List of file formats

This is a list of file formats used by computers, organized by type. Filename extensions are noted in parentheses if they differ from the file format name or abbreviation. Many operating systems do not limit filenames to one extension shorter than 4 characters, as was common with some operating systems that supported the File Allocation Table file system. Examples of operating systems that do not impose this limit include Unix-like systems, Microsoft Windows NT, 95, 98, ME which have no three character limit on extensions for 32-bit or 64-bit applications on file systems other than pre-Windows 95 and Windows NT 3.5 versions of the FAT file system. Some filenames are given extensions longer than three characters. While MS-DOS and NT always see the final period in a filename as an extension, in UNIX-like systems, the final period doesn't mean the text afterward is the extension; some file formats, such as.txt or.text, may be listed multiple times..? Q? – files that are compressed by the SQ program.

7z – 7-Zip compressed file AAPKG – ArchestrA IDEDetails AAC – Advanced Audio Coding ace – ACE compressed file ALZ – ALZip compressed file APK – Applications installable on Android APPX – Microsoft Application Package AT3 – Sony's UMD data compression.bke – data compression ARC – pre-Zip data compression ARC - Nintendo U8 Archive ARJ – ARJ compressed file ASS – a subtitles file created by Aegisub, a video typesetting application B – Similar to.a, but a little less compressed... BA – Scifer Archive, Scifer External Archive Type big – Special file compression format used by Electronic Arts to compress the data for many of EA's games BIN – compressed archive, can be read and used by CD-ROMs and Java, extractable by 7-zip and WINRAR bjsn – Used to store The Escapists saves on Android. BKF – Microsoft backup created by NTBackup.c bzip2 – bld – Skyscraper Simulator Building cab – A cabinet file is a library of compressed files stored as one file. Cabinet files are used to organize installation files.

C4 – JEDMICS image files, a DOD system cals – JEDMICS image files, a DOD system CLIPFLAIR – ClipFlair Studio ClipFlair component saved state file CPT, SEA – Compact Pro DAA – Closed-format, Windows-only compressed disk image deb – Debian install package DMG – an Apple compressed/encrypted format DDZ – a file which can only be used by the "daydreamer engine" created by "fever-dreamer", a program similar to RAGS, it's used to make somewhat short games. DN – Adobe Dimension CC file format DPE – Package of AVE documents made with Aquafadas digital publishing tools..egg – Alzip Egg Edition compressed file EGT – EGT Universal Document used to create compressed cabinet files replaces.ecab ECAB – EGT Compressed Folder used in advanced systems to compress entire system folders, replaced by EGT Universal Document ESD – Electronic Software Distribution, a compressed and encrypted WIM File ESS – EGT SmartSense File, detects files compressed using the EGT compression system. Flipchart file – Used in Promethean ActivInspire Flipchart Software.

GBP – GBP File Extension – What is a.gbp file and how do I open it? 2 types of files: 1. An archive index file, created by Genie Timeline, it contains references to the files. This files can be opened using Genie-Soft Genie Timeline on Windows. 2. A data output file created by CAD Printed Circuit Board; this type of file can be opened on Windows using Autodesk EAGLE EAGLE | PCB Design Software | Autodesk, Altium Designer, Viewplot Welcome to For PCB Related Software. Viewplot The Gerber Viewer & editor in one...... PCB Elegance a professional layout package for a affordable price, Gerbv gerbv – A Free/Open Source Gerber Viewer on Mac using Autodesk EAGLE, Gerbv, gEDA gplEDA Homepage and on Linux using Autodesk EAGLE, gEDA, Gerbv GHO – Norton Ghost GIF – Graphics Interchange Format gzip – Compressed file HTML HTML code file IPG – Format in which Apple Inc. packages their iPod games. Can be extracted through Winrar jar – ZIP file with manifest for use with Java applications. LBR – Lawrence Compiler Type file LBR – Library file LQR – LBR Library file compressed by the SQ program.

LHA – Lempel, Huffman lzip – Compressed file lzo lzma – Lempel–Ziv–Markov chain algorithm compressed file LZX MBW – MBRWizard archive MHTML – Mine HTML code file MPQ Archives – Used by Blizzard Entertainment BIN – MacBinary NTH – Nokia Theme Used by Nokia Series 40 Cellphones OAR – OmegaARc Archive OSZ – osu! Compressed beatmap archive PAK – Enhanced type of. ARC archive PAR – Parchive PAF – Portable Application File PEA – PeaZip archive file PHP – PHP code file PYK – Compressed file PK3 – Quake 3 archive PK4 – Doom³ archive py / pyw – Python code file RAR – Rar Archive, for multiple file archive RAG, RAGS – Game file, a game playable in the RAGS game-engine, a free program which both allows people to create games, play games, games created have the format "RAG game file" RaX – Archive file created by RaX RPM – Red Hat package/installer for Fedora, RHEL, similar systems. Sb – Scratch file sb2 – Scratch


The mesentery is an organ that attaches the intestines to the posterior abdominal wall in humans and is formed by the double fold of peritoneum. It helps in storing fat and allowing blood vessels and nerves to supply the intestines, among other functions; the mesocolon was thought to be a fragmented structure, with all named parts—the ascending, transverse and sigmoid mesocolons, the mesoappendix, the mesorectum—separately terminating their insertion into the posterior abdominal wall. However, in 2012, new microscopic and electron microscopic examinations at the University of Limerick showed the mesocolon to be a single structure derived from the duodenojejunal flexure and extending to the distal mesorectal layer. Thus, the mesentery is an internal organ; the mesentery of the small intestine arises from the root of the mesentery and is the part connected with the structures in front of the vertebral column. The root is narrow, about 15 cm long, 20 cm in width, is directed obliquely from the duodenojejunal flexure at the left side of the second lumbar vertebra to the right sacroiliac joint.

The root of the mesentery extends from the duodenojejunal flexure to the ileocaecal junction. This section of the small intestine is located centrally in the abdominal cavity and lies behind the transverse colon and the greater omentum; the mesentery becomes attached to the colon at the gastrointestinal margin and continues as the several regions of the mesocolon. The parts of the mesocolon take their names from the part of the colon; these are the transverse mesocolon attaching to the transverse colon, the sigmoid mesocolon attaching to the sigmoid colon, the mesoappendix attaching to the appendix, the mesorectum attaching to the upper third of the rectum. The mesocolon regions were traditionally taught to be separate sections with separate insertions into the posterior abdominal wall. In 2012, the first detailed observational and histological studies of the mesocolon were undertaken and this revealed several new findings; the study included 109 patients undergoing open, total abdominal colectomy.

Anatomical observations were recorded on the post-operative specimens. These studies showed, it was shown that a mesenteric confluence occurs at the ileocaecal and rectosigmoid junctions, as well as at the hepatic and splenic flexures and that each confluence involves peritoneal and omental attachments. The proximal rectum was mesosigmoid. A plane occupied by perinephric fascia was shown to separate the entire apposed small intestinal mesentery and the mesocolon from the retroperitoneum. Deep in the pelvis, this fascia coalesces to give rise to presacral fascia. Flexural anatomy is described as a difficult area, it is simplified. The ileocaecal flexure arises at the point where the ileum is continuous with the caecum around the ileocaecal mesenteric flexure; the hepatic flexure is formed between the right mesocolon and transverse mesocolon at the mesenteric confluence. The colonic component of the hepatic flexure is draped around this mesenteric confluence. Furthermore, the splenic flexure is formed by the mesenteric confluence between the transverse and left mesocolon.

The colonic component of the splenic flexure occurs lateral to the mesenteric confluence. At every flexure, a continuous peritoneal fold lies outside the colonic/mesocolic complex tethering this to the posterior abdominal wall; the transverse mesocolon is that section of the mesocolon attached to the transverse colon that lies between the colic flexures. The sigmoid mesocolon is that region of the mesentery to which the sigmoid colon is attached at the gastrointestinal mesenteric margin; the mesoappendix is the portion of the mesocolon connecting the ileum to the appendix. It may extend to the tip of the appendix, it encloses the appendicular artery and vein, as well as lymphatic vessels, a lymph node. The mesorectum is that part attached to the upper third of the rectum. Understanding the macroscopic structure of the mesenteric organ meant that associated structures—the peritoneal folds and congenital and omental adhesions—could be better appraised; the small intestinal mesenteric fold occurs where the small intestinal mesentery folds onto the posterior abdominal wall and continues laterally as the right mesocolon.

During mobilization of the small intestinal mesentery from the posterior abdominal wall, this fold is incised, allowing access to the interface between the small intestinal mesentery and the retroperitoneum. The fold continues at the inferolateral boundary of the ileocaecal junction and turn cephalad as the right paracolic peritoneal fold; this fold is divided during lateral to medial mobilization, permitting the surgeon to serially lift the right colon and associated mesentery off the underlying fascia and retroperitoneum. At the hepatic flexure, the right lateral peritoneal fold turns and continues medially as the hepatocolic peritoneal fold. Division of the fold in this location permits separation of the colonic component of the hepatic flexure and mesocolon off the retroperitoneum. Interposed between the hepatic and splenic flexures, the greater omentum adheres to the transverse colon along a further band or fold of peritoneum. Dissection through this allows access to the cephalad surface of the transverse mesocolon.

Focal adhesions tether the greater omentum to the cephalad aspect of the transverse mesocolon. The left colon is associated with a similar anatomic configuration of peritoneal folds.

The Deep (TV serial)

The Deep is a British television serial drama produced by Tiger Aspect Productions for BBC Wales. Written by Simon Donald, The Deep stars Minnie Driver, James Nesbitt, Goran Visnjic as members of the crew of a research submarine, who encounter disaster thousands of feet underwater in the Arctic Circle; the drama was filmed over 12 weeks in and around Dumbarton, was broadcast during BBC One's Summer 2010 season. A group of oceanographers seek a new source of bio-fuel in the Lomonosov Ridge. A disaster strikes their submarine; the group must now deal with finding a way to the surface. Commissioning of The Deep was announced by the BBC in July 2009; the BBC announced the involvement of stars Minnie Driver, James Nesbitt and Goran Visnjic, the start of production at the BBC's Dumbarton studios, in December 2009. The shoot ran for 12 weeks, concluding in March 2010. Submarine sets both physical and computer generated were designed by Production Designer Simon Bowles. Location filming occurred in Ardrossan and the harbour at Irvine.

Prosthetic make-up artist Linda A. Morton researched the sorts of injuries sustained by the characters by visiting a hospital burns unit, referring to photographs of radiation burns. James Nesbitt as Clem Minnie Driver as Frances Goran Visnjic as Samson Orla Brady as Catherine Sinéad Cusack as Meg Sacha Dhawan as Vincent Vera Filatova as Svetlana Richard Brake as McIndoe Tobias Menzies as Raymond Tom Wlaschiha as Arkady Nick Nevern as Stas Antonia Thomas as Maddy Nicholas Pinnock as Goodison Molly Jones as Scarlet Shonagh Price as Sandra Ron Donachie as Sturridge Nigel Whitmey as Lowe Dan Li as Hatsuto The Deep was broadcast weekly on BBC One and simulcast on BBC HD from 3 to 31 August 2010; the British Academy of Film and Television Arts held a public screening of the first episode on 19 July 2010. It was followed by some of the production staff. In Brazil, the series premiered on the channel + Globosat on 16 August 2012, at 21 hours; the Deep at BBC Programmes The Deep at Tiger Aspect Productions The Deep on IMDb