Ocean Terminal, Hong Kong
Ocean Terminal is a cruise terminal and shopping centre located on Canton Road in Tsim Sha Tsui, Hong Kong. The location of Ocean Terminal was once a wharf pier on the west shore of Tsim Sha Tsui. Rebuilt and enlarged for use as a cruise terminal, it served as a multi-story shopping centre. Ocean Terminal opened on 22 March 1966, signifying the increasing wealth of Hong Kong Costing HK$70 million, its 112 shops made it "the largest shopping centre" in Hong Kong. It was the first Shopping mall in Hong Kong. In 1987 it was re-branded together with nearby buildings of the Wharf as Harbour City. Ocean Terminal is now owned by The Wharf Limited; the annual berth utilisation rate of Ocean Terminal in Tsim Sha Tsui, which offers two berths accommodating vessels of up to 50,000 tonnes, rose to 76% last year from 71% in 2003. Between 2001 and 2006, some 11 cruise vessels had to berth mid-stream and at container terminals because Ocean Terminal could not meet market demand. Star House Media related to Ocean Terminal at Wikimedia Commons Official website
Egypt the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula. Egypt is a Mediterranean country bordered by the Gaza Strip and Israel to the northeast, the Gulf of Aqaba and the Red Sea to the east, Sudan to the south, Libya to the west. Across the Gulf of Aqaba lies Jordan, across the Red Sea lies Saudi Arabia, across the Mediterranean lie Greece and Cyprus, although none share a land border with Egypt. Egypt has one of the longest histories of any country, tracing its heritage back to the 6th–4th millennia BCE. Considered a cradle of civilisation, Ancient Egypt saw some of the earliest developments of writing, urbanisation, organised religion and central government. Iconic monuments such as the Giza Necropolis and its Great Sphinx, as well the ruins of Memphis, Thebes and the Valley of the Kings, reflect this legacy and remain a significant focus of scientific and popular interest. Egypt's long and rich cultural heritage is an integral part of its national identity, which has endured, assimilated, various foreign influences, including Greek, Roman, Ottoman Turkish, Nubian.
Egypt was an early and important centre of Christianity, but was Islamised in the seventh century and remains a predominantly Muslim country, albeit with a significant Christian minority. From the 16th to the beginning of the 20th century, Egypt was ruled by foreign imperial powers: The Ottoman Empire and the British Empire. Modern Egypt dates back to 1922, when it gained nominal independence from the British Empire as a monarchy. However, British military occupation of Egypt continued, many Egyptians believed that the monarchy was an instrument of British colonialism. Following the 1952 revolution, Egypt expelled British soldiers and bureaucrats and ended British occupation, nationalized the British-held Suez Canal, exiled King Farouk and his family, declared itself a republic. In 1958 it merged with Syria to form the United Arab Republic, which dissolved in 1961. Throughout the second half of the 20th century, Egypt endured social and religious strife and political instability, fighting several armed conflicts with Israel in 1948, 1956, 1967 and 1973, occupying the Gaza Strip intermittently until 1967.
In 1978, Egypt signed the Camp David Accords withdrawing from the Gaza Strip and recognising Israel. The country continues to face challenges, from political unrest, including the recent 2011 revolution and its aftermath, to terrorism and economic underdevelopment. Egypt's current government is a presidential republic headed by President Abdel Fattah el-Sisi, described by a number of watchdogs as authoritarian. Islam is the official religion of Egypt and Arabic is its official language. With over 95 million inhabitants, Egypt is the most populous country in North Africa, the Middle East, the Arab world, the third-most populous in Africa, the fifteenth-most populous in the world; the great majority of its people live near the banks of the Nile River, an area of about 40,000 square kilometres, where the only arable land is found. The large regions of the Sahara desert, which constitute most of Egypt's territory, are sparsely inhabited. About half of Egypt's residents live in urban areas, with most spread across the densely populated centres of greater Cairo and other major cities in the Nile Delta.
The sovereign state of Egypt is a transcontinental country considered to be a regional power in North Africa, the Middle East and the Muslim world, a middle power worldwide. Egypt's economy is one of the largest and most diversified in the Middle East, is projected to become one of the largest in the world in the 21st century. In 2016, Egypt became Africa's second largest economy. Egypt is a founding member of the United Nations, Non-Aligned Movement, Arab League, African Union, Organisation of Islamic Cooperation. "Miṣr" is the Classical Quranic Arabic and modern official name of Egypt, while "Maṣr" is the local pronunciation in Egyptian Arabic. The name is of Semitic origin, directly cognate with other Semitic words for Egypt such as the Hebrew "מִצְרַיִם"; the oldest attestation of this name for Egypt is the Akkadian "mi-iṣ-ru" related to miṣru/miṣirru/miṣaru, meaning "border" or "frontier". There is evidence of rock carvings in desert oases. In the 10th millennium BCE, a culture of hunter-gatherers and fishers was replaced by a grain-grinding culture.
Climate changes or overgrazing around 8000 BCE began to desiccate the pastoral lands of Egypt, forming the Sahara. Early tribal peoples migrated to the Nile River where they developed a settled agricultural economy and more centralised society. By about 6000 BCE, a Neolithic culture rooted in the Nile Valley. During the Neolithic era, several predynastic cultures developed independently in Upper and Lower Egypt; the Badarian culture and the successor Naqada series are regarded as precursors to dynastic Egypt. The earliest known Lower Egyptian site, predates the Badarian by about seven hundred years. Contemporaneous Lower Egyptian communities coexisted with their southern counterparts for more than two thousand years, remaining culturally distinct, but maintaining frequent contact through trade; the earliest known evidence of Egyptian hieroglyphic inscriptions appeared during the predynastic period on Naqada III pottery vessels, dated to about 3200 BCE. A unified kingdom was founded c. 3150 BCE
Bandar-e Anzali is a city of Gilan Province, Iran. At the 2011 census, its population was 144,664. Anzali is one of the most important cities in Iran in terms of tourism and athletics; the city was home to the biggest port on the southern shores of the Caspian Sea. Bandar-e Anzali consists of an island called the surrounding lands. Tourist attractions include a clock tower called Manareh, the long harbour promenade, the water-logged delta and beach along the Sefid Rud. Anzali is an old city in ancient Iran, they are related to Kadusin, owing to their pleasant relationship with Cyprus and their cooperation in battles, they changed their name to Anzan "The Anshans of Persia", in which the Greeks called Anzaluy; this word in Pahlavi language means the variant Persian form of it is Anzalazh. Anzali Gulf was a safe harbour for trade ships and fishing boats, it was renamed to Pahlavi in 1935. In 1919, with the collapse of General Anton Denikin's White Russian army, eighteen of his ships sought refuge in Anzali.
On 18 May 1920, a Soviet flotilla of thirteen ships launched a surprise attack on Anzali, capturing the British garrison and the eighteen White Russian ships. This allowed for the establishment of the short-lived Persian Socialist Republic and the Persian Communist Party. Soviet authorities denied responsibility for the attack, blaming the local Russian naval commander for attacking under his own authority, its wonderful lagoon and City Hall edifice, Mian Poshte Palace and Motamedi Edifice, are its tourist attractions. Until 1980, when it was moved to Noshahr, Anzali was the site of the Caspian University of Naval Science; the structure Of Naser-al-din Shah Place, built by Moayer-ol-mamalekk and its famous Sangi Bath was destroyed by people and natural factors. A wonder of Sangi Bath was the system of durability water in its basins; some groups think. This Ghajar Structure built in two floors with the help of Mirza Abd-ol-Vahab; the Anzali Lagoon divides the Anzali Port in two parts. The city is connected by two bridges to the Beheshti Island.
There is a caviar processing factory in Bandar-e Anzali, some old ruins from 19th century and the popular Shanbeh Bazaar. Tourbebar is a village about 40 kilometers near the Anzali Lagoon. Bandar-e Anzali has a humid subtropical climate, it has the most humid climate of any city in Iran, having a climate somewhat similar in its heavy autumn and early winter rainfall, persistent high humidity and low sunshine to the Sea of Japan coast of Japan, though it receives much less summer rainfall than that region. The warm and humid weather has allowed this region to grow crops such as rice and tea that require large amounts of moisture with the extra water draining from the Elburz Mountains. Bandar-e Anzali is a center of caviar production; the preparation and marketing of, a state monopoly, handled through the Iranian Fishing Company under the control of the Finance Ministry. The public is not admitted to the immense refrigerated hangars where tons of sturgeons, some as large as 3 meters long and weighing 100 kilograms, are stored after the removal of the caviar equivalent to about one tenth of their weight.
The most popular sport in Anzali is football, the city is known as a football hub in Iran. Malavan, one of the most famous teams in Iran, is the main team of the city, they play in the second tier Azadegan League. Current and former national team player such as Sirous Ghayeghran, Saeid Ezatolahi, Mohammad Mayeli Kohan, Jalal Hosseini, Maziar Zare, Mohammad Gholami, Jalal Rafkhaei, Sosha Makani have come from Anzali. In the past, citizens of Anzali were involved in the fish trade. Rice farming and agriculture are the other traditional jobs in Anzali, are practiced in the villages surrounding the city; the majority of Anzalichi's are adherents of the Shia Islam sect, although there is a sizeable Armenian Christian minority. The people of Anzali speak Persian as the national language. Official website www.anzaliport.ir Anzali News Wikispaces has a wiki about: anzali
Border controls are measures taken by a country or a bloc of countries to monitor its borders in order to regulate the movement of people and goods. States and rulers have always regarded the ability to determine who enters or remains in their territories as a key test of their sovereignty, but prior to World War I, border controls were only sporadically implemented. In medieval Europe, for example, the boundaries between rival countries and centres of power were symbolic or consisted of amorphous borderlands, ‘marches’ and ‘debatable lands’ of indeterminate or contested status and the real ‘borders’ consisted of the fortified walls that surrounded towns and cities, where the authorities could exclude undesirable or incompatible people at the gates, from vagrants and the ‘wandering poor’, to ‘masterless women’, Gypsies or Jews; the concept of a travel document such as a passport needed to clear border controls in the modern sense has been traced back to the reign of Henry V of England, as a means of helping his subjects prove who they were in foreign lands.
The earliest reference to these documents is found in a 1414 Act of Parliament. In 1540, granting travel documents in England became a role of the Privy Council of England, it was around this time that the term "passport" was used. In 1794, issuing British passports became the job of the Office of the Secretary of State; the 1548 Imperial Diet of Augsburg required the public to hold imperial documents for travel, at the risk of permanent exile. During World War I, European governments introduced border passport requirements for security reasons, to control the emigration of people with useful skills; these controls remained in place after the war, becoming a standard, though controversial, procedure. British tourists of the 1920s complained about attached photographs and physical descriptions, which they considered led to a "nasty dehumanisation". One of the earliest systematic attempts of a modern nation state to implement border controls to restrict entry of particular groups was the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 in America.
This act aimed to implement discriminatory immigration controls on East Asians. The strict and racist border control policies had a negative impact not only on the Chinese alone but on whites and other races as well which lasted for about thirty years; the American economy suffered a great loss as a result of this Act. The Act was a sign of injustice and unfair treatment to the Chinese workers because the jobs they engaged in were menial jobs. A discriminatory approach to border control was taken in Canada through the Chinese Immigration Act of 1885, imposing what came to be called the Chinese head tax. Decolonisation during the twentieth century saw the emergence of mass emigration from nations in the Global South, thus leading former colonial occupiers to introduce stricter border controls. In the United Kingdom this process took place in stages, with British nationality law shifting from recognising all Commonwealth citizens as British subjects to today’s complex British nationality law which distinguishes between British citizens, modern British Subjects, British Overseas Citizens, overseas nationals, with each non-standard category created as a result of attempts to balance border control and the need to mitigate statelessness.
This aspect of the rise of border control in the 20th century has proven controversial. The British Nationality Law 1981 has been criticised by experts, as well as by the Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination of the United Nations, on the grounds that the different classes of British nationality it created are, in fact related to the ethnic origins of their holders; the creation of British Nationality status, for instance, was met with criticism from many Hong Kong residents who felt that British citizenship would have been more appropriate in light of the "moral debt" owed to them by the UK. Some British politicians and magazines criticised the creation of BN status. Ethnic tensions created during colonial occupation resulted in discriminatory policies being adopted in newly independent African nations, such as Uganda under Idi Amin which banned Asians from Uganda, thus creating a mass exodus of the Asian community of Uganda; such ethnically driven border control policies took forms ranging from anti-Asian sentiment in East Africa to Apartheid policies in South Africa and Namibia which creates bantustans and pass laws to segregate and impose border controls against non-whites, encouraged immigration of whites at the expense of Blacks as well as Indians and other Asians.
Whilst border control in Europe and east of the Pacific have tightened over time, they have been liberalised in Africa, from Yoweri Museveni’s reversal of Idi Amin’s anti-Asian border controls to the fall of Apartheid in South Africa. The development of border control policies over the course of the 20th century saw the standardisation of refugee travel documents under the Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees of 1951 and the 1954 Convention travel document for stateless people under the similar 1954 statelessness convention. There are multiple aspects of border control. Quarantine policies exist to control the spread of disease; when applied as a component of border control, such policies focus on mitigating the entry of infected individuals, plants, or animals into a country. Each country has its own laws and regulations for the import and export of goods into and out of a country, which its customs aut
Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent, being behind Asia in both categories. At about 30.3 million km2 including adjacent islands, it covers 6% of Earth's total surface area and 20% of its land area. With 1.2 billion people as of 2016, it accounts for about 16% of the world's human population. The continent is surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, the Isthmus of Suez and the Red Sea to the northeast, the Indian Ocean to the southeast and the Atlantic Ocean to the west; the continent includes various archipelagos. It contains 54 recognised sovereign states, nine territories and two de facto independent states with limited or no recognition; the majority of the continent and its countries are in the Northern Hemisphere, with a substantial portion and number of countries in the Southern Hemisphere. Africa's average population is the youngest amongst all the continents. Algeria is Africa's largest country by area, Nigeria is its largest by population. Africa central Eastern Africa, is accepted as the place of origin of humans and the Hominidae clade, as evidenced by the discovery of the earliest hominids and their ancestors as well as ones that have been dated to around 7 million years ago, including Sahelanthropus tchadensis, Australopithecus africanus, A. afarensis, Homo erectus, H. habilis and H. ergaster—the earliest Homo sapiens, found in Ethiopia, date to circa 200,000 years ago.
Africa encompasses numerous climate areas. Africa hosts a large diversity of ethnicities and languages. In the late 19th century, European countries colonised all of Africa. African nations cooperate through the establishment of the African Union, headquartered in Addis Ababa. Afri was a Latin name used to refer to the inhabitants of then-known northern Africa to the west of the Nile river, in its widest sense referred to all lands south of the Mediterranean; this name seems to have referred to a native Libyan tribe, an ancestor of modern Berbers. The name had been connected with the Phoenician word ʿafar meaning "dust", but a 1981 hypothesis has asserted that it stems from the Berber word ifri meaning "cave", in reference to cave dwellers; the same word may be found in the name of the Banu Ifran from Algeria and Tripolitania, a Berber tribe from Yafran in northwestern Libya. Under Roman rule, Carthage became the capital of the province it named Africa Proconsularis, following its defeat of the Carthaginians in the Third Punic War in 146 BC, which included the coastal part of modern Libya.
The Latin suffix -ica can sometimes be used to denote a land. The Muslim region of Ifriqiya, following its conquest of the Byzantine Empire's Exarchatus Africae preserved a form of the name. According to the Romans, Africa lay to the west of Egypt, while "Asia" was used to refer to Anatolia and lands to the east. A definite line was drawn between the two continents by the geographer Ptolemy, indicating Alexandria along the Prime Meridian and making the isthmus of Suez and the Red Sea the boundary between Asia and Africa; as Europeans came to understand the real extent of the continent, the idea of "Africa" expanded with their knowledge. Other etymological hypotheses have been postulated for the ancient name "Africa": The 1st-century Jewish historian Flavius Josephus asserted that it was named for Epher, grandson of Abraham according to Gen. 25:4, whose descendants, he claimed, had invaded Libya. Isidore of Seville in his 7th-century Etymologiae XIV.5.2. Suggests "Africa comes from the Latin aprica, meaning "sunny".
Massey, in 1881, stated that Africa is derived from the Egyptian af-rui-ka, meaning "to turn toward the opening of the Ka." The Ka is the energetic double of every person and the "opening of the Ka" refers to a womb or birthplace. Africa would be, for the Egyptians, "the birthplace." Michèle Fruyt in 1976 proposed linking the Latin word with africus "south wind", which would be of Umbrian origin and mean "rainy wind". Robert R. Stieglitz of Rutgers University in 1984 proposed: "The name Africa, derived from the Latin *Aphir-ic-a, is cognate to Hebrew Ophir." Ibn Khallikan and some other historians claim that the name of Africa came from a Himyarite king called Afrikin ibn Kais ibn Saifi called "Afrikus son of Abrahah" who subdued Ifriqiya. Africa is considered by most paleoanthropologists to be the oldest inhabited territory on Earth, with the human species originating from the continent. During the mid-20th century, anthropologists discovered many fossils and evidence of human occupation as early as 7 million years ago.
Fossil remains of several species of early apelike humans thought to have evolved into modern man, such as Australopithecus afarensis (radiometrically dated to 3.9–3.0 million years BP, Paranthropus boisei and Homo ergaster have been discovered. After the evolution of Homo sapiens sapiens 150,000 to 100,000 years BP in Africa, the continent was populated by groups of hunter-gatherers; these first modern humans left Africa and populated the rest of the globe during the Out of Africa II migration dated to 50,000 years BP, exiting the continent eith
Liberia the Republic of Liberia, is a country on the West African coast. It is bordered by Sierra Leone to its northwest, Guinea to its north, Ivory Coast to its east, the Atlantic Ocean to its south-southwest, it has a population of around 4,700,000 people. English is the official language and over 20 indigenous languages are spoken, representing the numerous ethnic groups who make up more than 95% of the population; the country's capital and largest city is Monrovia. Liberia began as a settlement of the American Colonization Society, who believed black people would face better chances for freedom and prosperity in Africa than in the United States; the country declared its independence on July 26, 1847. The U. S. did not recognize Liberia's independence until February 1862, during the American Civil War. Between January 7, 1822, the American Civil War, more than 15,000 freed and free-born black people who faced legislated limits in the U. S. and 3,198 Afro-Caribbeans, relocated to the settlement.
The black settlers carried their tradition with them to Liberia. The Liberian constitution and flag were modeled after those of the U. S. On January 3, 1848, Joseph Jenkins Roberts, a wealthy, free-born African American from Virginia who settled in Liberia, was elected as Liberia's first president after the people proclaimed independence. Liberia was the first African republic to proclaim its independence, is Africa's first and oldest modern republic. Liberia retained its independence during the Scramble for Africa. During World War II, Liberia supported the United States war efforts against Germany and in turn, the U. S. invested in considerable infrastructure in Liberia to help its war effort, which aided the country in modernizing and improving its major air transportation facilities. In addition, President William Tubman encouraged economic changes. Internationally, Liberia was a founding member of the League of Nations, United Nations, the Organisation of African Unity; the Americo-Liberian settlers did not relate well to the indigenous peoples they encountered those in communities of the more isolated "bush".
The colonial settlements were raided by the Grebo from their inland chiefdoms. Americo-Liberians developed as a small elite that held on to political power, the indigenous tribesmen were excluded from birthright citizenship in their own lands until 1904, in a repetition of the United States' treatment of Native Americans; the Americo-Liberians promoted religious organizations to set up missions and schools to educate the indigenous peoples. Political tensions from the rule of William R. Tolbert resulted in a military coup in 1980 during which Tolbert was killed, marking the beginning of years-long political instability. Five years of military rule by the People's Redemption Council and five years of civilian rule by the National Democratic Party of Liberia were followed by the First and Second Liberian Civil Wars; these resulted in the deaths of 250,000 people, the displacement of many more, shrunk Liberia's economy by 90%. A peace agreement in 2003 led to democratic elections in 2005, in which Ellen Johnson Sirleaf was elected President.
National infrastructure and basic social services have been impacted by previous conflict, with 83% of the population living below the international poverty line. The Pepper Coast known as the Grain Coast, has been inhabited by indigenous peoples of Africa at least as far back as the 12th century. Mende-speaking people expanded westward from the Sudan, forcing many smaller ethnic groups southward toward the Atlantic Ocean; the Dei, Kru and Kissi were some of the earliest documented peoples in the area. This influx of these groups was compounded by the decline of the Western Sudanic Mali Empire in 1375 and the Songhai Empire in 1591; the area now called Liberia was a part of the Kingdom of Koya from 1450 to 1898. As inland regions underwent desertification, inhabitants moved to the wetter coast; these new inhabitants brought skills such as cotton spinning, cloth weaving, iron smelting and sorghum cultivation, social and political institutions from the Mali and Songhai empires. Shortly after the Mane conquered the region, the Vai people of the former Mali Empire immigrated into the Grand Cape Mount County region.
The ethnic Kru opposed the influx of Vai, forming an alliance with the Mane to stop further influx of Vai. People along the coast built canoes and traded with other West Africans from Cap-Vert to the Gold Coast. Arab traders entered the region from the north, a long-established slave trade took captives to north and east Africa. Between 1461 and the late 17th century, Portuguese and British traders had contacts and trading posts in the region; the Portuguese named the area Costa da Pimenta but it came to be known as the Grain Coast, due to the abundance of melegueta pepper grains. European traders would barter goods with local people. In the United States there was a movement to resettle free-born blacks and freed slaves who faced racial discrimination in the form of political disenfranchisement and the denial of civil and social privileges in the United States. Most whites and a small cadre of black nationalists believed that blacks would face better chances for freedom in Africa than in the U.
S. The American Colonization Society was founded in 1816 in Washington, DC for this purpose by a group of prominent politicians and slaveholders, but its membership grew to include people who supported the abolition of slavery. Slaveholders wanted to get free people of color out of the South, where they were thought to threaten the stability of the slave societie
Padang is the capital of the province of West Sumatra in Indonesia. With an area of 695 square kilometres and a population of 914,970 in 2016, it is the 10th-most populated urban centres in Indonesia, the most populated city on Sumatra's western coast, fourth-most populated city on Sumatra; the city had been a trading center since the pre-colonial era, trading in pepper and gold. The Dutch made contact with the city in the mid 17th century constructing a fortress and taking over control of the city from the Pagaruyung Kingdom. Save several interruptions of British rule, Padang remained part of the Dutch East Indies as one of its major cities until Indonesian independence. Padang has been a trade centre since the 16th century, having been controlled by the Pagaruyung Kingdom and the Aceh Sultanate. During the 16th and 17th centuries pepper was cultivated and traded with India, the United Kingdom and the Netherlands. In 1663 the city came under the authority of the Dutch and a trading post was built in 1680.
The city came under the British Empire twice, firstly from 1781 to 1784 during the Fourth Anglo-Dutch War, again from 1795 to 1819 during the Napoleonic Wars. In 1819 the city was transferred back to the Netherlands. Up to circa 1780 the most important trade product was gold originating from gold mines in the region; when the mines were exhausted, the focus turned to other products such as coffee and textiles. In 1797 Padang was inundated by a tsunami with an estimated flow depth of 5–10 meters, following an earthquake, estimated to be 8.5–8.7 Mw, which occurred off the coast. The shaking caused considerable damage and the deaths of two people, while the tsunami resulted in several houses being washed away and several deaths at the village of Air Manis. Boats moored in the Arau river ended up on dry land, including a 200-ton sailing ship, deposited about 1 kilometre upstream. In 1833 another tsunami inundated Padang with an estimated flow depth of 3–4 meters as a result of an earthquake, estimated to be 8.6–8.9 Mw, which occurred off Bengkulu.
The shaking caused considerable damage in Padang, due to the tsunami boats moored in the Arau river broke their anchors and were scattered. The population of Padang in 1920 was the second largest city in Sumatra behind Palembang. At the time of independence in the 1940s the city had around 50,000 inhabitants. Coffee was still important, but copra was a major item produced by farmers in its hinterland; the population growth since has been a result of growth in the area of the city, but is a result of the migration to major cities seen in so many developing nations. From 1950 the Ombilin coal field developed with Padang as its outlet port; this was seen by some observers as reflecting the political colonisation of Indonesia. On 30 September 2009, a 7.9 magnitude earthquake hit about 50 kilometres off the coast of Padang. There were more than 1,100 fatalities; the city of Padang is located on the west coast of the island of Sumatra, with a total area of 694.96 km2, equivalent to 1.65% of the area of West Sumatra.
More than 60% of the area of Padang is in the form of hills covered by protection forests. Only around 205.007 km2 of the territory is an urban area. The hills stretch in the south of the city; the notable hills in Padang include Lampu Hill, Mount Padang, Gado-Gado Hill, Pegambiran Hill. The city of Padang has a coastline of 68.126 km on the mainland of Sumatra. In addition, there are 19 small islands, including Sikuai Island with an area of 4.4 ha in Bungus Teluk Kabung Subdistrict, Toran Island covering 25 ha and Pisang Gadang Island in Padang Selatan Subdistrict. Padang features a tropical rainforest climate under Köppen’s climate classification. Since this tropical rainforest climate is more subject to the Intertropical Convergence Zone than the trade winds and cyclones are rare, it is equatorial. Padang is one of Indonesia’s wettest cities, with frequent rainfall throughout the course of the year; the city averages 4300 mm of rain per year. Padang's driest month is February; the city temperatures are constant throughout the year, with an average of 26 degrees Celsius.
Padang has 21 rivers, with the longest being Batang Kandis with a length of 20 km. In 1980 two-thirds of the city was flooded because the city's drainage which empties to Batang Arau could not contain the water. By 2007 the city government began a number of religiously motivated policies. One requires females of all religious backgrounds who are municipal employees and students in government schools to wear jilbab, high school students now take classes on reading the Qur'an. Municipal employees are required to pay zakat; the city of Padang is divided into 11 districts: Bungus Teluk Kabung Koto Tangah Kuranji Lubuk Begalung Lubuk Kilangan Nanggalo Padang Barat Padang Selatan Padang Timur Padang Utara Pauh As of 2017, Padang had received the "Adipura" award in the category of large city 18 times and the "Adipura Kencana" award three times. The cuisine of the Minangkabau people is called Padang cuisine. Padang restaurants are famous for their spicy food. Padang food is cooked once per day, all customers choose from those dishes, which are left out on display until no food is left.
It is served in small portions of various dishes. Customers take -- and pay for --; the best known Padang dish is a spicy meat stew. Soto Padang is local res