Mihrab is a semicircular niche in the wall of a mosque that indicates the qibla, that is, the direction of the Kaaba in Mecca and hence the direction that Muslims should face when praying. The wall in which a mihrab appears is thus the qibla wall, Mihrabs should not be confused with the minbar, which is the raised platform from which an Imam addresses the congregation. The word is derived from the verb ḥariba, so miḥrāb would mean battlefield or place of fight. Some scholars have suggested that the word is from the Ethiopian mekʷerab, the word mihrab originally had a non-religious meaning and simply denoted a special room in a house, a throne room in a palace, for example. The Fath al-Bari, on the authority of others, suggests the mihrab is the most honorable location of kings and the master of locations, the front and the most honorable. The Mosques in Islam, in addition to Arabic sources, cites Theodor Nöldeke, the term was subsequently used by the Islamic prophet Muhammad to denote his own private prayer room.
The room additionally provided access to the adjacent mosque, and the Prophet would enter the mosque through this room. This original meaning of mihrab – i. e. as a room in the house – continues to be preserved in some forms of Judaism where mihrabs are rooms used for private worship. In the Quran, the word refers to a sanctuary/place of worship. The sign was however just a sign on the wall, the niche came to be universally understood to identify the qibla wall, and so came to be adopted as a feature in other mosques. A sign was no longer necessary, the Quranic passage that refers to a mihrab – he came forth to his people from the sanctuary/place of worship – is inscribed on or over some mihrabs. Today, Mihrabs vary in size, are usually ornately decorated, in exceptional cases, the mihrab does not follow the qibla direction. One example is the Mezquita of Córdoba, Spain that points south instead of southeast, among the proposed explanations, there is the localization of the ancient Roman cardo street besides the old temple the Mezquita was built upon.
Another is the Masjid al-Qiblatayn, or the Mosque of the Two Qiblas and this is where the Prophet Muhammad received the command to change the direction of prayer from Jerusalem to Mecca, thus has two prayer niches. In the 21st Century the mosque was renovated, and the old prayer niche facing Jerusalem was removed, and the one facing Mecca was left
Moorish architecture is the architectural tradition that appeared in the Maghreb region and the Iberian peninsula after the Arab Islamic conquest. Other notable buildings include the palace city of Medina Azahara, the church San Cristo de la Luz in Toledo. The term is used to include the products of the Islamic civilisation of Southern Italy. The Palazzo dei Normanni in Sicily was begun in the 9th century by the Emir of Palermo, there is archeological evidence of an eighth-century mosque in Narbonne, France. Arabic architecture Islamic architecture Arab-Norman culture Islamic influences on Christian art Moorish Revival* Moroccan architecture Mudéjar Mudéjar Architecture of Aragon Curl, a Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architecture
Albufeira is a city and municipality in the district of Faro, in the southernmost Portuguese region of the Algarve. The municipality population in 2011 was 40,828, in an area of 140.66 square kilometres, the city proper had a population of 13,646 in 2001. It is 250 kilometres from Lisbon, and is close proximity of Paderne Castle. Lagos is located 30 kilometres to the west, and Faro 45 kilometres to the south-east, the primitive settlement was occupied by the Romans, named it Baltum, introducing a centralized administrative structure and developing intense agricultural activities along with commerce. The Romans constructed aqueducts and bridges, of which still remain. The Arabs constructed strong defensive structures, making the area almost impregnable, the development of agriculture during this period was notable, with the introduction of new techniques and plant species. The Christian conquest of the region began at the end of the 12th century, when Afonso III of Portugal occupied the throne, most of the Algarve had already fallen into the hands of the Christians.
Templar and Hospitaler Knights and religious orders that supported the Reconquista, assaulted many of the occupied by the Arabs. It was following the capture of Faro that the siege of Albufeira became unsupportable, encircled by enemy forces on all sides, it fell in 1249 to the forces of Afonso III, who donated the lands to the Order of Aviz in 1250. The Moors were persecuted terribly by the army, which chased the remaining forces into a cavern, known today as Cova do Xorino. The town became part of the kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves, King D. Manuel I awarded a Charter to the Town of Albufeira on 20 August 1504 and from that day the town was governed according to the legislation in force for the rest of the country. Albufeira was one of the towns of the Algarve most affected by natural calamities, the sea invaded the town with 10 metres waves, destroying almost all the buildings along the coast. In the town proper, only 27 residential buildings survived the natural disaster, the parochial church, an old mosque adapted by the Christians, where many of the residents sought refuge during the cataclysm, collapsed causing 227 deaths.
Even following these events, the Algarve continued to experience aftershocks, until 20 August of the following year, after the 19th century, the community grew through the expansion of the fishery. This is why the locals annually celebrate Festival de Peixes, which has been tradition, in the first decades of the 20th century, the export of fish and nuts represented the largest contribution to the local economy of the municipality. The town itself had five factories employing 700-800 people, mostly wives of working in local production. The population was reduced by half and the industry became a subsistence activity. Albufeira is twinned with, Fife, Scotland and commerce are the main activities in Albufeira
Tavira is a Portuguese city and municipality, situated in the east of the Algarve on the south coast of Portugal. It is 28 kilometres east of Faro and 177 kilometres west of Seville in Spain, the Gilão River meets the Atlantic Ocean in Tavira. The population in 2011 was 26,167, in an area of 606.97 km², taviras origins date back to the late Bronze Age. In the 8th century BC it became one of the first Phoenician settlements in the Iberian West, the Phoenicians created a colonial urban center here with massive walls, at least two temples, two harbours and a regular urban structure. Phoenician Tavira existed until the end of 6th century BC, when it was destroyed by conflict and it is thought its original name was Baal Saphon, named after the Phoenician Thunder and Sea god. After a century of being abandoned, the settlement recovered, during the bloom that characterised the so-called Tartessian Period. This second urban center, Tartessian Tavira, was abandoned by the end of the 4th century BC. The main centre moved to nearby Cerro do Cavaco, a fortified hill occupied until the time of Emperor Augustus.
During the time of Caesar, the Romans created a new port, some 7 kilometres from Tavira, Balsa became a big town, in fact much bigger than Tavira, that grew and decayed in parallel with the Roman Empire. When the Moors conquered Iberia, in the 8th Century, Balsa was already extinct as a town, under Roman rule, Tavira was a secondary passing place on the important road between Balsa and Baesuris. The Moorish occupation of Tavira between the 8th and 13th centuries left its mark on the agriculture and culture of the area and that influence can still be seen in Tavira today with its whitewashed buildings, Moorish style doors and rooftops. Tavira Castle, two mosques and palaces were built by the Moors, the impressive seven arched Roman bridge is now not considered to be Roman after a recent archaeological survey, but originates from a 12th Century Moorish bridge. This was a good time economically for Tavira, which established itself as an important port for sailors and fishermen. The area stayed rural until the 11th century when Moorish Tavira started to rapidly, becoming one of the important towns of the Algarve.
Christians were now back in control of Tavira and though most Muslims left the town remained in a Moorish quarter known as Mouraria. In the 17th century, the port on its river was of importance, shipping produce such as salt, dried fish. Like most of the Algarve its buildings were all destroyed by the earthquake of 1755. This earthquake is thought to have reached 8. 5–9.0 on the moment magnitude scale and caused damage throughout the Algarve due to high intensity shaking
The Qibla, transliterated as Qiblah, Kiblah, Kıble or Kibla, is the direction that should be faced when a Muslim prays during salah prayers. It is fixed as the direction of the Kaaba in Mecca, most mosques contain a wall niche, known as mihrab, that indicates the Qiblah. Most multifaith prayer rooms will contain a Qibla, although usually less standardized in appearance than one would find within a mosque, Muslims all praying towards the same point is traditionally considered to symbolize the unity of the Ummah, or all Muslims worldwide, under Sharia. The Qiblah has importance beyond salaat and plays a part in various ceremonies, the head of an animal that is slaughtered using halal methods is usually aligned with the Qiblah. After death, Muslims are usually buried with the body at angles to the Qibla. Thus, archaeology can indicate an Islamic necropolis if no signs are present. According to the traditional Muslim view, the Qiblah originally faced the Noble Sanctuary in Jerusalem and this Qiblah was used for over 13 years, from 610 CE until 623 CE.
Seventeen months after the Islamic prophet Muhammads 622 CE arrival in Medina – the date is given as 11 February 624 – the Qiblah became oriented towards the Kaaba in Mecca. According to traditional accounts from Muhammads companions, the change happened very suddenly during the prayer in Medina. Muhammad was leading the prayer when he received revelations from God instructing him to take the Kaaba as the Qiblah, there is disagreement as to when the practice started and for how long it lasted. Some sources say the Jerusalem Qiblah was used for a period of sixteen and eighteen months. The Jewish custom of facing Jerusalem for prayer may have influenced the Muslim Qiblah, others surmise that the use of Jerusalem as the direction of prayer was to either induce the Jews of Medina to convert to Islam or to win over their hearts. When relations with the Jews soured, Muhammad changed the Qiblah towards Mecca, another reason given why the Qiblah was changed is that Jews viewed the use of Jerusalem as signalling the Muslims intention of joining their religion.
It was changed to discredit this assumption, others state that it was changed because Muhammad was angered by that city or its people, and not because of his conflict with the Jews. In Medieval times, Muslims travelling abroad used an astrolabe to find the Qiblah, cheraman Juma Masjid is a mosque in the south Indian state of Kerala. Believed to be built in 7th century CE by Malik Bin Deenar, it is thought to be the oldest mosque in India, and it was constructed during the lifetime of Muhammad, and the bodies of some of his original followers are said to be buried there. Unlike other mosques in Kerala state, which face westwards, this mosque faces eastwards, from whencesoever Thou startest forth, turn Thy face in the direction of the sacred Mosque, that is indeed the truth from the Lord. And Allah is not unmindful of what ye do, such are the people of truth, the Allah-fearing
Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic, is a country on the Iberian Peninsula in Southwestern Europe. It is the westernmost country of mainland Europe, to the west and south it is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and to the east and north by Spain. The Portugal–Spain border is 1,214 kilometres long and considered the longest uninterrupted border within the European Union, the republic includes the Atlantic archipelagos of the Azores and Madeira, both autonomous regions with their own regional governments. The territory of modern Portugal has been settled, invaded. The Pre-Celts, Celts and the Romans were followed by the invasions of the Visigothic, in 711 the Iberian Peninsula was invaded by the Moors, making Portugal part of Muslim Al Andalus. Portugal was born as result of the Christian Reconquista, and in 1139, Afonso Henriques was proclaimed King of Portugal, in the 15th and 16th centuries, Portugal established the first global empire, becoming one of the worlds major economic and military powers.
Portugal monopolized the trade during this time, and the Portuguese Empire expanded with military campaigns led in Asia. After the 1910 revolution deposed the monarchy, the democratic but unstable Portuguese First Republic was established, democracy was restored after the Portuguese Colonial War and the Carnation Revolution in 1974. Shortly after, independence was granted to almost all its overseas territories, Portugal has left a profound cultural and architectural influence across the globe and a legacy of over 250 million Portuguese speakers today. Portugal is a country with a high-income advanced economy and a high living standard. It is the 5th most peaceful country in the world, maintaining a unitary semi-presidential republican form of government and it has the 18th highest Social Progress in the world, putting it ahead of other Western European countries like France and Italy. Portugal is a pioneer when it comes to drug decriminalization, as the nation decriminalized the possession of all drugs for use in 2001.
The early history of Portugal is shared with the rest of the Iberian Peninsula located in South Western Europe, the name of Portugal derives from the joined Romano-Celtic name Portus Cale. Other influences include some 5th-century vestiges of Alan settlements, which were found in Alenquer, the region of present-day Portugal was inhabited by Neanderthals and by Homo sapiens, who roamed the border-less region of the northern Iberian peninsula. These were subsistence societies that, although they did not establish prosperous settlements, neolithic Portugal experimented with domestication of herding animals, the raising of some cereal crops and fluvial or marine fishing. Chief among these tribes were the Calaicians or Gallaeci of Northern Portugal, the Lusitanians of central Portugal, the Celtici of Alentejo, a few small, semi-permanent, commercial coastal settlements were founded in the Algarve region by Phoenicians-Carthaginians. Romans first invaded the Iberian Peninsula in 219 BC, during the last days of Julius Caesar, almost the entire peninsula had been annexed to the Roman Republic.
The Carthaginians, Romes adversary in the Punic Wars, were expelled from their coastal colonies and it suffered a severe setback in 150 BC, when a rebellion began in the north
Silves Cathedral in the city of Silves, in the Algarve region of southern Portugal, was built as a mosque during Moorish rule of Iberia and converted into cathedral after the Reconquista. It is considered the main Gothic monument in the Algarve, since 29 June 1922, it is on the register of national monuments of Portugal. The details about the foundation and building of Silves Cathedral are unclear, the works proceeded with difficulty, and in 1352 the cathedral was damaged by a strong earthquake. In the 1440s, the workshop was given a great impulse by King Afonso V. This building campaign produced the apse with its three chapels, the transept and the portal, in Gothic style, dating from the 1470s. The three-aisled nave was finished in the early 16th century. When King John II died unexpectedly in Alvor, near Silves, in 1495, many important personalities of Silves were buried in the cathedral during the 15th and 16th centuries, as attested by the many tomb slabs on its floor. Economic difficulties and a diminishing population plagued the history of Silves in the 15th and 16th centuries, the most notable of the bishops at this time was Jerónimo Osório, one of the greatest Portuguese humanists and theologians.
It was during his rule, in 1577, that the seat was transferred from Silves to Faro. In the next centuries the interior of the church was enriched with Mannerist and Baroque altarpieces, the Great earthquake of 1755 struck a terrible blow for Silves and its cathedral and destroyed part of the nave. The building was repaired and modified, replacing the simple Gothic forms of the part of the main façade with Rococo volutes. The bell tower and the portal are 18th-century additions. In the 20th century, a renovation of Silves Cathedral suppressed many of the Baroque additions. From the outside, an aspect of Silves Cathedral is the contrast between the whitewashed surfaces of the walls and the red sandstone of the apse, windows. The main portal, executed in the 1470s, is inserted on a stepped rectangular moulding, other primitive features of the portal are the figurative corbels of the upper cornice of the moulding, representing animal and human faces. The portal consists of a series of four columns and several pointed-arch archivolts, the outer archivolt is decorated with a series of reliefs of vegetal motifs and human figures, some playing musical instruments.
The decoration of the capitals of the columns reveals the influence of the Batalha workshop, the portal of the main church of Portimão, located nearby, is almost a replica of the one in Silves and is believed to have been executed by the same artisans. The South portal is a Baroque addition, Silves Cathedral is a Latin cross church with a three-aisled nave and three chapels in the east end
Salah, called namāz in some languages, is one of the Five Pillars in the faith of Islam and an obligatory religious duty for every Muslim. It is a physical and spiritual act of worship that is observed five times every day at prescribed times, in this ritual, the worshiper starts standing, prostrates themself, and concludes while sitting on the ground. During each posture, the worshiper recites or reads certain verses, the word salah is commonly translated as prayer but this definition might be confusing. Muslims use the words dua or supplication when referring to the definition of prayers which is reverent petitions made to God. Salah is preceded by ritual ablution, Salah consists of the repetition of a unit called a rakʿah consisting of prescribed actions and words. The number of obligatory rakaʿāt varies from two to four according to the time of day or other circumstances, prayer is obligatory for all Muslims except those who are prepubescent, are menstruating, or are experiencing bleeding in the 40 days after childbirth.
Every movement in the salat is accompanied by the takbir except the standing between the ruku and sujud, and the ending which has a derivation of the Muslim greeting As-salamu alaykum, Salah is an Arabic word whose basic meaning is bowing, worship, prayer. In its English usage, the reference of the word is almost always confined to the Muslim formal, Muslims themselves use several terms to refer to salah depending on their language or culture. In many parts of the world, including many non-Arab countries such as Indonesia, the other major term is the Persian word namāz, used by speakers of the Indo-Iranian languages, as well as Turkish, Chinese and Albanian. In North Caucasian languages, the term is lamaz in Chechen and this is a book, there is no doubt in it, a guidance for righteous. Those who believe in unseen and offer Salah and spend from what we have given to them, and those who believe in what We have revealed to thee and what We revealed before thee, and on hereafter they believe. They are on guidance from their lord and they are successful, and offer Salah and pay Zakah and bow along those who bow.
Guard your Salah and middle Salah, and stand before God devoutly obedient, if you fear on foot or riding, when you become secure remember God as he has taught you that which you did not know previously. And offer Salah at the two ends of day and at the approach of night, indeed good deeds remove bad deeds, offer Salah at the decline of the day until the darkness of night, and Quran at dawn, indeed Quran at dawn ever is a witness. And at night pray Tahajjud an extra for thee, it is expected that your lord raise you to praised station. ) Say call God or call Merciful, by whomever you call, He has good names, and offer Salah and pay Zakah and obey Messenger so that you may receive mercy. And recite that is revealed to you as a book and offer Salah, indeed Salah prohibits immorality and wrongdoing, and remembrance of God is great, ) The chief purpose of salah is to act as a persons communication with and remembrance of God. By reciting The Opening, the first sura of the Quran, as required in daily worship, the worshiper can stand before God and praise Him, under the Hanbali School of thought, a person who doesnt pray five times a day is an unbeliever
The Visigothic Kingdom or Kingdom of the Visigoths was a kingdom that occupied what is now southwestern France and the Iberian Peninsula from the 5th to the 8th centuries. The Kingdom maintained independence from the Eastern Roman or Byzantine Empire, the kingdom of the 6th and 7th centuries is sometimes called the regnum Toletanum after the new capital of Toledo. The ethnic distinction between the indigenous Hispano-Roman population and the Visigoths had largely disappeared by this time, Liber Iudiciorum abolished the old tradition of having different laws for Romans and for Visigoths. Most of the Visigothic Kingdom was conquered by Arab Umayyad troops from North Africa in 711 AD and these gave birth to the medieval Kingdom of Asturias when a local landlord called Pelayo, most likely of Gothic origin, was elected Princeps by the Astures. The Visigoths developed the influential law code known in Western Europe as the Liber Iudiciorum. From 407 to 409 AD, the Germanic Vandals, with the allied Alans and Suebi, crossed the frozen Rhine, for their part, the Visigoths under Alaric famously sacked Rome in 410, capturing Galla Placidia, the sister of Western Roman emperor Honorius.
After he married Placidia, the Emperor Honorius enlisted him to provide Visigothic assistance in regaining nominal Roman control of Hispania from the Vandals and Suevi. In 418, Honorius rewarded his Visigothic federates under King Wallia by giving land in the Garonne valley of Gallia Aquitania on which to settle. This probably took place under hospitalitas, the rules for billeting army soldiers, the Visigoths with their capital at Toulouse, remained de facto independent, and soon began expanding into Roman territory at the expense of the feeble Western empire. Under Theodoric I, the Visigoths attacked Arles and Narbonne, but were checked by Flavius Aetius using Hunnic mercenaries, by 451, the situation had reversed and the Huns had invaded Gaul, now Theodoric fought under Aetius against Attila the Hun in the Battle of the Catalaunian Plains. Attila was driven back, but Theodoric was killed in the battle, the Vandals completed the conquest of North Africa when they took Carthage on October 19,439 and the Suevi had taken most of Hispania.
The Roman emperor Avitus now sent the Visigoths into Hispania, Theodoric II invaded and defeated the King of the Suevi, Rechiarius, at the battle on the river Orbigo in 456 near Asturica Augusta and sacked Bracara Augusta the Suevi capital. The Goths sacked the cities in Spain quite brutally, they massacred a portion of the population and even attacked some holy places, theoderic took control over Hispania Baetica and southern Lusitania. In 461, the Goths received the city of Narbonne from the emperor Libius Severus in exchange for their support. This led to a revolt by the army and by Gallo-Romans under Aegidius, as a result, Romans under Severus and the Visigoths fought other Roman troops, in 466, who was the youngest son of Theodoric I, came to the Visigothic throne. He is infamous for murdering his elder brother Theodoric II who had become king by murdering his elder brother Thorismund. Under Euric, the Visigoths began expanding in Gaul and consolidating their presence in the Iberian peninsula, Euric fought a series of wars with the Suebi who retained some influence in Lusitania, and brought most of this region under Visigothic power, taking Emerita Augusta in 469.
Euric attacked the Western Roman Empire, capturing Hispania Tarraconensis in 472, by 476, he had extended his rule to the Rhone and the Loire rivers which comprised most of southern Gaul
A mosque is a place of worship for followers of Islam. There are strict and detailed requirements in Sunni jurisprudence for a place of worship to be considered a mosque, many mosques have elaborate domes and prayer halls, in varying styles of architecture. Mosques originated on the Arabian Peninsula, but are now found in all inhabited continents, the mosque serves as a place where Muslims can come together for salat as well as a center for information, social welfare, and dispute settlement. The imam leads the congregation in prayer, the first mosque in the world is often considered to be the area around the Kaaba in Mecca now known as the Masjid al-Haram. Others regard the first mosque in history to be the Quba Mosque in present-day Medina since it was the first structure built by Muhammad upon his emigration from Mecca in 622. The Islamic Prophet Muhammad went on to another mosque in Medina. Built on the site of his home, Muhammad participated in the construction of the mosque himself and helped pioneer the concept of the mosque as the focal point of the Islamic city.
The Masjid al-Nabawi introduced some of the still common in todays mosques, including the niche at the front of the prayer space known as the mihrab. The Masjid al-Nabawi was constructed with a courtyard, a motif common among mosques built since then. Mosques had been built in Iraq and North Africa by the end of the 7th century, the Imam Husayn Shrine in Karbala is reportedly one of the oldest mosques in Iraq, although its present form – typical of Persian architecture – only goes back to the 11th century. The shrine, while operating as a mosque, remains one of the holiest sites for Shia Muslims, as it honors the death of the third Shia imam. The Mosque of Amr ibn al-As was reportedly the first mosque in Egypt, serving as a religious, like the Imam Husayn Shrine, nothing of its original structure remains. With the Shia Fatimid Caliphate, mosques throughout Egypt evolved to include schools, hospitals and it was the first to incorporate a square minaret and includes naves akin to a basilica. Those features can be found in Andalusian mosques, including the Grand Mosque of Cordoba, some elements of Visigothic architecture, like horseshoe arches, were infused into the mosque architecture of Spain and the Maghreb.
The first mosque in East Asia was reportedly established in the 8th century in Xian, the Great Mosque of Xian, whose current building dates from the 18th century, does not replicate the features often associated with mosques elsewhere. Indeed, minarets were initially prohibited by the state, mosques in western China were more likely to incorporate elements, like domes and minarets, traditionally seen in mosques elsewhere. In turn, the Javanese style influenced the styles of mosques in Indonesias Austronesian neighbors—Malaysia, Muslim empires were instrumental in the evolution and spread of mosques. Although mosques were first established in India during the 7th century, reflecting their Timurid origins, Mughal-style mosques included onion domes, pointed arches, and elaborate circular minarets, features common in the Persian and Central Asian styles