List of ferries of Australia
|MS Abel Tasman||1985–1993||No||Melbourne <-> Devonport|
|PS Alert||1878–1893||No||Melbourne <-> Geelong|
|SS Awaroa||1915–1918||No||Melbourne <-> Sorrento <-> Portsea <-> Queenscliff|
|PS Black Eagle||1854–1872||No||Melbourne <-> St Kilda <-> Brighton <-> Mornington|
|SS Balgowlah||1912–1951||No||Sydney <-> Manly|
|MV Baragoola||1922–1983||No||Sydney <-> Manly|
|SS Charlotte Fenwick||1903–1913||No||Melbourne <-> Sorrento <-> Portsea <-> Queenscliff|
|MV Collaroy||1988–present||Yes||Sydney <-> Manly|
|SS Coogee||1903–1913||No||Melbourne <-> Launceston (and briefly Melbourne <-> Geelong)|
|SS Courier||1888–1927||No||Melbourne <-> Geelong|
|MV Curl Curl (1972)||1973–1991||No||Sydney <-> Manly|
|SS Despatch||1869–1911||No||Sorrento <-> Portsea <-> Queenscliff|
|MV Dee Why (1972)||1972–1985||No||Sydney <-> Manly|
|MV Devil Cat (1st)||1997–1998
1999 - 2002
|No||Melbourne <-> George Town|
|MV Devil Cat (2nd)||1998–1999||No||Melbourne <-> George Town|
|SS Edina||1880–1938||No||Melbourne <-> Geelong|
|SS Excelsior (1883)||1883–1919||No||Melbourne <-> Geelong|
|SS Express||1854–1862||No||Melbourne <-> Geelong|
|MS Australian Trader||1985–1993||No||Sydney <-> Hobart|
|MS Empress of Australia||1965–1985||No||Melbourne <-> Devonport|
|MV Fairlight (1966)||1966–1984||No||Sydney <-> Manly|
|MV Freshwater||1984–present||Yes||Sydney <-> Manly|
|PS Golden Crown||1874–1888||No||Melbourne <-> Queenscliff|
|PS Hygeia (1890)||1890–1931||No||Melbourne <-> Sorrento <-> Portsea <-> Queenscliff|
|MV Hygeia (1962)||1962–2004||No||Sorrento <-> Portsea <-> Queenscliff|
|SS Karatta||1907–1961||No||Port Adelaide <-> Kingscote|
|MV Komuta||1955–1965||No||Sorrento <-> Portsea <-> Queenscliff|
|SS Koompartoo||1922–1932||No||Sydney Harbour|
|SS Kuttabul||1922–1932||No||Sydney Harbour|
|MV Judith Ann||1953–1955||No||Sorrento <-> Portsea <-> Queenscliff|
|MV Lady Cutler||1969–1991||No||Sydney Harbour|
|MV Lady Denman||1912-1979||No||Sydney Harbour|
|MV Lady McKell||1970–1991||No||Sydney Harbour|
|MV Lady Woodward||1970–1991||No||Sydney Harbour|
|MV Long Reef (1978)||1978–1984||No||Sydney <-> Manly|
|PS Lonsdale||1883–1889||No||Sorrento <-> Queenscliff|
|SS Loongana (1903)||1912–1935||No||Melbourne <-> Launceston|
|MV Manly (1965)||1965–1980||No||Sydney <-> Manly|
|MV Manly (1984)||1984–1991||No||Sydney <-> Manly|
|PS Mystery||1867–1872||No||Melbourne <-> Geelong|
|SS Nairana||1920–1948||No||Melbourne <-> Devonport and Melbourne <-> Burnie|
|MV Narrabeen||1984–present||Yes||Sydney <-> Manly|
|MV Nepean||1965–2004||No||Sorrento <-> Portsea <-> Queenscliff|
|PS Ozone||1886–1925||No||Sorrento <-> Portsea <-> Queenscliff|
|MV Palm Beach (1975)||1975–1984||No||Sydney <-> Manly|
|SS Perth||1914–1970||No||Swan River, Perth. Converted to MV Perth in 1970.|
|MV Perth||1970–1982, 1986||No||Swan River, Perth.|
|MV Peninsula Princess||1987–1993||No||Queenscliff <-> Sorrento|
|MS Princess of Tasmania||1959–1972||No||Melbourne <-> Devonport|
|MV Queenscliff (1983)||1983–present||Yes||Sydney <-> Manly|
|MV Queenscliff (1992)||1993–present||Yes||Queenscliff <-> Sorrento|
|SS Reliance||1916–1943||No||Melbourne <-> Sorrento <-> Portsea <-> Queenscliff|
|SS Rotomahana||1879–1921||No||Melbourne <-> Launceston|
|PS Seahorse||1842–1843||No||Melbourne <-> Launceston|
|PS Shamrock||1843–1851||No||Melbourne <-> Launceston|
|SS Sorrento (1946)||1946–1949||No||Queenscliff <-> Sorrento|
|MV Sorrento (2001)||2001–present||Yes||Queenscliff <-> Sorrento|
|SS South Steyne||1938–1974||No||Sydney <-> Manly|
|MV Sydney (1985)||1985–1991||No||Sydney <-> Manly|
|MS Spirit of Tasmania||1993–2002||No||Melbourne <-> Devonport|
|SeaCat Tasmania||1991–1992||No||Port Welshpool <-> George Town|
|MS Spirit of Tasmania I||2002–present||Yes||Melbourne <-> Devonport|
|MS Spirit of Tasmania II||2002–present||Yes||Melbourne <-> Devonport|
|MS Spirit of Tasmania III||2004–2006||No||Sydney <-> Devonport|
|SS Taroona||1934–1959||No||Melbourne <–> Beauty Point <–> Devonport and Melbourne <-> Burnie|
|MV Troubridge||1961–1987||No||Port Adelaide <-> Kingscote and Port Adelaide <-> Port Lincoln|
|PS Weeroona (1910)||1910–1942||No||Melbourne <-> Sorrento <-> Portsea <-> Queenscliff|
|MV Weeroona (1958)||1958–1972||No||Sorrento <-> Portsea <-> Queenscliff|
|PS Williams||1872–1894||No||Melbourne <-> Geelong|
|Kangaroo Island SeaLink Sealion 2000 and Spirit of Kangaroo Island||current||Yes||Cape Jervis <-> Penneshaw, Kangaroo Island|
|First Fleet (Sydney Ferries)||1985–present||Yes||Sydney Harbour|
|Rivercat (Sydney Ferries)||1992–present||Yes||Sydney <-> Parramatta|
|Supercat (Sydney Ferries)||2000–present||Yes||Sydney Harbour|
|Raymond Island ferry||Various vessels since 1889, current vessel since 1997||Yes||Raymond Island <-> Paynesville|
|North Stradbroke Island Ferries||1964–present||Yes||Moreton Bay Various vessels Roll on Roll off Cleveland to Dunwich North Stradbroke Island|
Portsea is a town in the outer south-east of Melbourne, Australia. It is located 60 kilometres south of the Melbourne CBD, on the opposite side of Port Phillip Bay; the townsite is located on the bay itself, but the locality boundaries stretch as far west as Point Nepean and incorporate a section of Bass Strait coastline. Portsea is the westernmost town on the Mornington Peninsula, lies adjacent to the town of Sorrento, it has one of the highest average incomes in Australia. Portsea is named after Portsea Island, an island incorporated by Portsmouth, England. Portsmouth is. Portsea Post Office opened on 10 February 1877 and closed in 1987. OCS Portsea, an army establishment, was located just outside the town; the historic reserve became famous when Prime Minister of Australia Harold Holt disappeared while swimming inside the facility at Cheviot Beach on 17 December 1967 and was presumed dead two days although a formal inquest into his death did not take place until 2005. Portsea was considered by many to be the hub of Melbourne's recreational scuba diving activities.
At one time there were as many as four dive shops in the main street of Portsea. Dive charter boats still travel from Portsea Pier to sites both inside Port Phillip and outside Port Phillip Heads known as "The Rip"; the Portsea Pier is the home to the spectacular weedy sea dragon, as well as many other fish species, including numerous pufferfish. Boating traffic is frequent, divers should be careful to avoid main boating routes. After dredging was done to deepen the entrance to the bay for shipping there was increased surge at Portsea Pier and within a year Portsea Beach was gone. Portsea Back Beach is a big attraction in Portsea, due to its great surfing conditions and long stretch of sand. Portsea Surf Life Saving Club patrols the popular surf beach, as patrols are always needed during the summer period given the large waves and strong tides that are present. Corsair Rock, just at the entrance to Port Philip, is a well-known surf spot to locals and professional surfers. However, it is not advised to surf there unless you are an experienced surfer and, for safety, are accompanied by somebody in a boat nearby.
It is considered a dangerous location. The rip can run out as fast as 8-10 knots. Golfers play at the revered Portsea Golf Club on Relph Avenue; the annual Portsea Polo event is held at Jarman Oval, near the former quarantine station on Point Nepean. According to the 2016 Australian Bureau of Statistics Census, Portsea had 510 residents. Prominent residents include trucking magnate Lindsay Fox, Kate Baillieu and Rupert Murdoch's grandson businessman David Calvert Jones, other well known residents are Eddie McGuire and Ron Walker; the Australian Crawl song "Hoochie Gucci Fiorucci Mama" was written about Portsea. Portsea Hole, a nearby dive location Media related to Portsea, Victoria at Wikimedia Commons
HSC Manannan is a 96-metre wave-piercing high-speed catamaran car ferry built in Tasmania in 1998. After commercial service in Australia and New Zealand, she was chartered to the US military as Joint Venture. Now owned and operated by the Isle of Man Steam Packet Company, she provides a seasonal service between Douglas and Liverpool. Manannan is one of six 96-metre catamarans built by Incat of Australia, she was built as Incat 050 in 1998. Under the name Devil Cat, she operated for a short period as a commercial ferry for TT-Line. A spell followed crossing the Cook Strait as Top Cat, she was acquired by the US Navy and converted for military purposes. In 2001, she was contracted by the United States Armed Forces for a five-year, joint Army/Navy program, as Joint Venture. A flight deck was added to accommodate various US military helicopters. Joint Venture was re-configurable and could perform a variety of missions, principal among them the ability to ferry up to 325 combat personnel and 400 tons of cargo up to 3,000 nautical miles one way at speeds in excess of 40 knots.
In 2003, Joint Venture was assigned to Operation Enduring Freedom in the Horn of Africa. She operated as a fast transport in support of the Combined Joint Task Force and performing a variety of tasks, such as transporting and supplying troops at high speed over long distances, operating as a mobile command centre, working close inshore, operating as a helicopter carrier. At the end of the five year charter, she was handed back to Incat in early 2006, she was struck from the Naval Vessel Register and re-listed as "IX-532". She underwent a refit and was painted in the livery of Express Ferries. Plans for her to enter service as a car and passenger ferry never materialised. On 19 May 2008, the Isle of Man Steam Packet Company announced the purchase of the wave-piercing catamaran for £20 million, as the replacement for the fast craft Viking; because of its previous use, the company said it had fewer hours of service than a vessel of comparable age and was ideally suited for the planned service. She completed the 11,868 miles voyage from Hobart to Portsmouth, with most of the materials for her refit, in 27 days.
A £3 million refit, carried out by Burgess Marine in Portsmouth, provided a new aft accommodation module and the "Sky Lounge". The heavy military ramp was replaced with a new stern door and the helideck was removed. Following this, she arrived in Douglas on 11 May 2009. An open day took place at each of the company's ports and at a renaming ceremony, she was renamed after Manannán mac Lir, the Celtic god of the Irish sea. Manannan made her maiden service voyage with the Steam Packet Company on Friday 22 May 2009 on the 07:30 sailing from Douglas to Liverpool. During the winter period 2014/2015 Manannan was fitted with a removable mezzanine deck which created additional space for motorcycles during the TT and Festival of Motorcycling periods, allowing fans who have traveled as foot passengers the chance to bring their bikes. - by late March 2015, the number of motorcycles booked for the TT Festival was up 10% on the previous year. At 96 metres, Manannan is the largest vessel of its kind on the Irish Sea.
In summer season, she operates daily sailings from Douglas to Liverpool, weekly/twice weekly sailings to Belfast and Dublin. During the winter, Manannan remains in Douglas on reserve and sails to Liverpool to have her annual overhaul before returning for the summer season. Manannan's passenger facilities are located over two decks. In April 2015 the Manannan suffered six days of cancelled sailings due to damage to its jet system caused by sea debris. All sailings between the Isle of Man and Liverpool were cancelled and passengers were transferred to sailings on the Ben-my-Chree to and from Heysham, while the P&O vessel Express was chartered for a sailing to Larne in place of a cancelled Belfast sailing. Express suffered damage while in Manx waters and P&O were forced to cancel a number of their own sailings as a result. Steam Packet boss Mark Woodward told a local newspaper that'Since 2007 there have been 17 recorded major incidents where our ships have been damaged and passengers have been inconvenienced by disrupted schedules as a result.
Mr Woodward added: ‘It should be noted that the damage was incurred seven days after the vessel recommenced seasonal operational service and just three weeks after leaving dry-dock. All of this equipment was inspected during the docking period by Steam Packet Company engineering staff, along with Classification Society Surveyors and all found to be in good order; the ferry returned to service on Saturday 11 April 2015. The estimated price of repairs was above £100,000. On 24 March 2016, the Manannan collided with the Victoria Pier in Douglas Harbour on arrival at 22:30. Five passengers were taken to hospital with minor injuries and the following day's sailings were cancelled, with passengers being transferred to the Ben-my-Chree; the vessel suffered damage to the port side. The collision was caused by a systems control failure. List of multihulls Manannan Specifications - steam-packet.com HSV-X1 Joint Venture
Sydney is the state capital of New South Wales and the most populous city in Australia and Oceania. Located on Australia's east coast, the metropolis surrounds Port Jackson and extends about 70 km on its periphery towards the Blue Mountains to the west, Hawkesbury to the north, the Royal National Park to the south and Macarthur to the south-west. Sydney is made up of 40 local government areas and 15 contiguous regions. Residents of the city are known as "Sydneysiders"; as of June 2017, Sydney's estimated metropolitan population was 5,230,330 and is home to 65% of the state's population. Indigenous Australians have inhabited the Sydney area for at least 30,000 years, thousands of engravings remain throughout the region, making it one of the richest in Australia in terms of Aboriginal archaeological sites. During his first Pacific voyage in 1770, Lieutenant James Cook and his crew became the first Europeans to chart the eastern coast of Australia, making landfall at Botany Bay and inspiring British interest in the area.
In 1788, the First Fleet of convicts, led by Arthur Phillip, founded Sydney as a British penal colony, the first European settlement in Australia. Phillip named the city Sydney in recognition of 1st Viscount Sydney. Penal transportation to New South Wales ended soon after Sydney was incorporated as a city in 1842. A gold rush occurred in the colony in 1851, over the next century, Sydney transformed from a colonial outpost into a major global cultural and economic centre. After World War II, it experienced mass migration and became one of the most multicultural cities in the world. At the time of the 2011 census, more than 250 different languages were spoken in Sydney. In the 2016 Census, about 35.8% of residents spoke a language other than English at home. Furthermore, 45.4% of the population reported having been born overseas, making Sydney the 3rd largest foreign born population of any city in the world after London and New York City, respectively. Despite being one of the most expensive cities in the world, the 2018 Mercer Quality of Living Survey ranks Sydney tenth in the world in terms of quality of living, making it one of the most livable cities.
It is classified as an Alpha+ World City by Globalization and World Cities Research Network, indicating its influence in the region and throughout the world. Ranked eleventh in the world for economic opportunity, Sydney has an advanced market economy with strengths in finance and tourism. There is a significant concentration of foreign banks and multinational corporations in Sydney and the city is promoted as Australia's financial capital and one of Asia Pacific's leading financial hubs. Established in 1850, the University of Sydney is Australia's first university and is regarded as one of the world's leading universities. Sydney is home to the oldest library in Australia, State Library of New South Wales, opened in 1826. Sydney has hosted major international sporting events such as the 2000 Summer Olympics; the city is among the top fifteen most-visited cities in the world, with millions of tourists coming each year to see the city's landmarks. Boasting over 1,000,000 ha of nature reserves and parks, its notable natural features include Sydney Harbour, the Royal National Park, Royal Botanic Garden and Hyde Park, the oldest parkland in the country.
Built attractions such as the Sydney Harbour Bridge and the World Heritage-listed Sydney Opera House are well known to international visitors. The main passenger airport serving the metropolitan area is Kingsford-Smith Airport, one of the world's oldest continually operating airports. Established in 1906, Central station, the largest and busiest railway station in the state, is the main hub of the city's rail network; the first people to inhabit the area now known as Sydney were indigenous Australians having migrated from northern Australia and before that from southeast Asia. Radiocarbon dating suggests human activity first started to occur in the Sydney area from around 30,735 years ago. However, numerous Aboriginal stone tools were found in Western Sydney's gravel sediments that were dated from 45,000 to 50,000 years BP, which would indicate that there was human settlement in Sydney earlier than thought; the first meeting between the native people and the British occurred on 29 April 1770 when Lieutenant James Cook landed at Botany Bay on the Kurnell Peninsula and encountered the Gweagal clan.
He noted in his journal that they were somewhat hostile towards the foreign visitors. Cook was not commissioned to start a settlement, he spent a short time collecting food and conducting scientific observations before continuing further north along the east coast of Australia and claiming the new land he had discovered for Britain. Prior to the arrival of the British there were 4,000 to 8,000 native people in Sydney from as many as 29 different clans; the earliest British settlers called the natives Eora people. "Eora" is the term the indigenous population used to explain their origins upon first contact with the British. Its literal meaning is "from this place". Sydney Cove from Port Jackson to Petersham was inhabited by the Cadigal clan; the principal language groups were Darug and Dharawal. The earliest Europeans to visit the area noted that the indigenous people were conducting activities such as camping and fishing, using trees for bark and food, collecting shells, cooking fish. Britain—before that, England—and Ireland had for a long time been sending their convicts across the Atlantic to the American colonies.
The Freshwater class is a class of ferry operating the Manly ferry service between Circular Quay and Manly on Sydney Harbour. The ferries are owned by the Government of New South Wales and operated by Harbour City Ferries under the government's Sydney Ferries brand; the need for new ferries on the Manly-Circular Quay service was identified during the mid 1970s, during which time the service was characterised by deteriorating quality and low patronage. Prior to 1971, the ferry services on the Manly-Circular Quay route were operated by the Port Jackson & Manly Steamship Company. In that year, the company posted a modest profit of $112,000. Patronage was approaching all-time lows, but the growth prospect for ferry services was considered strong. In November 1971, the company attracted a $1.5 million takeover bid from diversified transport company Brambles Industries. The initial bid was rejected, but a offer of $2.1 million was accepted. When Brambles took over, the Manly fleet consisted of four ferries: South Steyne, North Head and Baragoola, plus hydrofoils Manly and Dee Why.
The hydrofoils were sold to Waltons Finance and leased back. The four ferries were all ageing and expensive to maintain, it soon became evident that Brambles intended to close the service or sell the ships to the State Government at the earliest opportunity. Fare increases and service suspensions followed; the Bellubera was withdrawn from service on 14 December 1973. Public outrage and fears that the service would be suspended led to the government resuming responsibility for the operation of the ferries in February 1974. Concerns about the on-going serviceability of the existing vessels led to a decision to modify the design of the Lady Wakehurst and Lady Northcott under construction for use on the inner harbour routes, so that they could be used as relief boats on the Manly run. On 27 August 1974 the public timetable was reduced to only require two ships; the decision to modify the two Lady Class vessels proved fortuitous. During the naming ceremony for the Lady Northcott on 11 February 1975 Liberal Minister for Transport Wal Fife announced that two new ferries would be introduced to the Manly service within three years.
A study by maritime consultants Burness Corlett Australia was released in July 1976. It investigated the requirements of new vessels to replace the North Head and Baragoola by 1978. Various configurations were considered, including conventional monohull, catamaran and hydrofoil. Planing ferries of both single and twin-hull configuration were rejected, as such a configuration cannot be double-ended and therefore would have required berthing stern-first. Hydrofoils were rejected from consideration due to excessive cost and limited passenger capacity. Two options were selected for detailed investigation: monohull and twin-hull, both double ended and having 1,200 passengers capacity. Detailed designs and blueprints were prepared for both options; the study recommended the selection of the twin-hull due to the higher service frequency achievable, however the study noted that other than this, there was little difference between the options. The twin-hull was designed with dimensions of 63 metres length, 12.8 metres beam, 3.3 metres draft, while the monohull design was 67 metres length, 11.6 metres beam, 4.27 metres draft.
The wider beam of the twin-hull design would exceed the limits of the existing wharves at Circular Quay, necessitate a reconfiguration of the wharves if selected. Burness Corlett were confident that the twin-hull option was the superior choice, due to service speed and stability through Sydney Heads, so no model tests were performed for the monohull design. Burness Corlett predicted that either design would take 21 months to construct, that if the new ferries were to be introduced in 1978 as planned, an aggressive construction program would have to begin with tenders to be called no than April 1976. After a change of government at the 1976 election, the new Labor government's Transport Minister Peter Cox announced that tenders would be called for the construction of a new "super ferry" in line with the results of the engineering study, to carry up to 1,200 passengers at speeds of 18 knots. On 9 January 1978 the traditional three-ship Manly Ferry timetable was reintroduced; the service was operated with the Baragoola, North Head and either the Lady Wakehurst or Lady Northcott.
However the modified Lady class ships were not good substitutes for the two older vessels, as the newer Lady ferries were too small and too slow for the Manly service. The Lady class ships were able to keep to the published timetable in peak hours. Following the return of the Labor Government at the State Election on 7 Oct 1978, the Labor Party's Alan Stewart became the Member for Manly; this provided a fresh political impetus for the State Labor administration to order the new Manly ferries. Steelwork for Freshwater was laid down at the State Dockyard on 31 October 1980. Strike actions delayed completion until June 1982; the ferry terminals at Circular Quay and Manly were modified to accommodate the larger ferries, including the installation of wide height-adjustable two-level hydraulic ramps.. Additionally a new bus-interchange was built in the wharf forecourt at Manly. MV Freshwater is the lead ship of the four Fresh
St Kilda is an inner suburb of the metropolitan area of Melbourne, Australia, 6 km south-east of Melbourne's Central Business District. Its local government area is the City of Port Phillip. At the 2016 Census, St Kilda had a population of 20,230. St Kilda was named by Charles La Trobe, after a schooner, Lady of St Kilda, which moored at the main beach for much of 1841, the ship's master and early settler Lieutenant James Ross Lawrence. During the Victorian and Edwardian eras, St Kilda became a favoured suburb of Melbourne's elite, many palatial mansions were constructed along its hills and waterfront. Shortly after the turn of the 20th century, St Kilda served a similar function for Melburnians as did Coney Island to the residents of New York City. Densely populated postwar St Kilda became Melbourne's red-light district, home to low-cost rooming houses. Since the late 1960s, St Kilda has become known for its culture of bohemianism and as home to many prominent artists and subcultures, including punk and LGBT.
While some of these groups still maintain a presence in St Kilda, in recent years the district has experienced rapid gentrification pushing many lower socio-economic groups out to other areas. St Kilda is home to many of Melbourne's visitor attractions including Luna Park, the Esplanade Hotel, Acland Street and Fitzroy Street, it is home to several theatres and many of Melbourne's big events and festivals. Before being named St Kilda in 1841 by Charles La Trobe, superintendent of the Port Phillip District of New South Wales, the area was known by several names, including'Green Knoll','Punk Town' and'The Village of Fareham', it was named after the schooner Lady of St Kilda, owned between 1834 and 1840 by Sir Thomas Acland. In 1840 Thomas Acland sold the vessel to Jonathan Cundy Pope of Plymouth who sailed for Port Phillip in Melbourne in February 1841; the vessel was moored at the main beach for most of that year, soon known as "the St Kilda foreshore."The schooner Lady of St Kilda was named in honour of Lady Grange, imprisoned on the island of Hirta, the largest island in the St Kilda archipelago, on the western edge of Scotland, by her husband in 1734–40.
Kulin people lived in Euroe Yroke for an estimated 31,000 to 40,000 years. Evidence has been found of shellfish middens and huts along Albert Park and Lake and axes which were most sharpened on the sandstone cliffs behind the main beach. Corroborees were held at the historic tree which still stands at St Kilda Junction, at the corner of Fitzroy Street and Queens Road. Much of the area north of present-day Fitzroy Street was swampland, part of the Yarra River Delta which comprised vast areas of wetlands and sparse vegetation; the first European settler in St Kilda was Benjamin Baxter in around 1839. He was a settler from Melbourne on a grazing lease. In 1840, St Kilda was the home to Melbourne's first quarantine station for Scottish immigrants; the area was named St Kilda in 1841. The first sale of Crown lands in St Kilda took place on 7 December 1842; the first block was bought by James Ross Lawrence, master of the Lady of St Kilda until 1842. Lawrence had now settled in Melbourne, his block was bounded by three unmade roads.
One of these roads he named Acland Street after Thomas Acland, his employer until 1840 but who had never been to Port Phillip District. The remaining two became The Esplanade. By 1845, Lawrence had sold the land on which he had built a cottage; the land on the sea-side of The Esplanade has continued to be Crown land. Within a few years, St Kilda became a fashionable area for wealthy settlers and the indigenous peoples were driven out to surrounding areas; the high ground above the beach offered a cool fresh breeze during Melbourne's hot summer months. St Kilda became a separate municipality on 24 April 1857, in the same year, the railway line and railway station connected St Kilda to Melbourne city and a loop line to Windsor; these railway lines brought many visitors to St Kilda and increased patronage to the run sea baths, the jetty promenade and the St Kilda Cup and bowling clubs were formed in 1855 and 1865. By the mid-1860s St Kilda had about fifteen hotels including the George the Seaview.
St Kilda's population more than doubled between 1890 to about 19,000 persons. During the Land Boom of the 1880s, St Kilda became a densely populated district of great stone mansions and palatial hotels along the seaside streets such as Fitzroy Street, Grey Street and Acland Street the area once known as St Kilda Hill centred between Wellington Street, Alma Road, former High Street and Chapel Street; the Esplanade Hotel was built in 1878 overlooking St Kilda Beach and the George Hotel was built in 1889 at the railway terminus on Fitzroy Street, on the site of the Seaview hotel. The lower inland areas of St Kilda East were not so wealthy and included many smaller, semi detached cottages, many constructed of timber. Much of the area, now St Kilda West was swampland, but was reclaimed and subdivided in the 1870s. Cable tram lines were opened in 1888 and 1891 to run from the Melbourne central city area along St Kilda Road to St Kilda Junction and branch out along Wellington and Fitzroy Streets. During the Depression of the 1890s, however, St Kilda began to decline.
Many wealthy families had lost much of their fortunes and several of the large mansions were subdivided for apartment or boarding-house accommodation. After a cable tram line was extended south from the Melbourne central city area, the seaside area beca
Geelong is a port city located on Corio Bay and the Barwon River, in the state of Victoria, Australia. Geelong is 75 kilometres south-west of Melbourne, it is the second largest Victorian city, with an estimated urban population of 192,393 as of June 2016. Geelong runs from the plains of Lara in the north to the rolling hills of Waurn Ponds to the south, with Corio Bay to the east and hills to the west. Geelong is the administrative centre for the City of Greater Geelong municipality, which covers urban and coastal areas surrounding the city, including the Bellarine Peninsula. Geelong City is known as the'Gateway City' due to its central location to surrounding Victorian regional centres like Ballarat in the north west, Great Ocean Road and Warrnambool in the southwest, Hamilton and Winchelsea to the west, the state capital of Melbourne in the north east. Geelong was named in 1827, with the name derived from the local Wathaurong Aboriginal name for the region, thought to mean "land" or "cliffs" or "tongue of land or peninsula".
The area was first surveyed in three weeks after Melbourne. The post office was open by June 1840; the first woolstore was erected in this period and it became the port for the wool industry of the Western District. During the gold rush, Geelong experienced a brief boom as the main port to the rich goldfields of the Ballarat district; the city diversified into manufacturing, during the 1860s, it became one of the largest manufacturing centres in Australia with its wool mills and paper mills. It was proclaimed a city in 1910, with industrial growth from this time until the 1960s establishing the city as a manufacturing centre for the state, the population grew to over 100,000 by the mid-1960s. During the city's early years, an inhabitant of Geelong was known as a Geelongite, or a Pivotonian, derived from the city's nickname of "The Pivot", referencing the city's role as a shipping and rail hub for the area. Population increases over the last decade were due to growth in service industries, as the manufacturing sector has declined.
Redevelopment of the inner city has occurred since the 1990s, as well as gentrification of inner suburbs, has a population growth rate higher than the national average. It is home to the Geelong Football Club, the second oldest club in the Australian Football League. Today, Geelong stands as an emerging health and advanced manufacturing hub; the city's economy is shifting and despite experiencing the drawbacks of losing much of its heavy manufacturing, it is seeing much growth in other sectors, positioning itself as one of the leading non-capital Australian cities. The area of Geelong and the Bellarine Peninsula was occupied by the Wathaurong Indigenous Australian tribe; the first nonindigenous person recorded as visiting the region was Lieutenant John Murray, who commanded the brig HMS Lady Nelson. After anchoring outside Port Phillip Heads, on 1 February 1802, he sent a small boat with six men to explore. Led by John Bowen, they explored the immediate area. On reporting favourable findings, Lady Nelson entered Port Phillip on 14 February, did not leave until 12 March.
During this time, Murray explored the Geelong area and, whilst on the far side of the bay, claimed the entire area for Britain. He named the bay Port King, after Philip Gidley King Governor of New South Wales. Governor King renamed the bay Port Phillip after the first governor of New South Wales, Arthur Phillip. Arriving not long after Murray was Matthew Flinders, who entered Port Phillip on 27 April 1802, he charted the entire bay, including the Geelong area, believing he was the first to sight the huge expanse of water, but in a rush to reach Sydney before winter set in, he left Port Phillip on 3 May. In January 1803, Surveyor-General Charles Grimes arrived at Port Phillip in the sloop Cumberland and mapped the area, including the future site of Geelong, but reported the area was unfavourable for settlement and returned to Sydney on 27 February. In October of the same year, HMS Calcutta led by Lieutenant Colonel David Collins arrived in the bay to establish the Sullivan Bay penal colony. Collins was dissatisfied with the area chosen, sent a small party led by First Lieutenant J.
H. Tuckey to investigate alternate sites; the party spent 22 October to 27 October on the north shore of Corio Bay, where the first Aboriginal death at the hands of a European in Victoria occurred. The next European visit to the area was by the explorers Hamilton William Hovell, they reached the northern edge of Corio Bay – the area of Port Phillip that Geelong now fronts – on 16 December 1824, it was at this time they reported that the Aboriginals called the area Corayo, the bay being called Djillong. Hume and Hovell had been contracted to travel overland from Sydney to Port Phillip, having achieved this, they stayed the night and began their return journey two days on 18 December; the convict William Buckley escaped from the Sullivan Bay settlement in 1803, lived among the Wathaurong people for 32 years on the Bellarine Peninsula. In 1835, John Batman used Indented Head as his base camp, leaving behind several employees whilst he returned to Tasmania for more supplies and his family. In this same year, Buckley surrendered to the party led by John Helder Wedge and was pardoned by Lieutenant-Governor Sir George Arthur, subsequently given the position of interpreter to the natives.
Mornington is a seaside town on the Mornington Peninsula, Australia, located 57 km south of Melbourne's central business district. It is in the local government area of the Shire of Mornington Peninsula. Mornington is known for its beautiful beaches. Mornington is a popular tourist destination with Melburnians who make day trips to visit the area's bay beaches and wineries; the town centre runs into local beach. The Post Office opened on 21 May 1856 as Schnapper Point and was renamed Mornington in 1864. In the 2016 Census, there were 23,989 people in Mornington. 72.0% of people were born in Australia. The next most common countries of birth were England 9.8%, New Zealand 1.7%, Scotland 1.4%, Ireland 0.7% and Netherlands 0.7%. 89.3% of people spoke only English at home. Other languages spoken at home included Italian 0.8%, Greek 0.6% and German 0.4%. The most common responses for religion were No Religion 36.5%, Catholic 23.0% and Anglican 16.6%. The town centre runs into the foreshore area and local beach, which features a yacht club and park with playground facilities.
Mornington is an attractive destination for shopping and features some excellent restaurants and cafes. The north of Mornington is home to several horse breeders and stables, it has a modern library and numerous parks and historical buildings, many of which are open to the public. It holds several annual festivals, holds a market day in the main street every Wednesday, which attracts hundreds of people. Mornington and its surrounding suburbs have many schools on offer including Mt Eliza Secondary College, Mornington Secondary College, Padua College, Toorak College and The Peninsula School. Mornington is served by Peninsula Link, Nepean Highway and Moorooduc Highway. All three are dual-carriageway arterial roads with varying speed limits of 80 km/h-100 km/h; the Melbourne bus routes 781, 784, 785, 788 services the area. The Mornington railway line closed in 1981 and reopened in 1991 as the heritage Mornington Railway with the aims of restoring the line in future; the town has an Australian Rules football team competing in the Mornington Peninsula Nepean Football League.
Mornington has a horse racing club, the Mornington Racing Club, which schedules around twenty race meetings a year including the Mornington Cup meeting in February. Mornington has an active Yacht club, Mornington Yacht Club, located at Schnapper Point, catering for sailors of all levels abilities, from beginners "Tackers", through to those competing at ocean racing level; the club hosts many state, National, & International regattas, as it provides a good location in sheltered, pristine waters. 2014 saw the successful running of the largest single class Yachting regatta held in the Southern Hemisphere - the Optimist National Championships. The Optimist drew over 2000 people to the Club and Mornington shire. Golfers play at the course of the Mornington Country Golf Club on Tallis Drive. Mornington Peninsula Pony Club provides dressage, show jumping and cross-country facilities for young equestrian enthusiasts; the club holds rallies on the first Sunday of each month and is affiliated with the Pony Club Association of Victoria.
Mornington has a strong Field Hockey club competing in the Hockey Victoria Association known as the Mornington Peninsula Falcons. Terri Sawyer, the 18-year-old female driver who won the first AUSCAR race at the Calder Park Thunderdome in Melbourne in February 1988, is a resident of Mornington. Mornington has an oceanic climate with warm and hot summers and mild winters where temperatures below freezing are rare occasions. Finola Moorhead, writer Brodie Harper