Toluca called Toluca de Lerdo, is the state capital of the State of Mexico as well as the seat of the Municipality of Toluca. It is the center of a growing urban area, now the fifth largest in Mexico, it is located 63 kilometres west-southwest of Mexico City, about 40 minutes by car to the western edge of the city. According to the 2010 census, the city of Toluca has a population of 819,561; the city is the fifth largest in Mexico by population. The municipality of Toluca, along with thirteen other municipalities, make up the metropolitan population of 2,116,506 in Greater Toluca as of 2015, making it the fifth most populous metropolitan area in Mexico; when Toluca was founded by the Matlatzincas, its original name was Nepintahihui. The current name is based on the Náhuatl name for the area when it was renamed by the Aztecs in 1473; the name has its origin in the word tollocan that comes from the name of the god, plus the locative suffix, can, to denote "place of Tolo". It is referred to in a number of Aztec codices as Tolutépetl, meaning hill of the god, Tolo, an allusion to the nearby volcano.
The name Toluca de Lerdo was adopted in 1861 in honor of President Sebastián Lerdo de Tejada. The Valley of Toluca was known as Matlatzinco Valley in ancient times and home to at least four linguistic groups: the Matlatzinca, Otomi and Nahua peoples. In the Postclassic period, the valley was ruled by a large powerful capital city whose ruins are located today in the village of Calixtlahuaca, just north of the city of Toluca. In 1478 the Mexica emperor Axayacatl conquered the Toluca Valley; the capital was stripped of its dynasty and power and some lands were distributed to kings and nobles from the Valley of Mexico. One of the rivals of Calixtlahuaca was Tollocan, a minor city-state before 1478; when Axayacatl destroyed Calixtlahuaca, he placed the imperial provincial capital in Tollocan. Calixtlahuaca and other towns in the Toluca Valley paid tribute to the Aztec Empire through Tollocan. After the Spanish conquest, the name Tollocan was changed to Toluca. Archaeologists have not yet located a major Postclassic settlement within the modern city.
Either the pre-Hispanic city of Tollocan was destroyed and covered over by the expansion of Toluca, or else the remains of Tollocan could lie outside of the modern city. A small Postclassic site was discovered on the hill called Tolochi, in the north of the modern city, but the remains seem too insubstantial to have been a major provincial capital; the tree of "Las Manitas Rojas", which means "little red hands", was planted before the Spanish Conquest in what is now the monastery of Nuestra Señora del Carmen. This tree is significant because it shows that Toluca was important enough for the Aztecs to create a botanical garden. In 1521, the Spanish conquered the Valley of Toluca. Leading the troops was Gonzalo de Sandoval, one of Cortes' many sergeants. Toluca’s first governor was Pedro Cortés Coyotzin; the valley of Toluca and what is now the city of Toluca were included in the concession made by King Carlos V of Spain to Hernán Cortés. In 1524, the evangelization process started in Toluca; the most notable figure of this effort is Fray Andrés Castro, from Burgos, the old capital of Castile, by making a great number of improvements to the city and being the first one to learn the native Matlatzincan language.
The friar was well loved by the Matlzinca people, as he worked to protect them from the injustices of the early colonial period. He is remembered to this day with a plaza that bears his name which includes a sculpture depicting him. A Spanish community was established in 1530, but it was not until 1677 that Toluca was categorized as a town. In 1793, the construction of a road to Mexico City was started. Although Toluca was recognized as a city as early as 1662, only in 1799, was Toluca named a city by the King Carlos IV of Spain on September 12. In 1810, at the beginning of the independence movement, Miguel Hidalgo stayed in Toluca for a few days on his way to the Battle of Monte de las Cruces. In 1811, a group of indigenous natives of Mexico was killed by Spanish royalists. In memorial to those who were killed in this incident, the place where this occurred was named "Plaza of the Martires". In 1812, the first city council of Toluca was installed. In 1821, independence was proclaimed by the local authorities.
After the creation of the State of Mexico in 1825, the state capital moved to different cities several times. Until in 1830, Toluca was designated as the constitutional capital of the State of Mexico. In 1832, the building of "Los Portales" was started in downtown Toluca. In 1836, because of the centralization of the Mexican federal government, all branches of government were relocated to Mexico City after some were in Toluca for several years. In 1847, thanks to Ignacio Ramírez, "El Nigromante" or the Institute of Literature opened. In 1851, the "Teatro Principal" was built by González Arratia. Mariano Riva Palacio was named governor of the state and he started the most important modernization process of the city in the 19th century. In 1881, The Industrial Union was founded, the railroad was opened and the Bank of State of Mexico created the first bills in the country. In 1882, the Teachers College was founded. In 1910, people celebrated a century of Independence, the Plaza España was inaugurated.
The municipality of Toluca, which has a geographical extent of 420.14 km2, includes numerous communities other than Toluca de Lerdo, the largest of which are the municipalities of San Pablo Autopan and San José Guadalupe Otzacatipan. The municipality is bordered by the municipalities of Almoloya de Juárez, Otzolotepec, Xonacatlán, San Mateo Atenco, Metepec, C
Puebla the Free and Sovereign State of Puebla is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is divided in 217 municipalities and its capital is the city of Puebla, it is located in East-Central Mexico. It is bordered by the states of Veracruz to the north and east, Hidalgo, México and Morelos to the west, Guerrero and Oaxaca to the south; the origins of the state lie in the city of Puebla, founded by the Spanish in this valley in 1531 to secure the trade route between Mexico City and the port of Veracruz. By the end of the 18th century, the area had become a colonial province with its own governor, which would become the State of Puebla, after the Mexican War of Independence in the early 19th century. Since that time the area around the capital city, has continued to grow economically through industry, despite being the scene of a number of battles, the most notable of which being the Battle of Puebla. Today, the state is one of the most industrialized in the country, but since most of its development is concentrated in Puebla and other cities, many of its rural areas are poor, forcing many to migrate away to places such as Mexico City and the United States.
Culturally, the state is home to the China Poblana, mole poblano, active literary and arts scenes and festivals such as Cinco de Mayo, Ritual of Quetzalcoatl, Day of the Dead celebrations and Carnival. It is home to five major indigenous groups: Nahuas, the Totonacs, the Mixtecs, the Popolocas and the Otomi, which can be found in the far north and the far south of the state; the state is in the central highlands of Mexico between the Sierra Nevada and the Sierra Madre Oriental. It has a triangular shape with its narrow part to the north, it borders the states of Veracruz, Guerrero, State of Mexico and Hidalgo. The state occupies 33,919 km2, ranking 20th of 31 states in size, has 4,930 named communities. Most of its mountains belong to the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt; the first is locally called the Sierra Norte del Puebla, entering the state from the northwest and breaks up into the smaller chains of Sierra de Zacapoaxtla, Sierra de Huauchinango, Sierra de Teziutlán, Sierra de Tetela de Ocampo, Sierra de Chignahuapan and Sierra de Zacatlán, although these names may vary among localities.
Some of the highest elevations include Apulco, Chignahuapan and Tlatlaquitepec. The highest elevations are the volcanoes Pico de Orizaba or Citlaltepetl, Popocatépetl, Iztaccíhuatl and Malinche which are found on the state's borders with Veracruz, Mexico State and Tlaxcala respectively. In the south of the state, the major elevations are the Sierra de Atenahuacán, Zapotitlán, Lomerio al Suroeste and the Sierra de Tehuacán. Dividing much of the state from Veracruz is a small chain of mountains called the Sierra Madre del Golfo; the natural geography of the state subdivides into the Huasteco Plateau, Llanuras y Lomeríos zone, Lagos y Volcanes del Anáhuac, Llanuras y Sierras de Querétaro e Hidalgo, Cordillera Costera del Sur, Mixteca Alta, Sierras y Valles Guerrenses, Sierras Centrales de Oaxaca, Sierras Orientales and Sur de Puebla. The Huasteco Plateau and the Llanuras y Lomeríos zone are located in the north and northeast, with the Lagos y Volcanes del Anáhuc in the center and north. Together, they account for over 50% of the state.
The east and northeast are occupies by the Chiconquiaco and Llanudras y Sierras de Querétaro e Hidalgo areas and account for about three percent of the state. The Cordillera del Sur and Mixteca Alta are located in the west and southwest covering less than 2.5% of the state. The Sur de Puebla is in the southwest and accounts for 26% of the state. Other southern subregions include the Sierras y Valles Guerrerenses, the Sierras Centrales de Oaxaca and the Sierras Orientales. Together, they account for about 15% of the state; the hydrology of Puebla is formed by three major river systems. One is based on the Atoyac River, which originates with the melting runoff of the Halos, Telapón and Papagayo mountains along with those from the Iztaccihuatl volcano and waters from the Zahuapan River, which enters from Tlaxcala; this river receives further water from tributaries such as the Acateno, Amacuzac and Cohetzala. The river has one major dam called Manuel Avila Camacho; this river flows west to the Pacific Ocean.
The next system empties into the Gulf of Mexico and consists of the Pantepec, Necaxa, San Pedro/Zun, Apulco, Cedro Viejo, Martínez de la Torre and other rivers on the east side of the state. This system has two major dams called the Mazatepec; the third is based on the large number of small lakes fresh water springs as well as some volcanically heated springs. The best known of these include Chignahuapan, Agua Azúl, Cisnaqullas, Garcicrespo and Rancho Colorado. Lakes include Chapulco, San Bernardino, Lagunas Epatlán, Almoloyan, Pahuatlán, Las Minas and Tecuitlapa. Puebla has many different climates owing to its range of altitudes, it has an average temperature of 16 °C but this varies locally. There is a rainy season from May until October with an overall precipitation of 801 mm; the state has eleven different climate zones. The centre and south of the state has a temperate and semi-moist climate, with an average temperature of 15 °C and 858 mm of rainfall; the southwest has a warm to hot and semi-mois
Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León
The Autonomous University of Nuevo León is a public university with seven campuses across the Northern state of Nuevo León, Mexico. Founded as University of Nuevo León on 25 September 1933, it is the third largest public university in Mexico in terms of student population and the most important institution of higher learning in Northeastern Mexico, which offers the highest number of academic programs, it is the oldest university in the state, it is headquartered in San Nicolás de los Garza, a suburb of Monterrey. The UANL has seven distinct campuses: the Main Campus, which houses the Administration Building, Colleges of Law, Biological Sciences, Public Accounting and Philosophy, amongst others, as well as the Football Stadium, other sport facilities. Other campuses include the Health Sciences Campus, the Mederos Humanities and Fine Arts campus, the Marin Agronomy Center, the Escobedo Agricultural Sciences Campus, the Linares Earth Sciences, Forestry campus,as well as the Sabinas Hidalgo facilities, where extensions of the Colleges of Law, Business are housed.
The institution counts with 84 Libraries with a total of 2,238,000 Library volumes. It has 27 research facilities with 438 national researchers, 16 academic journals, 9 main campus bookstores, 25 student computer centers and 53 cafeterias; the University has been ranked by various organizations as one of the best public universities in Mexico and Latin America, it has been ranked 4th place in a publication of the Best Universities Of Mexico 2014 by the Rankia Organization in Mexico, is ranked as one of the 10 most recognized universities in Mexico by a number of organizations like QS World University Rankings and the Mexican journal "El Universal". The immediate forerunner of this public university dates back to 1859, when the Civil Academy started its courses; this institution had been envisioned by Governor Santiago Vidaurri but was erected by his successor, José Silvestre Aramberri, after the former was removed from office. The academy began to sponsor the Pharmacy and Medicine courses José Eleuterio González had been teaching at the local Hospital of the Rosary for several decades.
The academic offerings included courses in Medicine, as well as a preparatory school. Its first director was José de Jesús Dávila y Prieto. On 29 October 1932, the delegations of the state schools of Law and Pharmacy. On 7 November 1932, the state congress ordered to proceed with the request and on 25 September 1933 the University of Nuevo León was born. In its first year, 1,864 students were schooled by 218 professors from the faculties of Medicine, Law and Chemistry, the Normal School, a preparatory school, the School of Nurses and Obstetricians and the Álvaro Obregón and Pablo Livas Industrial Schools; the institution became plagued with political disputes and two years on 25 September 1935, it was closed by state decree, only to reopen eight years on 13 September 1943. The number of faculty and personnel began to grow and this prompted the construction of its own campus in 1958, the University City, an academic complex located in San Nicolás de los Garza, a suburb to the state capital. In 1967, its open-air stadium was finished.
From 1968 to 1972, the University was hit once again by student protests and political disputes, by 1971 the protests had forced the government to stop from interfering in its internal affairs and recognize a statute of autonomy that became part of its current name: Autonomous University of Nuevo León. In the late 1990s the institution saw the necessity to rent its professional football team, which has maintained in the Mexican professional league, was affected by a corruption scandal that involved its own rector but ended with no legal consequences for those accused; the university has seven campuses across the state: University City in San Nicolás de los Garza, which houses thirteen schools. Agricultural and Animal Sciences Campus, in Escobedo, houses a local branch of both the Agronomy and Veterinary Medicine schools, a center for research and development in food sciences and a center for business development. Health Sciences Campus, in Monterrey, housing the Schools of Dentistry, Nursing, Public Health and Nutrition, along the University Hospital and a health clinic for its personnel.
Marin Campus in Marin, home of the School of Agronomy. Mederos Campus, in Monterrey, housing the Schools of Economics, Communication Studies, Political Sciences and International Relations, Stage Arts and Visual Arts, along the university theater, a state branch of the World Trade Centers Association and the Bilingual Education Research Center. Linares Campus in the Southern municipality of Linares, housing the Earth Sciences, a branch of the Accounting and Business Administration faculty schools. Sabinas Hidalgo Campus in Sabinas Hidalgo, home of a local branch of Law and Business Administration schools; the university runs 36 high schools of which 7 are Technical High Schools, one is a Bilingual International High School, the rest are 2-year high schools. 25 other schools around the state that are not property of the UANL are incorporated to the university, which means that these schools meet the norms established by the institution (a minimum infrastructure of libraries, class rooms, school programs accepted
The Liga MX is the top level of the Mexican football league system. Sponsored by BBVA through its Mexican subsidiary BBVA Bancomer, it is known as Liga BBVA Bancomer; each season, the league holds two tournaments: the Apertura, which starts in the summer, the Clausura, which starts in the winter. As of 2017, the league comprises 18 clubs, with one being relegated every year based upon its league performances over the previous three years; the first 8 teams in the table at the end of the regular phase of the tournament qualify to the liguilla. Up until July 2011, the league was divided into 3 groups; the group formatting was removed in favor of a single-table format. The league is considered the strongest in North America, among the strongest in all of Latin America. According to the International Federation of Football History and Statistics, the league ranks 20th worldwide and was ranked as the 10th strongest league in the first decade of the 21st century. According to CONCACAF, the league – with an average attendance of 25,557 during the 2014–15 season – draws the largest crowds on average of any football league in the Americas and the third largest crowds of any professional sports league in North America, behind only the National Football League and Major League Baseball, ahead of the Canadian Football League.
It is the fourth most attended football league in the world behind Germany's Bundesliga, England's Premier League and Spain's La Liga. Of the 56 teams to have competed in the league, América has won the title 13 times, followed by Guadalajara, Cruz Azul, León and Pumas UNAM, Pachuca, Tigres UANL, Santos Laguna; the current league champions are América. Prior to the Liga Mayor, there was no national football league in Mexico, football competitions were held within small geographical regions; the winners of the Primera Fuerza, a local league consisting of teams near and around Mexico City, was considered the national competition. There were other regional leagues such as the Liga Amateur de Veracruz, the Liga Occidental De Jalisco and the Liga del Bajío that had notable clubs. Many club owners were not keen on the idea of establishing a professional league, despite paying players under the table. With the increasing demand for football, there was a sense of urgency to unite all the local amateur leagues in Mexico to progress as a football nation.
The professional national league was established in 1943. When the Federación Mexicana de Fútbol Asociación announced the formation of the nation's first professional league, many clubs petitioned to join; the F. M. F. announced. The league was founded by six clubs from the Primera Fuerza of Mexico City, two clubs from the Liga Occidental, two from the Liga Veracruzana. Primera Fuerza: América, Atlante and Marte. Liga Occidental De Jalisco: Atlas and Guadalajara. Liga Amateur de Veracruz: ADO, Veracruz and Moctezuma. Throughout the late 1950s and early 1960s, many small clubs faced economic difficulties which were attributed to the lack of international competition by Mexico's clubs and an unrewarding league format. Like many South American and European clubs, Mexico's clubs that placed high in the league standings could not afford to participate in prestigious international tournaments, such as the Copa Libertadores; the 1970 World Cup held in Mexico was the first World Cup televised on a grand scale.
The season following the FIFA World Cup, the F. M. F. Changed the league format and established a playoff phase to determine the national champion; this was done to regenerate interest and reward teams that placed high in the standings. The play-off, called the Liguilla, was played using various formats to determine the champion; the most common format was a straight knock-out between the top eight teams in the table. At other times the league was divided into groups with the top two in each group as well as the best 3rd placed teams, qualifying for the play-offs and in some seasons the play-offs themselves involved teams playing in groups with the group winners playing off for the title.. The format was changed from season to season to accommodate international club commitments and the schedule of the Mexico national team; the change in the rules affected teams that traditionally dominated the table, as talented teams that had not performed well in the regular season were able to perform in the play-offs.
Prior to the start of the 2012–13 season, the organization LIGA MX / ASCENSO MX was created to replace the Mexican Football Federation as the organizing body of the competition. The league announced a rebranding, with the introduction of a new logo. On 20 August 2018, it was announced that the Liga MX would begin testing the use of video assistant referee technology; the initial test run will be conducted during under-20 matches played inside senior league stadiums, with live testing across senior Liga MX matches to take place during weeks 13 and 14 of the Apertura tournament. The league will, still need final approval from FIFA to implement the technology. Liga MX uses a single table of 18 teams that play two annual tournaments resulting in two champions per season; the season opens with the apertura tournament followed by the clausura. This format matches other Latin American schedules and correspond with FIFA's world footballing calendar, which "opens" in July/August and "closes" in April/May of
National Autonomous University of Mexico
The National Autonomous University of Mexico is a public research university in Mexico. It ranks in world rankings based on the university's extensive research and innovation. UNAM's campus is a UNESCO World Heritage site, designed by some of Mexico's best-known architects of the 20th century. Murals in the main campus were painted by some of the most recognized artists in Mexican history, such as Diego Rivera and David Alfaro Siqueiros. In 2016, it had an acceptance rate of only 8%. UNAM generates a number of strong research publications and patents in diverse areas, such as robotics, computer science, physics, human-computer interaction, philosophy, among others. All Mexican Nobel laureates are either alumni or faculty of UNAM. UNAM was founded, in its modern form, on 22 September 1910 by Justo Sierra as a liberal alternative to its predecessor, the Royal and Pontifical University of Mexico. UNAM obtained its autonomy from the government in 1929; this has given the university the freedom to define its own curriculum and manage its own budget without interference from the government.
This has had a profound effect on academic life at the university, which some claim boosts academic freedom and independence. UNAM was the birthplace of the student movement of 1968, which turned into a nationwide rebellion against autocratic rule and began Mexico's three-decade journey toward democracy; the university was founded on 22 September 1910 by Justo Sierra Minister of Education in the Porfirio Díaz regime, who sought to create a different institution from its 19th-century precursor, the Royal and Pontifical University of Mexico, founded on 21 September 1551 by a royal decree signed by Crown Prince Phillip on behalf of Charles I of Spain and brought to a definitive closure in 1865 by Maximilian I of Mexico. Instead of reviving what he saw as an anachronistic institution with strong ties to the Roman Catholic Church, he aimed to merge and expand Mexico City's decentralized colleges of higher education and create a new university, secular in nature and national in scope, that could reorganize higher education within the country, serve as a model of positivism and encompass the ideas of the dominant Mexican liberalism.
The project unified the Fine Arts, Political Science, Engineering, Medicine and the National Preparatory schools. The new university's challenges were political, due to the ongoing Mexican Revolution and the fact that the federal government had direct control over the university's policies and curriculum; this opposition led to disruptions in the function of the university when political instability forced resignations in the government, including that of President Díaz. Internally, the first student strike occurred in 1912 to protest examination methods introduced by the director of the School of Jurisprudence, Luis Cabrera. By July of that year, a majority of the law students decided to abandon the university and join the newly created Free School of Law. In 1914 initial efforts to gain autonomy for the university failed. In 1920, José Vasconcelos became rector. In 1921, he created the school's coat-of-arms: the image of an eagle and a condor surrounding a map of Latin America, from Mexico's northern border to Tierra del Fuego, the motto, "The Spirit shall speak for my race".
Efforts to gain autonomy for the university continued in the early 1920s. In the mid-1920s, the second wave of student strikes opposed a new grading system; the strikes included major classroom walkouts in the law school and confrontation with police at the medical school. The striking students were supported by many professors and subsequent negotiations led to autonomy for the university; the institution was no longer a dependency of the Secretariat of Public Education. During the early 1930s, the rector of UNAM was Manuel Gómez Morín; the government attempted to implement socialist education at Mexican universities, which Gómez Morín, many professors, Catholics opposed as an infringement on academic freedom. Gómez Morín with the support of the Jesuit-founded student group, the Unión Nacional de Estudiantes Católicos fought against socialist education. UNAM supported the recognition of the academic certificates by Catholic preparatory schools, which validated their educational function. In an interesting turn of events, UNAM played an important role in the founding of the Jesuit institution in 1943, the Universidad Iberoamericana in 1943.
However, UNAM opposed initiatives at the Universidad Iberoamericana in years, opposing the establishment of majors in industrial relations and communications. In 1943 initial decisions were made to move the university from the various buildings it occupied in the city center to a new and consolidated university campus; the first stone laid was that of the faculty of Sciences, the first building of Ciudad Universitaria. President Miguel Alemán Valdés participated in the ceremony on 20 November 1952; the University Olympic Stadium was inaugurated on the same day. In 1957 the Doctorate Council was created to organize graduate studies. Another major student strike, again over examination regulations, occurred in 1966. Students forced the rector to resign; the Board of Regents did not accept this resignation, so the professors went on
The Estadio Azteca is a multi purpose stadium located in Mexico City. It is the official home stadium of the association football team Club América, the Mexico national team; the stadium sits at an altitude of 7,200 feet above sea level. With an official capacity of 87,523, it is the largest stadium in Mexico; as of 2018, the stadium serves as the home of Cruz Azul. Regarded as one of the most famous and iconic football stadiums in the world, it is the first to have hosted two FIFA World Cup Finals, it hosted the 1986 quarter-final match between Argentina and England in which Diego Maradona scored both the "Hand of God goal" and the "Goal of the Century". The stadium hosted the "Game of the Century", when Italy defeated West Germany 4–3 in extra time in one of the 1970 semifinal matches; the stadium was the principal venue for the football tournament of the 1968 Summer Olympics. The Estadio Azteca was designed by architects Pedro Ramírez Vázquez and Rafael Mijares Alcérreca and broke ground in 1961.
The inaugural match was between Club América and Torino F. C. on 29 May 1966, with a capacity for 107,494 spectators. The first goal was scored by Brazilian Arlindo Dos Santos and the second one by Brazilian José Alves "Zague". Mexican president Gustavo Díaz Ordaz made the initial kick and FIFA president Sir Stanley Rous was the witness. A modern illumination system was inaugurated on June 5, 1966, with the first night game played between Spanish side Valencia C. F. and Necaxa. The first goal of the match was scored by Honduran José Cardona for Valencia. Roberto Martínez, aka Caña Brava, became the first Mexican to score a goal in the stadium after scoring for Necaxa; the result was a 3–1 victory for Valencia. In 1978 the stadium hosted the final of the Copa Interamericana between América and Boca Juniors of Argentina, would host a final again in 1990 between América and Club Olimpia of Paraguay; the Estadio Azteca is the site in which Pelé and Diego Maradona lifted the trophy for the last time.
Estadio Azteca has been used for musical performances throughout its history. Michael Jackson, U2, Luis Miguel, Elton John, Maná, Juan Gabriel, Gloria Estefan, Lenny Kravitz, *Nsync, Ana Gabriel, The Three Tenors all have become part of the stadium's main spectacle; the stadium has been used for political events, including Mexican president Felipe Calderón's campaign closure in 2006, as well as religious events, such as Jehovah's Witnesses conventions, the appearance of Pope John Paul II in 1999. In April 2017, it was announced that starting July 2018, Cruz Azul would relocate to the Azteca on a temporary basis, due to the impending demolition of the Estadio Azul. According to club owner Guillermo Álvarez, they plan on building a new private stadium, which could take an estimated three-to-four years; the stadium has undergone gradual improvements and renovations, including the replacing of seating within the stadium as well as the installation of electronic advertising boards. In May 2015, modern Panasonic LED panels were installed at the north and south ends of the stadium, replacing the phosphorous panels installed in 1998.
In February 2015, a vast renovation plan was unveiled with the intention that the completion of the project coincide with the stadium's 50th anniversary and with Club América's centenary in 2016, as well as the construction of a commercial hub outside the stadium to be completed some time in 2019. It was reported that Grupo Televisa, owners of the stadium, approved a joint-venture bid from private development firms IQ Real Estate and Alhel; the hub, named "Foro Azteca", will consist of a mall, office spaces, two hotels, new leisure spaces and parking spaces for 2,500 cars. The renovations to the stadium were planned in two phases; the second phase consisted of the construction of new media boxes and private skyboxes at the upper west stand. The renovations to the stadium were completed in November 2016; the seating capacity was reduced to 87,000 as a result of the renovations. The name "Azteca" is a tribute to the Aztec heritage of Mexico City; the stadium is owned by Mexican multimedia conglomerate Televisa, which has a heated media rivalry with the similarly-named TV Azteca.
Although there had been little to no confusion between the stadium and television network, Televisa changed the stadium's name to Estadio Guillermo Cañedo on January 20, 1997, in tribute to Guillermo Cañedo de la Bárcena, a top network executive, former Mexican Football Federation president, a prominent member of the FIFA executive committee who had died that day. As with the similar situation with the defunct Candlestick Park in San Francisco in the United States and its sponsored names, few outside of Televisa itself took up the new name, most of the general public had no thought about the stadium's ownership and continued to refer to the Estadio Azteca by its original name. After two of Cañedo's sons took a business interest in TV Azteca in 1998, Televisa returned to referring to it as Estadio Azteca. Known colloquially by the nickname "Coloso de Santa Úrsula", which in English