighbors: Eniro new municipalities map
Lemvig is a municipality in Region Midtjylland on the west coast of the Jutland peninsula in west Denmark. The municipality covers an area of 516.63 km2, has a population of 20,657. Its mayor is a member of the Venstre political party; the main town and the site of its municipal council is the town of Lemvig. The town has a population of 6,966; the current municipality was enlarged on January 1, 2007 as the result of Kommunalreformen when the former Thyborøn-Harboøre municipality was merged into the existing Lemvig municipality. A significant part of its southern border is defined by the waters of Bøvling Fjord and Nissum Fjord. A string of islands define the western perimeter of the waters south of the municipality; these waters at the municipality's southern border, encompassing the three fjords, plus Fejsted Kog is a national park. The Lem Cove leads into the town of Lemvig from Nissum Bredning. Lake Ferring lies north of the town of Ferring; the municipality was created in 1970 as the result of a kommunalreform that merged a number of existing parishes: Bøvling Parish Dybe Parish Fabjerg Parish Ferring Parish Fjaltring Parish Flynder Parish Gudum Parish Heldum Parish Hove Parish Hygum Parish Lemvig Parish Lomborg Parish Møborg Parish Nees Parish Nørlem Parish Nørre Nissum Parish Ramme Parish Rom Parish Trans Parish Tørring Parish Vandborg Nissum Parish The museum of religious art Bovbjerg Fyr, a light tower at the western coast near Ferring Ramme Dige Jens Søndergård Museum in Ferring Lemvig Museum in the town of Lemvig The planetstien at the edge of Lemvig town shows a model of the solar system at a scale of 1:1.000.000.000.
In a small park at the edge of the town you find 1.4 metres in diameter. The other planets follow along a path far out of town, represented as small bronze balls on granite pedestals; the outer planet, Pluto, is nearly 5 kilometres away from the sun. The trail is part of the Lemvig Museum. Municipality's official website Lemvig tourist bureau Lemvig Gliding Club, the airfield, the district and some history Big international footballtournament in Lemvig The biggest youth basketball tournament in Denmark Municipal statistics: NetBorger Kommunefakta, delivered from KMD aka Kommunedata Municipal mergers and neighbors: Eniro new municipalities map Limfjordscup Big international footballtournament in Lemvig¨
History of Denmark
The history of Denmark as a unified kingdom began in the 8th century, but historic documents describe the geographic area and the people living there— the Danes —as early as 500 AD. These early documents include the writings of Procopius. With the Christianization of the Danes c. 960 AD, it is clear. Queen Margrethe II can trace her lineage back to the Viking kings Gorm the Old and Harald Bluetooth from this time, thus making the Monarchy of Denmark the oldest in Europe; the area now known as Denmark has a rich prehistory, having been populated by several prehistoric cultures and people for about 12,000 years, since the end of the last ice age. Denmark's history has been influenced by its geographical location between the North and Baltic seas, a strategically and economically important placement between Sweden and Germany, at the center of mutual struggles for control of the Baltic Sea. Denmark was long in disputes with Sweden over control of Skånelandene and with Germany over control of Schleswig and Holstein.
Denmark lost these conflicts and ended up ceding first Skåneland to Sweden and Schleswig-Holstein to the German Empire. After the eventual cession of Norway in 1814, Denmark retained control of the old Norwegian colonies of the Faroe Islands and Iceland. During the 20th century, Iceland gained independence and the Faroese became integral parts of the Kingdom of Denmark and North Schleswig reunited with Denmark in 1920 after a referendum. During World War II, Denmark was occupied by Nazi Germany, but was liberated by British forces of the Allies in 1945, after which it joined the United Nations. In the aftermath of World War II, with the emergence of the subsequent Cold War, Denmark was quick to join the military alliance of NATO as a founding member in 1949; the Scandinavian region has a rich prehistory, having been populated by several prehistoric cultures and people for about 12,000 years, since the end of the last ice age. During the ice age, all of Scandinavia was covered by glaciers most of the time, except for the southwestern parts of what we now know as Denmark.
When the ice began retreating, the barren tundras were soon inhabited by reindeer and elk, Ahrenburg and Swiderian hunters from the south followed them here to hunt occasionally. The geography was different from what we know today. Sea levels were much lower; as the climate warmed up, forceful rivers of meltwater started to flow and shape the virgin lands, more stable flora and fauna began emerging in Scandinavia, Denmark in particular. The first human settlers to inhabit Denmark and Scandinavia permanently were the Maglemosian people, residing in seasonal camps and exploiting the land, sea and lakes, it was not until around 6,000 BC that the approximate geography of Denmark as we know it today had been shaped. Denmark has some unique natural conditions for preservation of artifacts, providing a rich and diverse archeological record from which to understand the prehistoric cultures of this area; the Weichsel glaciation covered all of Denmark most of the time, except the western coasts of Jutland.
It ended around 13,000 years ago, allowing humans to move back into the ice-covered territories and establish permanent habitation. During the first post-glacial millennia, the landscape changed from tundra to light forest, varied fauna including now-extinct megafauna appeared. Early prehistoric cultures uncovered in modern Denmark include the Maglemosian Culture; the first inhabitants of this early post-glacial landscape in the so-called Boreal period, were small and scattered populations living from hunting of reindeer and other land mammals and gathering whatever fruits the climate was able to offer. Around 8,300 BC the temperature rose drastically, now with summer temperatures around 15 degrees Celsius, the landscape changed into dense forests of aspen and pine and the reindeer moved north, while aurochs and elk arrived from the south; the Koelbjerg Man is the oldest known bog body in the world and the oldest set of human bones found in Denmark, dated to the time of the Maglemosian culture around 8,000 BC.
With a continuing rise in temperature the oak and hazel arrived in Denmark around 7,000 BC. Now boar, red deer, roe deer began to abound. A burial from Bøgebakken at Vedbæk dates to c. 6,000 BC and contains 22 persons - including four newborns and one toddler. Eight of the 22 had died before reaching 20 years of age - testifying to the hardness of hunter-gatherer life in the cold north. Based on estimates of the amount of game animals, scholars estimate the population of Denmark to have been between 3,300-8,000 persons in the time around 7,000 BC, it is believed that the early hunter-gatherers lived nomadically, exploiting different environments at different times of the year shifting to the use of semi permanent base camps. With the rising temperatures, sea levels rose, during the Atlantic period, Denmark evolved from a contiguous landmass around 11,000 BC to a series of islands by 4,500 BC; the inhabitants shifted to a seafood based diet, which allowed the population to increase. Agricultural settlers made inroads around 3,000 BC.
Many dolmens and rock tombs date from this period. The Nordic Bronze Age period in Denmar
Danish overseas colonies
Danish overseas colonies and pre Dano-Norwegian colonies are the colonies that Denmark-Norway possessed from 1536 until 1953. At its apex the colonies spanned four continents; the period of colonial expansion marked a rise in the status and power of Danes and Norwegians in the union. Being the hegemon of Denmark-Norway or the Statsfædrelandet, Denmark is where the union's monumental palaces are now located and Copenhagen, today the capital of Denmark, was the city which both Norway and Denmark came to establish as their capital. Much of the Norwegian population moved to find work in Copenhagen, attend university, or join the Royal Fleet. In the 17th century, following territorial losses on the Scandinavian Peninsula, Denmark-Norway began to develop colonies and trading posts in West Africa, the Caribbean, the Indian subcontinent. After 1814, when Norway was ceded to Sweden following the Napoleonic Wars, Denmark retained what remained of Norway's great medieval colonial holdings. Christian IV first initiated the policy of expanding Denmark-Norway's overseas trade, as part of the mercantilist wave, sweeping Europe.
Denmark-Norway's first colony was established at Tranquebar on India's southern coast in 1620. Admiral Ove Gjedde led the expedition. Today, the only remaining vestiges are two Norwegian colonies that are within the Danish Realm, the Faroe Islands and Greenland, they are now autonomous countries of the Kingdom of Denmark with home rule, in a relationship referred to as the "Unity of the Realm". Denmark maintained several trading stations and four forts along the Gold Coast in west Africa around modern day Ghana. Three trading stations were built: Fort Frederiksborg, Kpompo; the forts were Fort Prinsensten built in 1784, Fort Augustaborg from 1787, Fort Fredensborg and Fort Kongensten, several of which are ruins today. Of these, two are still in existence, the Osu Castle, the Christiansborg Castle, which used to be the residence of Ghanaian presidents. Plantations were established by Frederiksborg. Fort Christiansborg became the base for Danish power in west Africa, the centre for slave trade to the Danish West Indies.
In 1807, Denmark's African business partners were suppressed by the Akan people subgroup-Ashanti, which led to the abandonment of all trading stations. Denmark sold its forts to the United Kingdom in 1850. Fort Fredensborg Fort Christiansborg Fort Augustaborg Fort Prinsenstein Fort Kongensten Fort Carlsborg Cape Coast Castle Fort Frederiksborg Fort William in Anomabu Small base near Ningo from 1784 to 1850 Greenland was settled by immigrants from Iceland and Norway in the Viking Age after its discovery by Erik the Red in 995 or 996. Medieval Greenland was a bishopric with 2 convents under the archdiocese of Nidaros. In 1261 the Greenlanders became subjects of the Kingdom of Norway. With the ratification of the Kalmar Union in 1397, Denmark-Norway inherited Greenland. After the Norse settlement in Greenland disappeared in the 15th century, Europeans did not settle the island again until 1721, when the Lutheran minister Hans Egede arrived and established the town now known as Nuuk. After Norway was ceded to the king of Sweden in 1814 following the Napoleonic Wars, Denmark retained the old territorial claims as a condition of the Treaty of Kiel.
The development and settlement of Greenland accelerated in 1945, instigated by the region's geostrategic importance in the Cold War era, itself exemplified and manifested by the US-Air base of Thule from 1943. Another reason and driving force was the emergence of fundamental technical abilities, such as aircraft and icebreakers at Greenland's disposition, giving the otherwise remote island a supply situation somewhat similar to Europe. Denmark-Norway acquired the island of St. Thomas in 1671 and St. Jan in 1718, bought St. Croix from France in 1733. All of the islands' economies were based on sugar; these islands were known as the Danish West Indies and were sold to the United States in 1917 for 25 million dollars. Several Danish-American succession talks had been made since 1870 due to a rising number of riots and unrest from the poorer English speaking population; the Zahle Government held a boycotted election for Danish mainland constituencies, which produced a minority for the sale of the islands.
The United States hoped to use them as naval bases. Since 1917, the islands have been known as the U. S. Virgin Islands. Denmark maintained a scattering of small colonies and trading posts throughout the Indian sub-continent from the 17th to 19th centuries, after which most were sold or ceded to Britain which had become the dominant power there; the most important economic aspect was spice trade and access to the east Asian area, including Imperial China situated farther to the east. The colony at Trankebar was kept for over 200 years, with a few interruptions, until it was sold to the British in 1845. In 1755 Denmark acquired the Frederiksnagore, the towns of Achne and Pirapur, they are located about 25 kilometres nort
Grenaa is a Danish town and seaport on the east coast of the Jutlandic peninsula. Tourism and commerce are important sectors in the economy of Grenaa, it is the only larger town on Djursland. Grenaa is the municipal seat, the largest town, in Norddjurs Municipality, which covers the northern half of Djursland. Grenaa was first mentioned in 1231, it was granted the status of a market town in 1445. Grenaa has a lingering production industry just as in most of the western world. Development of tourism and educational institutions is sought to play a larger role for Grenaa in the future; the 5 km sandy Grenaa Beach is significant for tourism, with a hinterland of summer cottages, including many rentals. Grenaa is a regional shopping centre for central-eastern Djursland, an about 40 km x 40 km peninsula, protruding into the sea, between Denmark and Sweden at the entrance to the Baltic Sea. With 14.601 inhabitants Grenaa is the largest town on the c. 40 km x 40 km peninsula, where coastal tourism is important.
Djursland has 22 sandy beaches along the three-sided 260 km coastline, with in the order of 7.000 summer-, out of season-, rentals close to the coast and beaches. Grenaa Beach can be seen as the best of the beaches on Djursland, as it was elected as one of the two best beaches in Denmark in 2006. All coastlines in Denmark are accessible to the public by law, contributing to making the walkable and unspoilt coastlines of Djursland an asset for Grenaa's tourism; the climate is coastal temperate, influenced by the Gulf Stream. Westerly and south-westerly winds are common; the yearly precipitation is 700 mm. The average summer temperature is 16 °C; the coldest month is January with an average temperature of 0.5 °C. The geographical region, where Grenaa is situated on the east coast, has an average population density of 42 inhabitants per square km, as compared to 407 for neighboring England and 230 for Germany. This, combined with the long coastlines, means that it gets crowded on the coast and beaches.
Something that applies to the geologically varied roling-hill country-side and farmland of Djursland, of which a bit more than 10% is forest Many Danes have a working knowledge of English and to some extent German - the two main languages taught in Danish schools. Grenaa has a commercial seaport, expanded in recent years; the town is connected by ferry to the Danish island of Anholt. The town is connected by railway to Denmarks second largest city, Aarhus, 60 km to the south-east, is served by Grenaa railway station, terminus of the Aarhus-Grenaa railway line; the station offers direct local train services to Aarhus and Odder as part of the Aarhus Commuter Rail service. Aarhus Airport lies 20 km to the south-east from Grenaa. Grenaa Beach - 5 km of sandy beach starting at Grenaa Marina. Nominated as one of 2 best Danish beaches in 2006 Walks and hiking – North and south along the coastline from Grenaa, along the other varied and accessible 260 km coastline of Djursland Fishing and diving - from Grenaa Beach and east and south of Grenaa along the 50 km east coast of Djursland Cliffs of Sangstrup and Karlby - Fossil rich coastal lime cliffs 8 km north of Grenaa Kattegatcentret – Aquarium by the Sea in Grenaa with large sharks and a focus on Nordic salt water fish.
250 species of marine creatures from around the world, including seals. Grenaa Marina - marine environment with cafes, etc. Djurslands Museum & Danish Fisheries Museum in Grenaa Baunhøj Mill, View overlooking Grenaa and countryside Mushroom picking in the forests and non-farmed areas of Djursland from August, through autumn until first frost; such as in, Plantagen, a wood starting at the southern end of Grenaa Dansk Motor- og Maskinsamling / The Machine Collection with the largest collection of historical stationary engines in Northern Europe going back to 1860. Restored and functioning. 2 km from Grenaa Sea trout and other fresh water fishing in Gren å, running through Grenaa, in the adjoning, Sound of Kolind, canal system Salt water fishing from the coasts north and south of Grenaa. Such as for sea trout, mackerel place and garfish Randers Regnskov – Zoo - Rain forest zoo by the river, Gudenaa, in transparent domes representing different continents. 60 km from Grenaa Aarhus - Denmarks second largest town, with several international attractions, such as, The Old Town, Den gamle By, 60 km from Grenaa Fjord og Kystcentret – visiting centre related to Randers Fjord in Voer 45 km from Grenaa – focus on activities with regards to fish and shore biology, boat rentals, guided tours.
Mini car ferry across Randers Fjord Herring fishing at Voer in Randers Fjord – seasonal - 45 km from Grenaa Kalø Castle - ruined castle on a peninsula with bights, inlets on southern Djursland 35 km from Grenaa Mols Bjerge National Park – Hilly ice age like steppe landscape – walks, sightseeing drives, horseback riding, on southern Djursland 30 km south of Grenaa Djurslands medieval country churches. Thorsager is known for an atypical round church. Udby church by Randers Fjord is a picturesque navigation mark for incoming ships Kalø Vintage Car Rally – Popular gatherings for motor enthusiasts, every Tuesday afternoon and evening except in winter, close to Kalø Castle Ruin on southern Djursland, 32 km from Grenaa Djurs Sommerland - Amusement park; the largest attraction on Djursland with regards to number of visitors. 22 km from Grenaa The Agricultural Museum, Farmlife through the times. Extensive historical vegetable gardens and fruit orchards at Gl. Estrup Castle, by Auning, 35 km from Grenaa The Manor Museum, Herrregårdsmuseet, at Gl.
Estrup Castle, by the town, Auning, 35 km from Grenaa Katholm Castle, 6 km south of
Skagen station is the main railway station serving the town of Skagen, Denmark. The station is the northern terminus of the Skagensbanen railway line from Frederikshavn to Skagen and is the most northerly railway station in Denmark; the station opened in 1890 and the current station building was built in 1919. The train services are operated by Nordjyske Jernbaner which run frequent local train services between Skagen and Frederikshavn with onward connections by DSB to the rest of Denmark; the station opened in 1890 to serve as terminus of the new narrow gauge railway line from Frederikshavn to Skagen. In 1924, the railway line was converted to standard gauge to avoid the need to transfer cargoes of fish in Frederikshavn; as a consequence of the conversion, the layout of Skagen station was extensively changed. For a period, the Skagen tourist information centre was located in the station building, but in 2006 it moved to its current location by the Skagen Harbour; the original station building from 1890 was designed by architect Thomas Arboe.
The current station building is the work of architect Ulrik Plesner. It is in the style of the town's typical yellow-plastered houses with red tiled roofs with white trimmings which were built in Skagen from 1890 to 1930 and designed by Plesner, he was the architect behind many other buildings in the town, including Brøndums Hotel and Skagen Museum. The train services are operated by Nordjyske Jernbaner which run frequent local train services from Skagen station to Frederikshavn station with onward connections by DSB to the rest of Denmark. In a period during the 1990s there were direct InterCity connections between Copenhagen and Skagen, operated by DSB. In 2005, the bus connections between Skagen and Frederikshavn were replaced by more frequent train connections. Since there have only been bus connections from the station during the summer season, when Nordjyllands Trafikselskab's summer bus service connects Skagen with Blokhus. Nordjyske Jernbaner Skagensiden.dk Nordjyllands Jernbaner