Robert Keith (actor)
Robert Keith was an American stage and film actor who appeared in several dozen films in the 1950s as a character actor. Keith was born Rolland Keith Richey in Fowler, the son of Mary Della and James Haughey Richey, his first wife was Laura Anne Corinne Jackson, the daughter of a prominent Cedar Rapids, Iowa family. He is noted for the variety of his performances both as weak-willed and strong characters such as the father in Fourteen Hours and a psychopathic killer in The Lineup, his best known performances are as the ineffectual police chief and father of biker Marlon Brando's love interest in the 1953 film The Wild One and as tougher, no-nonsense cop, this time Brando's antagonist, in the film musical, Guys And Dolls. Keith had a starring role in Douglas Sirk's Written on the Wind, he had roles on television, including a role as Richard Kimble's father in The Fugitive and lead roles on episodes of Alfred Hitchcock Presents and The Twilight Zone, his last screen effort, in the role of Jason Foster, the rich New Orleans patriarch to a self-centered, greed-riddled family awaiting their benefactor to die.
Keith's second wife was stage actress Helena Shipman, with whom he had actor Brian Keith. On April 18, 1927, Keith married Peg Entwistle, an actress, a decade his junior, they were divorced in 1929. Entwistle, a well-known Broadway actress, committed suicide by jumping from the "H" of the famous Hollywoodland Sign in 1932, he remained married to his fourth wife, Dorothy Tierney, until his death on December 22, 1966. Robert Keith on IMDb Robert Keith at the TCM Movie Database Robert Keith at the Internet Broadway Database Robert Keith at Find a Grave
Battle of the Allia
The Battle of the Allia was fought between the Senones and the Roman Republic. It was fought at eleven Roman miles north of Rome; the Romans were routed and subsequently the Senones sacked Rome. The common date given for the battle is 390 BC; this is based on the account of the battle by the Roman historian Livy and the Varronian chronology, a Roman dating system. The ancient Greek historian Polybius, who used a Greek dating system, derived the date 387/6 BC. Plutarch wrote that the battle took place just after the summer solstice when the moon was near the full, a little more than three hundred and sixty years from the foundation of Rome; that would be shortly after 393 BC. Tacitus said that the battle took place the 15 before the Kalends of August, 18 July; the Senones were one of the various Gallic tribes that had invaded northern Italy. They settled on the Adriatic Coast around. According to Livy, they were called to the Etruscan town of Clusium by Aruns, an influential young man of the city who wanted to take revenge against Lucumo, who had "debauched his wife."
When the Senones appeared, the Clusians felt asked Rome for help. The Romans sent the three sons of Marcus Fabius Ambustus, one of Rome’s most powerful aristocrats, as ambassadors, they told the Gauls not to attack Clusium and that if they did, the Romans would fight to defend the town. They asked to negotiate a peace; the Senones accepted a peace. There was a quarrel and a battle broke out; the Roman ambassadors joined in. One of them killed a Senone chieftain; that was a violation of the rule. The brothers had taken sides and one of them had killed a Senone; the Gauls withdrew to discuss. According to Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Lucumo was the king of the city, he assigned the guardianship of his son to Aruns. When the son became a young man, he seduced her; the grieving Aruns went to Gaul to sell wine and figs. The Gauls had never asked Aruns where they were produced, he replied that they came from a large and fertile land, inhabited by only a few people who were not good fighters. He advised them to enjoy the fruit as their own.
He persuaded them to come to Italy, go to Clusium, make war. Dionysius' account presumes that those Gauls were in Gaul; when Quintus Fabius, one of the Roman ambassadors, killed a Gallic leader, they wanted the brothers to be handed over to them to pay the penalty for the men they had killed. When the ambassadors of the Senones arrived in Rome and demanded for the three Fabii brothers to be handed over to them, the Senate was pressured by favouritism not to express opinions against the powerful Fabia family. To avoid being blamed for a possible defeat if the Gauls attacked, they referred the matter to the people. Livy wrote that "those whose punishment they were asked to decide were elected military tribunes with consular powers for the coming year." The Gauls were enraged that those who had violated the law of nations had been honoured and marched on Rome, 130 km from Clusium. Livy wrote that "in response to the tumult caused by their swift advance, terrified cities rushed to arms and the country folk fled, but the Gauls signified by their shouts wherever they went that their destination was Rome."
The number of fighters involved in the battle is not known for sure. Plutarch writes that the Romans were not outnumbered and had 40,000 men, but most were untrained and unaccustomed to weapons. Dionysius of Halicarnassus writes that the Romans had four well-trained legions and a levy of untrained citizens, larger in number; that would give a rough figure of some 35,000. Diodorus Siculus writes. Livy gives no figures. Modern historians Cary and Scullard estimate that the Romans had 15,000 men and the Gauls 30,000 to 70,000. Berresford Ellis gives an estimate of a minimum of 24,000 based on the assumption that "the Romans had... four legions – for each consul had two legions under his command – and given that each legion had 6,000 men." He thinks that there may have been a contingent of allied troops. He thinks that the "Senones' tribal army could scarcely number more than 12,000."The figures given by ancient historians for the size of the Roman army engaged in the battle are unlikely, as they are notorious for exaggerating figures.
Contrary to Berresford Ellis's assertion, at the time, the Romans had only two legions. The number of legions was not increased to four until in the century, during the Second Samnite War, the first record of four legions is for 311 BC. At that point, the Romans had additional military commanders: the praetor, instituted in 366 BC, the proconsul, a consul who received an extension of his term of military command; the first historical hints of the consuls leading more than one legion were for 299 BC and 297 BC, during the Third Samnite War. The first explicit mention of a consul with two legions is for 296 BC. In 295 BC, the Romans deployed six legions, four led by the two consuls, fought a coalition of four peoples in the huge Battle of Sentinum. Two were led to another front by a praetor; the battle of the Allia took place in the early days of Rome, when the Roman army was much smaller and its command structure was much simpler. The Roman army had only two legions, the two con
Founding of Rome
The tale of the Founding of Rome is recounted in traditional stories handed down by the ancient Romans themselves as the earliest history of their city in terms of legend and myth. The most familiar of these myths, the most famous of all Roman myths, is the story of Romulus and Remus, twins who were suckled by a she-wolf as infants in the 8th century BC. Another account, set earlier in time, claims that the Roman people are descended from Trojan War hero Aeneas, who escaped to Italy after the war, whose son, was the ancestor of the family of Julius Caesar; the archaeological evidence of human occupation of the area of modern-day Rome, Italy dates from about 14,000 years ago. The national epic of mythical Rome, the Aeneid of Virgil, tells the story of how Trojan prince Aeneas came to Italy; the Aeneid was written under Augustus, who claimed ancestry through Julius Caesar and his mother Venus. According to the Aeneid, the survivors from the fallen city of Troy banded together under Aeneas and underwent a series of adventures around the Mediterranean Sea, including a stop at newly founded Carthage under the rule of Queen Dido reaching the Italian coast.
The Trojans were thought to have landed in an area between modern Anzio and Fiumicino, southwest of Rome at Laurentum or, in other versions, at Lavinium, a place named for Lavinia, the daughter of King Latinus whom Aeneas married. This started a series of armed conflicts with Turnus over the marriage of Lavinia. Before the arrival of Aeneas, Turnus was betrothed to Lavinia, who married Aeneas, starting the war. Aeneas killed Turnus; the Trojans won the right to assimilate with the local peoples. The young son of Aeneas, Ascanius known as Iulus, went on to found Alba Longa and the line of Alban kings who filled the chronological gap between the Trojan saga and the traditional founding of Rome in the 8th century BC. Toward the end of this line, King Procas was the father of Amulius. At Procas' death, Numitor became king of Alba Longa, but Amulius captured him and sent him to prison. Forests have a prominent role in the founding myth-when Aeneas arrives at the site that would become Rome it is still forest: Evander goes on to explain that from that "first time" the god Saturn brings these scattered people laws and bestows upon them the name Latium.
The myth of Aeneas was of Greek origin and had to be reconciled with the Italian myth of Romulus and Remus, who would have been born around 771 BC if taken as historical figures. They were purported to be sons of Rhea Silvia and either Mars, the god of war, or the demi-god hero Hercules, they were abandoned at birth, in the manner of many mythological heroes, because of a prophecy that they would overthrow their great-uncle Amulius, who had overthrown Silvia's father Numitor. The twins were abandoned on the river Tiber by servants who took pity on the infants, despite their orders; the twins were nurtured by a she-wolf until a shepherd named Faustulus found the boys and took them as his sons. Faustulus and his wife Acca Larentia raised the children; when Remus and Romulus became adults, they killed restored Numitor. They decided to establish a city. Thus, Rome began with a fratricide, a story, taken to represent the city's history of internecine political strife and bloodshed. Strabo writes that there is an older story, about the founding of Rome, than the previous legends that he had mentioned.
The city was founded by Evander. Strabo writes that Lucius Coelius Antipater believed that Rome was founded by Greeks. Dionysius of Halicarnassus writes that the people who came to the lands that became the city of Rome were first, the Aborigines, who drove the Sicels out of these lands, were from the Arcadia the Pelasgians, who came from Thessaly, third those who came into Italy with Evander from the city of Pallantium in Arcadia, after them the Epeans from Elis and Pheneats from Pheneus, who were part of the army commanded by Heracles who decided to stay there while they were returning from the expedition at the Erytheia, with whom a Trojan element was commingled and last of all, the Trojans who had escaped with Aeneas from Ilium and the other Trojan cities. Dionysius mentions that the Trojans, were Greek people who were from the Peloponnesus, he adds that Romans say that the Pallantium was founded by Greeks from Pallantium of Arcadia, about sixty years before the Trojan war and the leader was Evander.
At the sixteenth generation after the Trojan war the Albans united these places into one settlement, surrounding them with a wall and a ditch. The Albans were a mixed nation composed of all the above people. Dionysius adds that it is that a barbarian element from among the neighboring people or a remnant of the ancient inhabitants of the place were mixed with the Greek, but all these people, having lost their national identity came to be called by one common name, after Latinus, the king of the country. The leaders of the colony were the twin brothers Remus. Another story told how a son of Odysseus and Circe, was the one who founded Rome. Martin P. Nilsson speculates that this older story was becoming a bit embarrassing as Rome became more powerful and tensions with the Greeks grew. Being descendants of the Greeks was no longer preferable, so the Romans settled on the Trojan foundation myth instead. Nilsson further speculates that the name of Romos was changed by the Romans to the native name Romulus, but the name Romos was never forgotten by the people
George Henry Sanders was a British film and television actor, singer-songwriter, music composer, author. His career as an actor spanned over forty years, his upper-class English accent and bass voice led him to be cast as sophisticated but villainous characters. He is best known as Jack Favell in Rebecca, Scott ffolliott in Foreign Correspondent, Addison DeWitt in All About Eve, for which he won an Academy Award, Sir Brian De Bois-Guilbert in Ivanhoe, King Richard the Lionheart in King Richard and the Crusaders, Mr. Freeze in a two-parter episode of Batman, the voice of the malevolent man-hating tiger Shere Khan in Disney's The Jungle Book, as Simon Templar, "The Saint", in five films made in the 1930s and 1940s. Sanders was born in Russian Empire, at number 6 Petrovski Ostrov, his parents were Henry Peter Ernest Sanders, Margarethe Jenny Bertha Sanders, born in Saint Petersburg, of German, but Estonian and Scottish, ancestry. A biography published in 1990 claimed that Sanders's father was the illegitimate son of a prince of the House of Oldenburg and a Russian noblewoman of the Czar’s court, married to a sister of the Czar.
The actor Tom Conway was George Sanders's elder brother. Their younger sister, Margaret Sanders, was born in 1912. In 1917, at the outbreak of the Russian Revolution and his family moved to England. Like his brother, he attended Bedales School and Brighton College, a boys' independent school in Brighton went on to Manchester Technical College after which he worked in textile research. Sanders travelled to South America; the Depression sent him back to England. He worked at an advertising agency, where the company secretary, the aspiring actress Greer Garson, suggested that he take up a career in acting. Sanders learned how to sing and got a role on stage in Ballyhoo, which only had a short run but helped establish him as an actor, he began to work on the British stage, appearing several times with Edna Best. He co-starred with Dennis King in The Command Performance, he appeared in a British film, Love and Laughter. Sanders travelled to New York to appear on Broadway in a production of Noël Coward's Conversation Piece, directed by Coward, which only ran 55 performances.
He returned to England, where he had small parts in films like Things to Come, Strange Cargo, Find the Lady, The Man Who Could Work Miracles, Dishonour Bright. Some of these British films were distributed by 20th Century Fox who were looking for an actor to play a villain in their Hollywood-shot film Lloyd's of London. Sanders was duly cast as Lord Everett Stacy, opposite Tyrone Power, in one of his first leads, as the hero. Lloyds of London was a big hit and in November 1936 Fox put Sanders under a seven-year contract. Fox cast him opposite Power again in Love Is News he supported Wallace Beery in Slave Ship and Gloria Stuart in The Lady Escapes. Public response to Sanders had been strong, so Fox gave him his first heroic lead, in the B picture Lancer Spy with Dolores del Rio, he and del Rio were promptly reteamed in International Settlement. Sanders was second-billed in John Ford's Four Men and a Prayer, Fox had him play a villain in Mr. Moto's Last Warning. Sanders returned to Britain to make The Outsider for Associated British Picture Corporation and So This Is London for Fox.
Sanders returned to Hollywood where RKO wanted him to play the hero in a series of B-movies, The Saint. The Saint in New York had been made starring Louis Hayward in the title role, but when he decided not to return to the role Sanders took over for The Saint Strikes Back. After playing an American Nazi in Confessions of a Nazi Spy for Warners, Sanders was The Saint in London. For RKO he was a villain in Nurse Edith Cavell, as German, with Anna Neagle and Allegheny Uprising, with John Wayne, he played a double role in The Saint's Double Trouble went to Universal for Green Hell and The House of the Seven Gables. Alfred Hitchcock wanted him for a supporting role in a huge success. After The Saint Takes Over, Hitchcock used him again in Foreign Correspondent. MGM used him as a villain in Bitter Sweet and he performed a similar function for Edward Small in The Son of Monte Cristo. Sanders made his last appearance as Simon Templar in The Saint in Palm Springs MGM called him back for Rage in Heaven, an early film noir, playing the trustworthy good guy whose best friend, Robert Montgomery, goes murderously insane and sets him up for the rap. Sanders was a villain in Man Hunt but heroic in Sundown.
RKO had been fighting with Leslie Charteris, creator of The Saint, so they stopped the series and put Sanders in a new B picture series about a suave crime fighter, The Falcon. The first entry was The Gay Falcon, it was popular and followed by A Date with the Falcon. At Fox he was in Son of Fury: The Story of Benjamin Blake with Tyrone Power it was back to The Falcon Takes Over, based on Farewell, My Lovely. MGM used him in Her Cardboard Lover and he was one of several stars in Tales of Manhattan. Sanders was tiring of The Falcon, so he handed the role to his brother Tom, in T
Ralph Nathaniel Twisleton-Wykeham-Fiennes is an English actor, film producer, director. A Shakespeare interpreter, he first achieved success onstage at the Royal National Theatre. Fiennes's portrayal of Nazi war criminal Amon Göth in Schindler's List earned him nominations for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor and Golden Globe Award for Best Supporting Actor, he won the BAFTA Award for Best Actor in a Supporting Role, his performance as Count Almásy in The English Patient garnered him a second Academy Award nomination, for Best Actor, as well as BAFTA and Golden Globe nominations. Since Fiennes has been in a number of notable films, including Quiz Show, Strange Days, The End of the Affair, Red Dragon, Maid in Manhattan, The Constant Gardener, In Bruges, The Reader, Clash of the Titans, Great Expectations and The Grand Budapest Hotel, he voiced Rameses in The Prince of Alfred Pennyworth in The Lego Batman Movie. Fiennes is known for his roles in major film franchises such as the Harry Potter film series, in which he played Lord Voldemort, the James Bond series, in which he has played Gareth Mallory / M, starting with the 2012 film Skyfall.
In 2011, Fiennes made his directorial debut with his film adaptation of Shakespeare's tragedy Coriolanus, in which he played the title character. Fiennes won a Tony Award for playing Prince Hamlet on Broadway. Since 1999, Fiennes has served as an ambassador for UNICEF UK. One of the highest profile actors in contemporary British popular culture, Fiennes appeared on Debrett's 2017 list of the most influential people in the UK. Fiennes is an Honorary Associate of London Film School. Fiennes was born in Ipswich, on 22 December 1962, he is the eldest child of Mark Fiennes, a farmer and photographer, Jennifer Lash, a writer. He has English and Scottish ancestry, his surname is of Norman origin. His grandfathers were Brigadier Henry Alleyne Lash, his great-great-uncle was Edward Pomeroy Colley, a civil engineer and first-class passenger who died in the sinking of RMS Titanic. Fiennes is an eighth cousin of Charles, Prince of Wales, a third cousin of adventurer Ranulph Fiennes and author William Fiennes.
He is the eldest of six children. His siblings are actor Joseph Fiennes, his foster brother, Michael Emery, is an archaeologist. His nephew Hero Fiennes-Tiffin played Tom Riddle, young Lord Voldemort, in Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince; the Fiennes family moved to Ireland in 1973, living in County Kilkenny for some years. Fiennes was educated at St Kieran's College for one year, followed by Newtown School, a Quaker independent school in County Waterford, they moved to Salisbury in England, where Fiennes finished his schooling at Bishop Wordsworth's School. He went on to pursue painting at Chelsea College of Art before deciding that acting was his true passion. Fiennes trained at the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art between 1983 and 1985, he began his career at the Open Air Theatre, Regent's Park and at the National Theatre before achieving prominence at the Royal Shakespeare Company. Fiennes first worked on screen in 1990 and made his film debut in 1992 as Heathcliff in Emily Brontë's Wuthering Heights opposite Juliette Binoche.
1993 was his "breakout year". He had a major role in Peter Greenaway's film The Baby of Mâcon with Julia Ormond, which provoked controversy and was poorly received; that year he became known internationally for portraying the amoral Nazi concentration camp commandant Amon Göth in Steven Spielberg's Schindler's List. For this he was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor, he did win the Best Supporting Actor BAFTA Award for the role. His portrayal of Göth earned him a spot on the American Film Institute's list of Top 50 Film Villains. Fiennes shed it afterwards. Fiennes stated that playing the role had a profoundly disturbing effect on him. In a subsequent interview, Fiennes recalled, Evil is cumulative, it happens. People believe that they've got to do a job, they've got to take on an ideology, that they've got a life to lead. I mean, I could make a judgment myself this is a terrible, horrific man, but the job was to portray the human being. There's a sort of banality, that I think was important.
And it was in the screenplay. In fact, one of the first scenes with Oskar Schindler, with Liam Neeson, was a scene where I'm saying, "You don't understand how hard it is, I have to order so many-so many meters of barbed wire and so many fencing posts and I have to get so many people from A to B." And, you know, he's sort of letting off steam about the difficulties of the job. In 1994, he portrayed American academic Charles Van Doren in Quiz Show. In 1996 he was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Actor for the epic World War II romance The English Patient, in which he starred with Kristin Scott-Thomas. Fiennes' film work has encompassed a variety of genres, including thrillers, an animated Biblical epic, camp nostalgia, romantic comedy, historical drama. In 1999, Fiennes had the title role in Onegin, a film which he helped produce, his sist