Copper sulfate, known as cupric sulfate, or copper sulphate, is the inorganic compound with the chemical formula CuSO4x, where x can range from 0 to 5. The pentahydrate is the most common form, older names for this compound include blue vitriol, vitriol of copper, and Roman vitriol. The pentahydrate, the most commonly encountered salt, is bright blue and it exothermically dissolves in water to give the aquo complex 2+, which has octahedral molecular geometry. The structure of the solid pentahydrate reveals a structure wherein copper is again octahedral. The Cu4 centers are interconnected by sulfate anions to form chains, anhydrous copper sulfate is a white powder. Copper sulfate is produced industrially by treating copper metal with hot concentrated sulfuric acid or its oxides with dilute sulfuric acid, for laboratory use, copper sulfate is usually purchased. Copper sulfate can be produced by slowly leaching low grade ore in air. Commercial copper sulfate is usually about 98% pure copper sulfate, and may contain traces of water.
Anhydrous Copper sulfate is 39.81 percent copper and 60.19 percent sulfate by mass, four types of crystal size are provided based on its usage, large crystals, small crystals, snow crystals, and windswept powder. Copper sulfate pentahydrate decomposes before melting and it loses two water molecules upon heating at 63 °C, followed by two more at 109 °C and the final water molecule at 200 °C. Dehydration proceeds by decomposition of the moiety, two opposing aqua groups are lost to give a diaquacopper moiety. The second dehydration step occurs with the final two groups are lost. Complete dehydration occurs when the only unbound water molecule is lost, at 650 °C, copper sulfate decomposes into copper oxide and sulfur trioxide. Copper sulfate reacts with concentrated acid to give tetrachlorocuprate, Cu2+ +4 Cl− → CuCl2−4 Copper sulfate is commonly included in childrens chemistry sets. It is often used to grow crystals in schools and in copper plating experiments, Copper sulfate is often used to demonstrate an exothermic reaction, in which steel wool or magnesium ribbon is placed in an aqueous solution of CuSO4.
It is used to demonstrate the principle of mineral hydration, the pentahydrate form, which is blue, is heated, turning the copper sulfate into the anhydrous form which is white, while the water that was present in the pentahydrate form evaporates. When water is added to the anhydrous compound, it turns back into the pentahydrate form, regaining its blue color. Copper sulfate pentahydrate can easily be produced by crystallization from solution as copper sulfate is quite hygroscopic, in an illustration of a single metal replacement reaction, iron is submerged in a solution of copper sulfate
Imidazole is an organic compound with the formula C3N2H4. It is a white or colourless solid that is soluble in water, in chemistry, it is an aromatic heterocycle, classified as a diazole, and having non-adjacent nitrogen atoms. Many natural products, especially alkaloids, contain the imidazole ring and these imidazoles share the 1, 3-C3N2 ring but feature varied substituents. This ring system is present in important biological building blocks, such as histidine, many drugs contain an imidazole ring, such as certain antifungal drugs, the nitroimidazole series of antibiotics, and the sedative midazolam. When fused to a ring, it forms purine, which is the most widely occurring nitrogen-containing heterocycle in nature. The name imidazole was coined in 1887 by the German chemist Arthur Rudolf Hantzsch, Imidazole is a planar 5-membered ring. It exists in two equivalent tautomeric forms, because the charge can be located on either of the two nitrogen atoms. Imidazole is a highly polar compound, as evidenced by its dipole moment of 3.67 D.
It is highly soluble in water, some resonance structures of imidazole are shown below, Imidazole is amphoteric. That is, it can function as both an acid and as a base, as an acid, the pKa of imidazole is 14.5, making it less acidic than carboxylic acids and imides, but slightly more acidic than alcohols. The acidic proton is located on N-1, as a base, the pKa of the conjugate acid is approximately 7, making imidazole approximately sixty times more basic than pyridine. Protonation gives the cation, which is symmetrical. Imidazole was first reported in 1858 by the German-British chemist Heinrich Debus and its synthesis, as shown below, used glyoxal and formaldehyde in ammonia to form imidazole. This synthesis, while producing relatively low yields, is used for creating C-substituted imidazoles. In one microwave modification, the reactants are benzil and ammonia in glacial acetic acid, forming 2,4, Imidazole can be synthesized by numerous methods besides the Debus method. Many of these syntheses can be applied to different substituted imidazoles and these methods are commonly categorized by which and how many bonds form to make the imidazole rings.
For example, the Debus method forms the, and bonds in imidazole, using each reactant as a fragment of the ring, a small sampling of these methods is presented below. Formation of one bond The or bond can be formed by the reaction of an imidate, the example below applies to imidazole when R = R1 = hydrogen
Chloroform, or trichloromethane, is an organic compound with formula CHCl3. It is a colorless, sweet-smelling, dense liquid that is produced on a scale as a precursor to PTFE. It is a precursor to various refrigerants and it is one of the four chloromethanes and a trihalomethane. The molecule adopts tetrahedral molecular geometry with C3v symmetry, the total global flux of chloroform through the environment is approximately 7005660000000000000♠660000 tonnes per year, and about 90% of emissions are natural in origin. Many kinds of seaweed produce chloroform, and fungi are believed to produce chloroform in soil and its half-life in air ranges from 55 to 620 days. Biodegradation in water and soil is slow, chloroform does not significantly bioaccumulate in aquatic organisms. Justus von Liebig carried out the cleavage of chloral. Eugène Soubeiran obtained the compound by the action of chlorine bleach on both ethanol and acetone, in 1834, French chemist Jean-Baptiste Dumas determined chloroforms empirical formula and named it.
In 1835, Dumas prepared the substance by the cleavage of trichloroacetic acid. Regnault prepared chloroform by chlorination of chloromethane, in 1842 Dr Robert Mortimer Glover in London discovered the anaesthetic qualities of chloroform on laboratory animals. In 1847, Scottish obstetrician James Y. Simpson was the first to demonstrate the properties of chloroform on humans. By the 1850s, chloroform was being produced on a basis by using the Liebig procedure. Today, chloroform — along with dichloromethane — is prepared exclusively, in industry, chloroform is produced by heating a mixture of chlorine and either chloromethane or methane. CDCl3 is a solvent used in NMR spectroscopy. Deuterochloroform is produced by the reaction, the reaction of acetone with sodium hypochlorite or calcium hypochlorite. The haloform process is now obsolete for the production of ordinary chloroform, deuterochloroform can be prepared by the reaction of sodium deuteroxide with chloral hydrate, or from ordinary chloroform.
The haloform reaction can occur inadvertently in domestic settings, bleaching with hypochlorite generates halogenated compounds in side reactions, chloroform is the main byproduct. Chlorodifluoromethane is converted into tetrafluoroethylene, the precursor to Teflon
Benzalkonium chloride, known as BZK, BKC, BAC, alkyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride and ADBAC, is a type of cationic surfactant. It is an organic salt classified as a quaternary ammonium compound and it has three main categories of use, as a biocide, a cationic surfactant, and as a phase transfer agent. ADBACs are a mixture of alkylbenzyldimethylammonium chlorides, in which the group has various even-numbered alkyl chain lengths. Depending on purity, benzalkonium chloride ranges from colourless to a pale yellow, benzalkonium chloride is readily soluble in ethanol and acetone. Although dissolution in water is slow, aqueous solutions are easier to handle and are preferred, aqueous solutions should be neutral to slightly alkaline. Concentrated solutions have a taste and a faint almond-like odour. Standard concentrates are manufactured as 50% and 80% w/w solutions, and sold under names such as BC50, BC80, BAC50, BAC80. The 50% solution is purely aqueous, while more concentrated solutions require incorporation of rheology modifiers to prevent increases in viscosity or gel formation under low temperature conditions.
Benzalkonium chloride possesses surfactant properties, dissolving the lipid phase of the film and increasing drug penetration. Benzalkonium chloride is used in many non-consumer processes and products. A comprehensive list of uses includes industrial applications, an advantage of benzalkonium chloride, not shared by ethanol-based antiseptics or hydrogen peroxide antiseptic, is that it does not cause a burning sensation when applied to broken skin. Benzalkonium chloride is a frequently used preservative in eye drops, typical concentrations range from 0. 004% to 0. 01%, stronger concentrations can be caustic and cause irreversible damage to the corneal endothelium. Avoiding the use of benzalkonium chloride solutions while contact lenses are in place is discussed in the literature, in the United States, nasal steroid preparations that are free of benzalkonium chloride include budesonide, triamcinolone acetonide and Beconase and Vancenase aerosol inhalers. Benzalkonium chloride is irritant to middle ear tissues at typically used concentrations, inner ear toxicity has been demonstrated.
Occupational exposure to benzalkonium chloride has been linked to the development of asthma, benzalkonium chloride has been in common use as a pharmaceutical preservative and antimicrobial since the 1940s. Benzalkonium chloride is classed as a Category III antiseptic active ingredient by the United States Food, ingredients are categorised as Category III when available data are insufficient to classify as safe and effective, and further testing is required”. It is a suspected respiratory toxicant, gastrointestinal toxicant and neurotoxicant, benzalkonium chloride formulations for consumer use are dilute solutions. Concentrated solutions are toxic to humans, causing corrosion/irritation to the skin and mucosa,0. 1% is the maximum concentration of benzalkonium chloride that does not produce primary irritation on intact skin or act as a sensitizer
Copper acetate, referred to as cupric acetate, is the chemical compound with the formula Cu2 where AcO− is acetate. The hydrated derivative, which one molecule of water for each Cu atom, is available commercially. Anhydrous Cu2 is a green crystalline solid, whereas Cu242 is more bluish-green. Since ancient times, copper acetates of some form have been used as fungicides, copper acetates are used as reagents for the synthesis of various inorganic and organic compounds. Copper acetate, like all copper compounds, emits a glow in a flame. Copper acetate hydrate adopts the paddle wheel structure seen for related Rh, one oxygen atom on each acetate is bound to one copper at 1.97 Å. Completing the coordination sphere are two ligands, with Cu–O distances of 2.20 Å. The two five-coordinate copper atoms are separated by only 2.62 Å, which is close to the Cu–Cu separation in metallic copper. The two copper centers interact resulting in a diminishing of the moment such that near 90 K. Cu242 was a step in the development of modern theories for antiferromagnetic coupling.
Copper acetate is prepared industrially by heating copper hydroxide or copper carbonate with acetic acid, heating a mixture of anhydrous copper acetate and copper metal affords copper acetate,2 Cu + Cu24 →4 CuOAc Unlike the copper derivative, copper acetate is colourless and diamagnetic. Basic copper acetate is prepared by neutralizing an aqueous solution of copper acetate, the basic acetate is poorly soluble. This material is a component of verdigris, the substance that forms on copper during long exposures to atmosphere. Copper acetate has found use as an oxidizing agent in organic syntheses. A related reaction involving copper acetylides is the synthesis of ynamines and it has been used for hydroamination of acrylonitrile. It combines with arsenic trioxide to form copper acetoarsenite, an insecticide and fungicide called Paris Green or Schweinfurt Green
Bordeaux mixture is a mixture of copper sulfate and slaked lime used as a fungicide. It is used in vineyards, fruit-farms and gardens to prevent infestations of downy mildew, powdery mildew and it is sprayed on plants as a preventative, its mode of action is ineffective after a fungus has become established. It was invented in the Bordeaux region of France in the late 19th century, if it is applied in large quantities annually for many years, the copper in the mixture eventually becomes a pollutant. In addition to its use to control fungal infection on grape vines and it is approved for organic use, so is often used by organic gardeners where nonorganic gardeners would prefer other controls. Bordeaux mixture achieves its effect by means of the ions of the mixture. These ions affect enzymes in the spores in such a way as to prevent germination. This means Bordeaux mixture must be used pre-emptively, before the disease has struck. Thorough coverage of the spray on the plants is necessary, the Bordeaux spray continues to adhere well to the plant during rain, though in the long term it is washed off by rain.
Commonly in practice, it is applied just once a year, Bordeaux mixture can be prepared using differing proportions of the components. In preparing it, the CuSO4 and the lime are dissolved separately in water, calcium oxide and calcium hydroxide give the same end result, since an excess of water is used in the preparation. The conventional method of describing the composition is to give the weight of CuSO4, the weight of hydrated lime. The percentage of the weight of CuSO4 to the weight of water employed determines the concentration of the mixture, as CuSO4 contains 25% copper, the copper content of a 1% Bordeaux mixture would be 0. 25%. The quantity of lime used can be lower than that of the CuSO4, one kg of CuSO4 actually requires only 0.225 kg of chemically pure hydrated lime to precipitate all the copper. Good proprietary brands of hydrated lime are now available, but, as even these deteriorate on storage, a ratio of less than 2,1 is seldom used. Bordeaux mixture has been found to be harmful to fish, livestock and—due to potential build up of copper in the soil—earthworms, the chemical started to be used by the United Fruit Company throughout Latin America around 1922.
The mixture was nicknamed perico, or parakeet, because it would turn workers completely blue, many workers would get sick or die of poisoning due to the toxic chemical. In the 19th century, several outbreaks of vine diseases occurred among the Vitis vinifera vines of the classical European wine regions and these outbreaks were caused by pests to which these vines lacked resistance, carried on vines brought to Europe as botanical specimens of American origin. These pests included not only the Great French Wine Blight caused by the aphid Phylloxera vastatrix, after the downy mildew had struck, botany professor Pierre-Marie-Alexis Millardet of the University of Bordeaux studied the disease in vineyards of the Bordeaux region
Copper oxide or cuprous oxide is the inorganic compound with the formula Cu2O. It is one of the oxides of copper, the other being CuO or cupric oxide. This red-coloured solid is a component of some antifouling paints, the compound can appear either yellow or red, depending on the size of the particles. Copper oxide is found as the reddish mineral cuprite, copper oxide may be produced by several methods. It is produced commercially by reduction of copper solutions with sulfur dioxide, aqueous cuprous chloride solutions react with base to give the same material. In all cases, the color is sensitive to the procedural details. Formation of copper oxide is the basis of the Fehlings test and these sugars reduce an alkaline solution of a copper salt, giving a bright red precipitate of Cu2O. It forms on silver-plated copper parts exposed to moisture when the layer is porous or damaged. This kind of corrosion is known as red plague, little evidence exists for cuprous hydroxide, which is expected to rapidly undergo dehydration. A similar situation applies to the hydroxides of gold and silver, in terms of their coordination spheres, copper centres are 2-coordinated and the oxides are tetrahedral.
The structure thus resembles in some sense the main polymorphs of SiO2, copper oxide dissolves in concentrated ammonia solution to form the colourless complex +, which is easily oxidized in air to the blue 2+. It dissolves in acid to give solutions of CuCl2−. Dilute sulfuric acid and nitric acid produce copper sulfate and copper nitrate, Cu2O degrades to copper oxide in moist air. Cu2O crystallizes in a structure with a lattice constant al=4.2696 Å. The Cu atoms arrange in a fcc sublattice, the O atoms in a bcc sublattice, one sublattice is shifted by a quarter of the body diagonal. The space group is P n 3 ¯ m, which includes the point group with full octahedral symmetry, the associated quadrupole polaritons have low group velocity approaching the speed of sound. Thus, light moves almost as slowly as sound in this medium, another unusual feature of the ground state excitons is that all primary scattering mechanisms are known quantitatively. It can be shown using Cu2O that the Kramers–Kronig relations do not apply to polaritons, cuprous oxide is commonly used as a pigment, a fungicide, and an antifouling agent for marine paints
A carbamate is an organic compound derived from carbamic acid. A carbamate group, carbamate ester, and carbamic acids are functional groups that are inter-related structurally, carbamate esters are called urethanes. Carbamic acids are derived from amines, R2NH + CO2 → R2NCO2H Carbamic acid is about as acidic as acetic acid, n-terminal amino groups of valine residues in the α- and β-chains of deoxyhemoglobin exist as carbamates. They help to stabilise the protein, when it becomes deoxyhemoglobin and this stabilizing effect should not be confused with the Bohr effect. The ε-amino groups of the residues in urease and phosphotriesterase feature carbamate. The carbamate derived from aminoimidazole is an intermediate in the biosynthesis of inosine, carbamoyl phosphate is generated from carboxyphosphate rather than CO2. Perhaps the most important carbamate is the one involved in the capture of CO2 by plants since this process is necessary for their growth, the enzyme ribulose 1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase fixes a molecule of carbon dioxide as phosphoglycerate in the Calvin cycle.
At the active site of the enzyme, a Mg2+ ion is bound to glutamate and aspartate residues as well as a lysine carbamate. The carbamate is formed when an uncharged lysine side chain near the ion reacts with a carbon dioxide molecule from the air, which renders it charged. The so-called carbamate insecticides feature the carbamate ester functional group, included in this group are aldicarb, carbaryl, fenobucarb and methomyl. These insecticides kill insects by reversibly inactivating the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, the organophosphate pesticides inhibit this enzyme, although irreversibly, and cause a more severe form of cholinergic poisoning. Fenoxycarb has a group but acts as a juvenile hormone mimic. The insect repellent icaridin is a substituted carbamate, polyurethanes contain multiple carbamate groups as part of their structure. The urethane in the name refers to these carbamate groups. In contrast, the commonly called urethane, ethyl carbamate, is neither a component of polyurethanes. Urethanes are usually formed by reaction of an alcohol with an isocyanate, urethanes made by a non-isocyanate route are called carbamates.
Polyurethane polymers have a range of properties and are commercially available as foams, elastomers. Typically, polyurethane polymers are made by combining diisocyanates, e. g. Urethane was once produced commercially in the United States as an antineoplastic agent and it was found to be toxic and largely ineffective
Biphenyl is an organic compound that forms colorless crystals. Particularly in older literature, compounds containing the group consisting of biphenyl less one hydrogen may use the prefixes xenyl or diphenylyl. It has a pleasant smell. Biphenyl is a hydrocarbon with a molecular formula 2. It is notable as a material for the production of polychlorinated biphenyls. Biphenyl is an intermediate for the production of a host of organic compounds such as emulsifiers, optical brighteners, crop protection products. Biphenyl is insoluble in water, but soluble in organic solvents. The biphenyl molecule consists of two connected phenyl rings, in the laboratory, biphenyl can be synthesized by treating phenylmagnesium bromide with copper salts. Biphenyl occurs naturally in coal tar, crude oil, and natural gas, lacking functional groups, biphenyl is fairly non-reactive, which is the basis of its main application. Biphenyl is mainly used as a transfer agent as a eutectic mixture with diphenylether. This mixture is stable to 400 °C, Biphenyl does undergo sulfonation followed by base hydrolysis produces p-hydroxybiphenyl and p, p′-dihydroxybiphenyl, which are useful fungicides.
In another substitution reactions, it undergoes halogenation, polychlorinated biphenyls were once popular pesticides. Rotation about the bond in biphenyl, and especially its ortho-substituted derivatives, is sterically hindered. For this reason, some substituted biphenyls show atropisomerism, that is, some derivatives, as well as related molecules such as BINAP, find application as ligands in asymmetric synthesis. In the case of unsubstituted biphenyl, the torsional angle is 44. 4°. Adding ortho substituents greatly increases the barrier, in the case of the 2, 2-dimethyl derivative, Biphenyl prevents the growth of molds and fungus, and is therefore used as a preservative, particularly in the preservation of citrus fruits during transportation. It is no longer approved as an additive in the European Union. It is mildly toxic, but can be degraded biologically by conversion into nontoxic compounds, some bacteria are able to hydroxylate biphenyl and its polychlorinated biphenyls
It has the chemical formula H3BO3, and exists in the form of colorless crystals or a white powder that dissolves in water. When occurring as a mineral, it is called sassolite, Boric acid, or sassolite, is found mainly in its free state in some volcanic districts, for example, in the Italian region of Tuscany, the Lipari Islands and the US state of Nevada. In these volcanic settings it issues, mixed with steam, from fissures in the ground and it is found as a constituent of many naturally occurring minerals – borax, boracite and colemanite. Boric acid and its salts are found in seawater and it is found in plants, including almost all fruits. Boric acid was first prepared by Wilhelm Homberg from borax, by the action of mineral acids, however borates, including boric acid, have been used since the time of the Greeks for cleaning, preserving food, and other activities. When heated above 170 °C, it dehydrates, forming metaboric acid, H3BO3 → HBO2 + H2O Metaboric acid is a white, further heating leads to boron trioxide.
H2B4O7 →2 B2O3 + H2O There are conflicting interpretations for the origin of the acidity of aqueous boric acid solutions, polyborate anions are formed at pH 7–10 if the boron concentration is higher than about 0.025 mol/L. The best known of these is the ion, found in the mineral borax. With polyols such as glycerol and mannitol the acidity of the solution is increased, with mannitol for example the pK decreases to 5.15. This is due to the formation of a chelate, −, Boric acid dissolves in anhydrous sulfuric acid, B3 + 6H2SO4 → 3H3O+ + 2HSO4− + B4− Boric acid reacts with alcohols to form borate esters, B3 where R is alkyl or aryl. A dehydrating agent, such as concentrated sulfuric acid is typically added, the B-O bond length is 136 pm and the O-H is 97 pm. The molecular point group is C3h, crystalline boric acid consists of layers of B3 molecules held together by hydrogen bonds of length 272 pm. The distance between two adjacent layers is 318 pm, based on mammalian median lethal dose rating of 2,660 mg/kg body mass, boric acid is only poisonous if taken internally or inhaled in large quantities.
The Fourteenth Edition of the Merck Index indicates that the LD50 of boric acid is 5.14 g/kg for oral dosages given to rats, for comparisons sake, the LD50 of salt is reported to be 3.75 g/kg in rats according to the Merck Index. Humans have been known to die from amounts only a fraction of the LD50. Long term exposure to acid may be of more concern, causing kidney damage. Although it does not appear to be carcinogenic, studies in dogs have reported testicular atrophy after exposure to 32 mg/kg bw/day for 90 days and this level is far lower than the LD50. As a consequence, in August 2008, in the 30th ATP to EU directive 67/548/EEC, textile fiberglass is used to reinforce plastics in applications that range from boats, to industrial piping to computer circuit boards
Copper hydroxide is the hydroxide of the copper with the chemical formula of Cu2. Some forms of copper hydroxide are sold as stabilized copper hydroxide, although they likely consist of a mixture of copper carbonate, copper hydroxide is a weak base. Copper hydroxide has been known since copper smelting began around 5000 BC although the alchemists were probably the first to manufacture it by mixing solutions of lye, sources of both compounds available in antiquity. It was produced on an industrial scale during the 17th and 18th centuries for use in such as blue verditer. These pigments were used in ceramics and painting, copper hydroxide can be produced by adding a sodium hydroxide to a dilute solution of copper sulfate. The precipitate produced in this manner, often contains water, a purer product can be attained if ammonium chloride is added to the solution beforehand. Alternatively, copper hydroxide is readily made by electrolysis of water, a copper anode is used, often made from scrap copper.
The mineral of the formula Cu2 is called spertiniite, copper hydroxide is rarely found as an uncombined mineral because it slowly reacts with carbon dioxide from the atmosphere to form a basic copper carbonate. Thus copper slowly acquires a dull green coating in moist air by the reaction,2 Cu + H2O + CO2 + O2 → Cu2 + CuCO3 The green material is in principle a 1,1 mole mixture of Cu2 and CuCO3. This patina forms on bronze and other copper alloy statues such as the Statue of Liberty, the structure of Cu2 has been determined by X-ray crystallography The copper center is square pyramidal. Four Cu-O distances in the range are 1.96 Å. The hydroxide ligands in the plane are either doubly bridging or triply bridging and it is stable to about 100 °C. Copper hydroxide reacts with a solution of ammonia to form a blue solution of tetramminecopper 2+ complex ion. It catalyzes the oxidation of ammonia solutions in presence of dioxygen, giving rise to copper ammine nitrites and it dissolves slightly in concentrated alkali, forming 2−.
Copper hydroxide has a specialized role in organic synthesis. Often, when it is utilized for this purpose, it is prepared in situ by mixing a soluble copper salt and it is sometimes used in the synthesis of aryl amines. This conversion is useful in the synthesis of carboxylic acids in the presence of other functional groups. This property led to it being used in the production of rayon and it is used widely in the aquarium industry for its ability to destroy external parasites in fish, including flukes, marine ich and marine velvet, without killing the fish