Lac is the scarlet resinous secretion of a number of species of lac insects, of which the most cultivated is Kerria lacca. Cultivation begins when a farmer gets a stick that contains eggs ready to hatch and ties it to the tree to be infested. Thousands of lac insects secrete the resinous pigment; the coated branches of the host trees are harvested as sticklac. The harvested sticklac is sieved to remove impurities; the sieved material is repeatedly washed to remove insect parts and other soluble material. The resulting product is known as seedlac; the prefix seed refers to its pellet shape. Seedlac which still contains 3–5% impurities is processed into shellac by heat treatment or solvent extraction; the leading producer of lac is Jharkhand, followed by the Chhattisgarh, West Bengal, Maharashtra states of India. Lac production is found in Bangladesh, Thailand, Vietnam, parts of China, Mexico; the word lac is derived from the Sanskrit word lākshā', which represents the number 100,000. It was used for both the lac insect and the scarlet resinous secretion it produces.
This resin has been used for making traditional and tribal bangles, still used as sealing wax by the India Post. It is used as wood finish, skin cosmetic and dye for wool and silk in ancient India and neighbouring areas. Lac resin was once imported in sizeable quantity into Europe from India along with Eastern woods. Kerria lacca can be cultivated on either cultivated or wild host plants. In India the most common host plants are: Dhak Ber Kusum In Thailand the most common host plants are Rain tree Pigeon pea In China the common host plants include Pigeon pea Hibiscus species In Mexico Barbados nut Estimated yields per tree in India are 6–10 kg for kusum, 1.5–6 kg for ber, 1–4 kg for dhak. The bugs' life cycles can produce two sticklac yields per year, though it may be better to rest for six months to let the host tree recover. Lac is harvested by cutting the tree branches. If dye is being produced, the insects are kept in the sticklac because the dye colour comes from the insects rather than their resin.
They may be killed by exposure to the sun. On the other hand, if seedlac or shellac is being produced, most insects can escape because less coloured pale lac is more desired; the use of lac dye goes back to ancient times. It was used in ancient India and neighbouring areas as wood finish, skin cosmetic and dye for wool and silk. In China it is a traditional dye for leather goods. Lac for dye has been somewhat replaced by the emergence of synthetic dyes, though it remains in use, some juices, carbonated drinks, jam and candy are coloured using it. Lac is used in folk medicine as a anti-obesity drug, it is soluble in alcohol. This type of lac was used in the finishing of 18th-century fowling guns in the United States. India exported significant amounts of sticklac derivatives lac dye, from the 1700s to the late 1800s. Production declined as synthetic dyes emerged, after the late 1940s, production of seedlac and shellac declined due to replacement. In the mid-1950s, India annually produced about 50,000 tons of sticklac and exported about 29,000 tons of lac.
By 1992–93, India's lac exports fell further to 4,500 tons. In the same period, Thailand's production increased somewhat, with annual lac exports of around 7,000 tons in the 1990s of seedlac. China exported only about 500 tons of shellac per year in the 1990s but produced more lac internally: 4,000-5,000 tons of sticklac and 2,000–3,000 tons of shellac in Yunnan province, with additional, smaller production in Fujian province. While India and China are the major lac producers, Myanmar and Sri Lanka play small roles. Kerria lacca – the true lac scale Paratachardina decorella – the rosette lac scale Paratachardina pseudolobata – the lobate lac scale Carmine – Another pigment extracted from an insect. Lacquer – A product, at one time made from lac, but in modern common usage now refers to a separate product with similar properties. Shellac – A protective coating. Indian Institute of Natural Resins and Gums - IINRG Indian Lac Research Institute - ILRI FAO - Insect dyes - Lac - Summary of Basic Information
Thomas Rhys Davids
Thomas William Rhys Davids, was a British scholar of the Pāli language and founder of the Pāli Text Society. He took an active part in founding the British London School for Oriental Studies. Thomas William Rhys Davids was born in England, at Colchester in Essex, the eldest son of a Congregational clergyman from Wales, affectionately referred to as the Bishop of Essex, his mother, who died at the age of 37 following childbirth, had run the Sunday school at his father's church. Deciding on a Civil Service career, Rhys Davids studied Sanskrit under A. F. Stenzler, a distinguished scholar at the University of Breslau, he earned money in Breslau by teaching English. In 1863 Rhys Davids returned to Britain, on passing his civil service exams was posted to Sri Lanka; when he was Magistrate of Galle and a case was brought before him involving questions of ecclesiastical law, he first learned of the Pāli language when a document in that language was brought in as evidence. In 1871 he was posted as Assistant Government Agent of Nuwarakalaviya, where Anuradhapura was the administrative centre.
The governor was Sir Hercules Robinson, who had founded the Archaeological Commission in 1868. Rhys Davids became involved with the excavation of the ancient Sinhalese city of Anuradhapura, abandoned after an invasion in 993 CE, he began to collect inscriptions and manuscripts, from 1870-1872 wrote a series of articles for the Ceylon branch of the Royal Asiatic Society Journal about them. He spent time with the people. Rhys Davids' civil service career and his residence in Sri Lanka came to an abrupt end. Personal differences with his superior, C. W. Twynham, caused a formal investigation, resulting a tribunal and Rhys Davids' dismissal for misconduct. A number of minor offences had been discovered, as well as grievances concerning fines improperly exacted both from Rhys Davids' subjects and his employees, he studied for the bar and practised law, though he continued to publish articles about Sri Lankan inscriptions and translations, notably in Max Müller's monumental Sacred Books of the East.
From 1882 to 1904 Rhys Davids was Professor of Pāli at the University of London, a post which carried no fixed salary other than lecture fees. In 1905 he took up the Chair of Comparative Religion at the University of Manchester. Rhys Davids attempted to promote Pāli scholarship in Britain, he lobbied the government to expand funding for the study of Indian languages and literature, using numerous arguments over how this might strengthen the British hold on India. He gave "Historical Lectures" and wrote papers advancing a racial theory of a common "Aryan" ethnicity amongst the peoples of Britain, Sri Lanka, the Buddha's own clan in ancient times; these were used to a different purpose. Rhys Davids claimed; this part of Rhys Davids' career is controversial. In 1894 Rhys Davids married a noted Pāli scholar. Unlike his wife, Rhys Davids was a critic and opponent of Theosophy, they had three children. The eldest, was involved in the Girl Guide movement and was a friend of Robert Baden-Powell, their only son, Arthur Rhys Davids, was a Royal Flying Corps 25-victory fighter ace, killed in World War I.
Rhys Davids died on 27 December 1922 in Surrey. Rhys Davids, T. W.. Buddhist Birth Stories, London Rhys Davids, T. W. trans.. Questions of King Milinda, Sacred Books of the East, volumes XXXV & XXXVI, Clarendon/Oxford, reprinted by Motilal Banarsidass, Delhi Vol. 1, Vol. 2 Rhys Davids, T. W.. Buddhist India. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons. Rhys Davids, T. W. Stede, William; the Pāli Text Society's Pāli–English Dictionary. Chipstead: Pāli Text Society. Search inside the Pāli–English Dictionary, University of Chicago Rhys Davids, T. W.. Buddhism Its History And Literature, G. P. Putnam's Sons. New York, Second Edition. Rhys Davids, T. W. & C. A. trans.. Dialogues of the Buddha, 3 volumes, Pāli Text Society, Vol. 1, Vol. 2, Vol. 3. Rhys Davids, T. W.. Vinaya Texts, Sacred Books of the East, volumes XIII, XVII & XX, Clarendon/Oxford. W.. The Sects of the Buddhists By T. W. Rhys Davids; the Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, pp. 409–422 Rhys Davids, T. W.. Asoka and the Buddha-relics By T. W. Rhys Davids. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, pp. 397–410 Anonymous.
The passing of the Founder, Journal of the Pāli Text Society 1-21 Wickremeratne, Ananda. The genesis of an Orientalist: Thomas William Rhys Davids and Buddhism in Sri Lanka, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 0836408675 Lorna S. Dewaraja. Rhys Davids: His contribution to Pāli and Buddhist studies, Daily News, Sri Lanka, 15–17 July 1998
A plough or plow is a tool or farm implement used in farming for initial cultivation of soil in preparation for sowing seed or planting to loosen or turn the soil. Ploughs were traditionally drawn by working animals such as oxen and horses, but in modern times are drawn by tractors. A plough may be made of wood, iron, or steel frame with an attached blade or stick used to cut the soil and loosen it, it has been a basic instrument for most of recorded history, although despite archeological evidence for its use written references to the plough do not appear in the English language before c. 1100, after which point it is referenced frequently. The plough represents one of the major agricultural inventions in human history; the earliest ploughs were wheelless, the Romans used a wheelless plough called the aratrum, but Celtic peoples began using wheeled ploughs during the Roman era. The primary purpose of ploughing is to turn over the upper layer of the soil, bringing fresh nutrients to the surface, while burying weeds and the remains of previous crops and allowing them to break down.
As the plough is drawn through the soil it creates. In modern use, a ploughed field is left to dry out, is harrowed before planting. Ploughing and cultivating a soil homogenises and modifies the upper 12 to 25 centimetres of the soil to form a plough layer. In many soils, the majority of fine plant feeder roots can be found in the plough layer. Ploughs were human-powered, but the process became more efficient once animals were pressed into service; the first animal-powered ploughs were undoubtedly pulled by oxen, in many areas by horses and mules, although various other animals have been used for this purpose. In industrialised countries, the first mechanical means of pulling a plough were steam-powered, but these were superseded by internal-combustion-powered tractors. Modern competitions take place for ploughing enthusiasts like the National Ploughing Championships in Ireland. Use of the plough has decreased in some areas those threatened by soil damage and erosion, in favour of shallower ploughing and other less-invasive conservation tillage techniques.
In older English, as in other Germanic languages, the plough was traditionally known by other names, e.g. Old English sulh, Old High German medela, huohilī, Old Norse arðr, Gothic hōha, all referring to the ard; the term plough, as used today, was not common until 1700. The modern word plough comes from Old Norse plógr, therefore Germanic, but it appears late, is thought to be a loanword from one of the north Italic languages. Words with the same root appeared with related meanings: in Raetic plaumorati "wheeled heavy plough", in Latin plaustrum "farm cart", plōstrum, plōstellum "cart", plōxenum, plōximum "cart box"; the word must have referred to the wheeled heavy plough, common in Roman northwestern Europe by the a.d. 5th century. Orel tentatively attaches plough to a PIE stem *blōkó-, which gave Armenian peɫem "to dig" and Welsh bwlch "crack", though the word may not be of Indo-European origin; the diagram shows the basic parts of the modern plough: beam hitch vertical regulator coulter chisel share mouldboardOther parts not shown or labelled include the frog, landside, shin and stilts.
On modern ploughs and some older ploughs, the mouldboard is separate from the share and runner, so these parts can be replaced without replacing the mouldboard. Abrasion destroys all parts of a plough that come into contact with the soil; when agriculture was first developed, soil was turned using simple hand-held digging sticks and hoes. These were used in fertile areas, such as the banks of the Nile where the annual flood rejuvenates the soil, to create drills to plant seeds in. Digging sticks and mattocks were not invented in any one place, hoe-cultivation must have been common everywhere agriculture was practiced. Hoe-farming is the traditional tillage method in tropical or sub-tropical regions, which are characterised by stony soils, steep slope gradients, predominant root crops, coarse grains grown at wide distances apart. While hoe-agriculture is best suited to these regions, it is used in some fashion everywhere. Instead of hoeing, some cultures use pigs to grub the earth; some ancient hoes, like the Egyptian mr, were pointed and strong enough to clear rocky soil and make seed drills, why they are called hand-ards.
However, the domestication of oxen in Mesopotamia and the Indus valley civilization as early as the 6th millennium BC, provided mankind with the draft power necessary to develop the larger, animal-drawn true ard. The earliest evidence of a ploughed field in the world was found at the Indus Valley Civilization site of Kalibangan. Archeological finds in Prague, Czech Republic, push oldest known ploughed field further, to 3500 - 3800 B. C. Institute of Archeology of CAS report A terracotta model of the early ards was found at Banawali, giving historians insight into the form of the tool; the ard remains easy to replace if it were to become easy to find materials to recreate. The earliest was the bow ard, which consists of a draft-pole pierced by a thinner vertical pointed stick called the head, with one end being the stilt and the other a share (cutting bl
Pick-up sticks or pick-a-stick is a game of physical and mental skill in which a bundle of "sticks", between 8 and 20 centimeters long, are dropped as a loose bunch onto a table top, jumbling into a random pile. Each player in turn tries to remove a stick from the pile without disturbing any of the others; the game is known by several names including jackstraws and spillikins, appears in a line of a nursery rhyme: "...five, pick-up sticks!" The sticks may be made of any material, such as ivory, wood, straw, rush, yarrow, or plastics. Some Haida First Nation pick-up sticks are plain maple wood decorated with abalone shell and copper. Today, the most common pick-up sticks, it remains difficult in all variations. The object of the game is to pick up the most sticks. To begin the game, a bundle of sticks is randomly distributed; the more tangled the resulting disarray, the more challenging the game. In some versions of the game, any isolated sticks, or are removed; the players attempt to remove a single stick, without moving any other stick.
In some versions of the game, players use a tool to move the stick away from the pile. In other versions, players must pick up the sticks by hand. In either case, players must not move any other things while attempting to remove the said stick. Players who pick up a stick can have another turn. In some versions of the game, different-coloured sticks are worth different numbers of points, the winner is the person with the highest score; the pieces in a jackstraw set are thematically related to farmyard tools, such as ladders, rakes and hoes. There are around 45 pieces in a set and made of wood, bone, or ivory. In addition to the jackstraws themselves, there is a helper piece with a hooked end for use in snagging and manipulating pieces; each piece has a point value, with more challenging pieces being worth more points. 1 hook approx 45 jackstraws Players try to win points by removing jackstraws – in the shapes of various tools – from the pile, one at a time. If you're the first player, hold all the jackstraws about 5 centimetres from the table.
Drop them so that they fall into a pile. Using the hook or your fingers, try to remove jackstraws from the pile, one at a time without moving the others at all. If any jackstraws have fallen free from the pile, you may remove them first; each time you succeed in removing one, try to remove another. Once you've started to remove a jackstraw, you can't decide to remove another. If you move one or more jackstraws while you're trying to remove another, you must end your turn. Players are encouraged to watch each opponent's turn closely; when your turn ends, the next player picks up and drops the remaining jackstraws and plays in the same manner. You can just start playing from where you left off without dropping the jackstraws again. Continue playing until all the jackstraws are gone from the pile. At the end of the game, players total the point values of their jackstraws; the players with the most points wins. Jenga Blockhead! Mikado
Gautama Buddha known as Siddhārtha Gautama in Sanskrit or Siddhattha Gotama in Pali, Shakyamuni Buddha, or the Buddha, after the title of Buddha, was a monk, sage, philosopher and religious leader on whose teachings Buddhism was founded. He is believed to have lived and taught in the northeastern part of ancient India sometime between the 6th and 4th centuries BCE. Gautama taught a Middle Way between sensual indulgence and the severe asceticism found in the śramaṇa movement common in his region, he taught throughout other regions of eastern India such as Magadha and Kosala. Gautama is the primary figure in Buddhism, he is believed by Buddhists to be an enlightened teacher who attained full Buddhahood and shared his insights to help sentient beings end rebirth and suffering. Accounts of his life and monastic rules are believed by Buddhists to have been summarised after his death and memorized by his followers. Various collections of teachings attributed to him were passed down by oral tradition and first committed to writing about 400 years later.
Scholars are hesitant to make unqualified claims about the historical facts of the Buddha's life. Most people accept that the Buddha lived and founded a monastic order during the Mahajanapada era during the reign of Bimbisara, the ruler of the Magadha empire, died during the early years of the reign of Ajatasatru, the successor of Bimbisara, thus making him a younger contemporary of Mahavira, the Jain tirthankara. While the general sequence of "birth, renunciation, search and liberation, death" is accepted, there is less consensus on the veracity of many details contained in traditional biographies; the times of Gautama's birth and death are uncertain. Most historians in the early 20th century dated his lifetime as c. 563 BCE to 483 BCE. More his death is dated between 411 and 400 BCE, while at a symposium on this question held in 1988, the majority of those who presented definite opinions gave dates within 20 years either side of 400 BCE for the Buddha's death; these alternative chronologies, have not been accepted by all historians.
The evidence of the early texts suggests that Siddhārtha Gautama was born into the Shakya clan, a community, on the periphery, both geographically and culturally, of the eastern Indian subcontinent in the 5th century BCE. One of his usual names was "Sakamuni" or "Sakyamunī", it was either a small republic, or an oligarchy, his father was an elected chieftain, or oligarch. According to the Buddhist tradition, Gautama was born in Lumbini, now in modern-day Nepal, raised in the Shakya capital of Kapilvastu, which may have been either in what is present day Tilaurakot, Nepal or Piprahwa, India. According to Buddhist tradition, he obtained his enlightenment in Bodh Gaya, gave his first sermon in Sarnath, died in Kushinagar. Apart from the Vedic Brahmins, the Buddha's lifetime coincided with the flourishing of influential Śramaṇa schools of thought like Ājīvika, Cārvāka, Ajñana. Brahmajala Sutta records sixty-two such schools of thought. In this context, a śramaṇa refers to one who toils, or exerts themselves.
It was the age of influential thinkers like Mahavira, Pūraṇa Kassapa, Makkhali Gosāla, Ajita Kesakambalī, Pakudha Kaccāyana, Sañjaya Belaṭṭhaputta, as recorded in Samaññaphala Sutta, whose viewpoints the Buddha most must have been acquainted with. Indeed and Moggallāna, two of the foremost disciples of the Buddha, were the foremost disciples of Sañjaya Belaṭṭhaputta, the sceptic. There is philological evidence to suggest that the two masters, Alara Kalama and Uddaka Ramaputta, were indeed historical figures and they most taught Buddha two different forms of meditative techniques. Thus, Buddha was just one of the many śramaṇa philosophers of that time. In an era where holiness of person was judged by their level of asceticism, Buddha was a reformist within the śramaṇa movement, rather than a reactionary against Vedic Brahminism; the life of the Buddha coincided with the Achaemenid conquest of the Indus Valley during the rule of Darius I from about 517/516 BCE. This Achaemenid occupation of the areas of Gandhara and Sindh, to last for about two centuries, was accompanied by the introduction of Achaemenid religions, reformed Mazdaism or early Zoroastrianism, to which Buddhism might have in part reacted.
In particular, the ideas of the Buddha may have consisted of a rejection of the "absolutist" or "perfectionist" ideas contained in these Achaemenid religions. No written records about Gautama were found from his lifetime or from the one or two centuries thereafter. In the middle of the 3rd century BCE, several Edicts of Ashoka mention the Buddha, Ashoka's Rummindei Minor Pillar Edict commemorates the Emperor's pilgrimage to Lumbini as the Buddha's birthplace. Another one of his edicts mentions the titles of several Dhamma texts, establishing the existence of a written Buddhist tradition at least by the time of the Maurya era; these texts may be the precursor of the Pāli Canon. "Sakamuni" in mentioned in the reliefs of Bharhut, dated to circa 100 BCE, in relation with his illumination and the Bodhi tree, with the inscription Bhagavato Sakamunino Bodho. The oldest surviving Buddhist manuscripts are the Gandhāran Buddhist texts, repor
Bhikkhu Bodhi, born Jeffrey Block, is an American Theravada Buddhist monk, ordained in Sri Lanka and teaching in the New York and New Jersey area. He was appointed the second president of the Buddhist Publication Society and has edited and authored several publications grounded in the Theravada Buddhist tradition. In 1944, Block was born in New York, from Jewish parents, he grew up in Borough Park, where he attended elementary school P. S. 160. In 1966, he obtained a B. A. in philosophy from Brooklyn College. In 1972, he obtained a PhD in philosophy from Claremont Graduate University. In 1967, while still a graduate student, Bodhi was ordained as a śrāmaṇera in the Vietnamese Mahayana order. In 1972, after graduation, Bodhi traveled to Sri Lanka where, under Balangoda Ananda Maitreya Thero, he received sāmaṇera ordination in the Theravada school and, in 1973, he received full ordination as a Theravada bhikkhu or monk. In 1984, succeeding co-founder Nyanaponika Thera, Bodhi was appointed English-language editor of the Buddhist Publication Society and, in 1988, became its president.
In 2002, he retired from the society's editorship. In 2000, at the United Nations' first official Vesak celebration, Bodhi gave the keynote address. In 2002, after retiring as editor of BPS, Bodhi returned to the United States. After living at Bodhi Monastery, he now lives and teaches at Chuang Yen Monastery, is the president of the Buddhist Association of the United States. Bhikkhu Bodhi is founder of the organization Buddhist Global Relief, which funds projects to fight hunger and to empower women across the world. Bodhi, Bhikkhu; the Discourse on the Fruit of Recluseship. Buddhist Publication Society. ISBN 978-9552400452. Bodhi, Bhikkhu; the Middle Length Discourses of the Buddha: A Translation of the Majjhima Nikaya. Wisdom Publications. ISBN 9780861710720. Bodhi, Bhikkhu. Great Discourse on Causation: Mahanidana Sutta and Its Commentaries. Buddhist Publication Society. ISBN 978-9552401176. Bodhi, Bhikkhu. Numerical Discourses of the Buddha: An Anthology of Suttas from the Anguttara Nikaya. Altamira Press.
ISBN 978-0742504059. Bodhi, Bhikkhu; the Connected Discourses of the Buddha: A New Translation of the Samyutta Nikaya. Wisdom Publications. ISBN 9780861713318. Bodhi, Bhikkhu; the Buddha and His Dhamma. Buddhist Publication Society. ISBN 978-9552402012. Bodhi, Bhikkhu; the Noble Eightfold Path: Way to the End of Suffering. Pariyatti. ISBN 978-1928706076. Bodhi, Bhikkhu; the Discourse on the All-Embracing Net of Views: The Brahmajala Sutta Commentarial Exegesis. Buddhist Publication Society. ISBN 978-9552400520. Bodhi, Bhikkhu; the Numerical Discourses of the Buddha: A Translation of the Anguttara Nikaya. Wisdom Publications. ISBN 9781614290407. Bodhi, Bhikkhu. A Comprehensive Manual of Abhidhamma: The Abhidhammattha Sangaha of Ācariya Anuruddha. Pariyatti. ISBN 978-1928706021. Bodhi, Bhikkhu. In the Buddha's Words: An Anthology of Discourses from the Pali Canon. Wisdom Publications. ISBN 9780861714919. Bodhi, Bhikkhu; the Buddha's Teachings on Social and Communal Harmony: An Anthology of Discourses from the Pali Canon.
Wisdom Publications. ISBN 9781614293552. Bodhi, Bhikkhu; the Suttanipata: An Ancient Collection of the Buddha's Discourses and Its Canonical Commentaries. Wisdom Publications. ISBN 9781614294290. Bodhi, Bhikkhu. Investigating the Dhamma: A Collection of Papers. Pariyatti. ISBN 978-1681720685. Bodhi, Bhikkhu. Dhamma Reflections: Collected Essays of Bhikkhu Bodhi. Pariyatti. ISBN 978-1681720326. Profile at Bodhi Monastery
Blindfold chess is a form of chess play wherein the players do not see the positions of the pieces or touch them. This forces players to maintain a mental model of the positions of the pieces. Moves are communicated via a recognized chess notation. Blindfold chess was considered miraculous for centuries, but now there is greater recognition of people who can keep track of more than one simultaneous blindfolded game. In simultaneous blindfold play, an intermediary relays the moves between the players. Blindfold chess was first played quite early on in the history of chess, with the first game being played by Sa'id bin Jubair in the Middle East. In Europe, playing chess blindfolded became popular as a means of handicapping a chess master when facing a weaker opponent, or of displaying one's superior abilities. H. J. R. Murray in his book A History of Chess recorded another type of unseen chess: two Central Asian horsemen riding side by side playing chess by calling chess moves to each other without using a board or pieces.
The first known blindfold event in Europe took place in Florence in 1266. In 1783 the great French player André Danican Philidor demonstrated his ability to play up to three blindfold games with great success, with newspapers highlighting his achievement, having taught himself to visualize the board while in bed at night when he had trouble sleeping. Paul Morphy held in 1858 a blindfold exhibition against the eight strongest players in Paris with the stunning result of six wins and two draws. Other early masters of blindfold chess were Louis Paulsen, Joseph Henry Blackburne and the first world champion Wilhelm Steinitz, who in 1867 played six simultaneous blindfold games in Dundee, winning three and drawing three, it was seen by these masters as a good source of income. As time went by the records for blindfold exhibitions increased. In 1900 Harry Nelson Pillsbury played 20 games in Philadelphia; the Czechoslovak player Richard Réti and Russian World Champion Alexander Alekhine were the next to further the record.
In 1924 at the Alamac Hotel of New York Alekhine played 26 simultaneous blindfold games against strong opponents, with the score of 16 wins, 5 losses, 5 draws. This was the strongest of any blindfold exhibitions held; the next year in February in Paris he faced 28 teams of four players each, with the impressive result of 22 wins, 3 losses, 3 draws. In the same year, Réti bettered this record by playing 29 players in São Paulo, commented on his poor memory after leaving his briefcase behind after the event. On July 16, 1934 in Chicago, Alekhine set the new world record by playing 32 blindfold games, with 19 wins, four losses, nine draws. Edward Lasker was the referee for this event; the acknowledged world record that stood for the rest of the 20th century was set by George Koltanowski on 20 September 1937, in Edinburgh, who played 34 chess games while blindfolded. He lost 10, over a period of 13 hours; the record was included in the Guinness Book of Records. Both Miguel Najdorf and János Flesch claimed to have broken that record, but their efforts were not properly monitored the way that Koltanowski's was.
Najdorf's first record in Rosario, Argentina was against 40 opponents and was organised in an effort to gain sufficient publicity to communicate to his family that he was still alive, as he had remained in Argentina after travelling from his native Poland to compete in the 1939 Chess Olympiad. He increased this record to 45 opponents in São Paulo in 1947, with the result of 39 wins, four draws and two losses; the Guinness Book of Records does not acknowledge Najdorf's record, because he had access to the scoresheets, there were multiple opponents per board. Koltanowski claimed. However, Najdorf's record is considered legitimate by other sources. Hungarian Janos Flesch claimed to have bettered this record in Budapest in 1960, playing 52 opponents with 31 wins, 3 draws, 18 losses. However, this record attempt was somewhat sullied by the fact that Flesch was permitted to verbally recount the scores of the games in progress, it took place over a remarkably short period of time, around five hours, included many short games.
One other notable blindfold record was set in 1960 by Koltanowski in San Francisco, when he played 56 consecutive blindfold games at a rate of 10 seconds a move. The exhibition lasted 9 hours with the result of 6 losses, his specialty was conducting a blindfold Knight's Tour on boards of up to 192 squares. A new European record was set in November 2010 by German Marc Lang in Sontheim, playing 35 opponents with 19 wins, 13 draws, 3 losses over a period of 23 hours. Lang improved the world record a year in November 2011 once again in Sontheim by playing 46 opponents and blindfolded, with 25 wins, 19 draws and just 2 losses. On Dec 3, 2016, Timur Gareyev played 48 opponents with a mask before his eyes and sitting on an exercise bike, resulting in 35 wins, 7 draws, 6 losses. While blindfold chess has been recommended in moderation by many sources as a method of increasing one's playing strength, simultaneous blindfold exhibitions were banned in 1930 in the USSR as they were deemed to be a health hazard.
Mikhail Botvinnik warned against it. Blindfold players have reported that it is more tiring than regular play if faster tim