A swimming pool, swimming bath, wading pool, or paddling pool is a structure designed to hold water to enable swimming or other leisure activities. Pools can be built into the ground or built above ground, many health clubs, fitness centers and private clubs, such as the YMCA, have pools used mostly for exercise or recreation. Many towns and cities provide public pools, many hotels have pools available for their guests to use at their leisure. Educational facilities such as universities typically have pools for physical education classes, recreational activities, hot tubs and spas are pools filled with hot water, used for relaxation or hydrotherapy, and are common in homes and health clubs. Special swimming pools are used for diving, specialized water sports, physical therapy as well as for the training of lifeguards. Swimming pools may be heated or unheated, the Great Bath at the site of Mohenjo-Daro in modern-day Pakistan was most likely the first swimming pool, dug during the 3rd millennium BC.
This pool is 12 by 7 metres, is lined with bricks, ancient Greeks and Romans built artificial pools for athletic training in the palaestras, for nautical games and for military exercises. Roman emperors had private swimming pools in which fish were kept, the first heated swimming pool was built by Gaius Maecenas of Rome in the 1st century BC. Gaius Maecenas was a rich Roman lord and considered one of the first patrons of arts, ancient Sinhalese built pairs of pools called Kuttam Pokuna in the kingdom of Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka in the 4th century BC. They were decorated with flights of steps, punkalas or pots of abundance, Swimming pools became popular in Britain in the mid-19th century. As early as 1837, six indoor pools with diving boards existed in London, the Maidstone Swimming Club in Maidstone, Kent is believed to be the oldest surviving swimming club in Britain. It was formed in 1844, in response to concerns over drownings in the River Medway, the club used to swim in the River Medway, and would hold races, diving competitions and water polo matches.
The South East Gazette July 1844 reported an aquatic breakfast party, the coffee was kept hot over a fire, club members had to tread water and drink coffee at the same time. The last swimmers managed to overturn the raft, to the amusement of 150 spectators, the Amateur Swimming Association was founded in 1869 in England, and the Oxford Swimming Club in 1909. The presence of indoor baths in the area of Merton Street might have persuaded the less hardy of the aquatic brigade to join. So, bathers gradually became swimmers, and bathing pools became swimming pools, in 1939, Oxford created its first major public indoor pool at Temple Cowley. The modern Olympic Games started in 1896 and included swimming races, in the US, the Racquet Club of Philadelphia clubhouse boasts one of the worlds first modern above-ground swimming pools. The first swimming pool to go to sea on an ocean liner was installed on the White Star Lines Adriatic in 1907, the oldest known public swimming pool in America, Underwood Pool, is located in Belmont, Massachusetts
Historically, a turf maze is a labyrinth made by cutting a convoluted path into a level area of short grass, turf or lawn. Some had names such as Mizmaze, Troy Town, The Walls of Troy, Julians Bower, most British examples are based on one of two layouts, the Classical or the later, more complex Medieval type which is derived from it. The earliest known use of the classical labyrinth pattern in the British Isles is on the Hollywood Stone, the medieval pattern occurs on a carved wooden roof boss dating from the 15th century at St. Mary Redcliffe church in Bristol. A maze could pre-date its earliest written record by years or even centuries, turf mazes were confined to Northern Europe, especially England and Denmark. Some of these stone labyrinths are very ancient, some modern turf mazes follow traditional labyrinth patterns, others are more inventive and incorporate religious, heraldic or other symbols appropriate to their site. Modern designs often have paved paths to keep their layouts clear, there has been much speculation about why turf mazes were cut and what they were used for.
Some turf maze sites were close to religious establishments such as churches or abbeys, some mazes were on village greens and were much used for entertainment by children and youths, particularly on high days and holidays. Large turf mazes in Germany and Poland were used for processions at Whitsuntide or as part of May celebrations, the fishermen would walk to the centre of the labyrinth, enticing the spirits to follow them, and run out and put to sea. Modern turf mazes have been made for a variety of reasons, some are private and used to aid contemplation or meditation, much as a mandala would be. Several English turf mazes were called Troy, Troy Town or The Walls of Troy, in Wales, where the patterns were cut into the turf of hilltops by shepherds, they were known as Caerdroia. Caer means wall, castle, fortress, fastness or city, in popular legend, the walls of the city of Troy were constructed in such a complex way that any enemy who entered them would be unable to find their way out. Other common maze names such as Julians Bower and St Julians could be derived from Julius, son of Aeneas of Troy, and the word burgh, a place-name element which, like caer, means a fortified place.
The Troy connection is found in the names of Scandinavian stone-lined mazes of the classical labyrinth pattern, for instance. In Denmark, which once had dozens of turf mazes, the name Trojborg or Trelleborg was commonly used, no examples survive. At Grothornet, in Vartdal in the Sunnmore Province of Norway there is a stone-lined labyrinth called Den Julianske Borg, some German turf maze names suggest a link with Sweden, Schwedenhugel, Schwedengang. Popular legend links them with the places of Swedish officers during the Thirty Years War. At Stolp, in Pomerania, the Windelbahn, a turf labyrinth, was used by the Shoemakers Guild. The original was destroyed, a copy was made in 1935, as noted above, turf mazes are notoriously difficult to date, as they have to be recut periodically to keep the paths clear
A stumpery is a garden feature similar to a rockery but made from parts of dead trees. This can take the form of whole stumps, pieces of bark or even worked timber such as railway sleepers or floorboards, the pieces are arranged artistically and plants, typically ferns and lichens are encouraged to grow around or on them. They provide a feature for the garden and a habitat for several types of wildlife, the first stumpery was built in 1856 at Biddulph Grange and they remained popular in Victorian Britain. A stumpery traditionally consists of tree stumps arranged upside-down or on their sides to show the structure but logs. The stumps can be used individually or attached together to form a structure such as a wall or arch, stumperies can vary in size from a handful of logs to large displays containing dozens of full tree stumps. The use of storm-damaged or diseased trees is not uncommon and can save the landowner the cost of their removal, plants such as ferns and lichens are often encouraged to grow around and on the stumpery.
Stumperies provide a home for wildlife and have known to host stag beetles, toads. Stumperies have been described as Victorian horticultural oddities and were popular features of 19th-century gardens, the reasons for their popularity vary but it may be a result of the Romantic Movement which emphasised the beauty of nature. Their popularity may be attributed to the popularity of ferns as garden plants at the time. Ferns were very fashionable and hundreds of new species were introduced to Britain from around the world, the stumpery made an ideal habitat for these shade-loving plants. Additionally stumperies may have used in place of rockeries in areas where suitable rocks were in short supply. Their popularity is once again on the rise, the first stumpery to be built, at Biddulph Grange, Staffordshire, in 1856, was designed by the artist and gardener Edward William Cooke for the estates owner James Bateman. The stumpery at Biddulph Grange consists of stumps placed into a 10 feet wall either side of a garden path, a famous modern stumpery is that at Highgrove House, the home of Prince Charles, which is considered to be the largest stumpery in Britain.
The largest stumpery in the United States is at Vashon Island in Washington and it rivals the Highgrove stumpery in size, measuring 9,000 square feet and including around 95 separate tree stumps. Stumperies can sometimes be mistaken for garden rubbish, when Prince Philip first saw his sons stumpery, he remarked, When are you going to set fire to this lot
A mound is a heaped pile of earth, sand, rocks, or debris. Most commonly, mounds are earthen formations such as hills and mountains, a mound may be any rounded area of topographically higher elevation on any surface. Artificial mounds have been created for a variety of reasons throughout history, including ceremonial, burial, in the archaeology of the United States and Canada, a mound is a deliberately constructed elevated earthen structure or earthwork, intended for a range of potential uses. In European and Asian archaeology, the word tumulus may be used as a synonym for an artificial hill, while the term mound may be applied to historic constructions, most mounds in the United States are pre-Columbian earthworks, built by Native American peoples. Native Americans built a variety of mounds, including flat-topped pyramids or cones known as mounds, rounded cones. Some mounds took on unusual shapes, such as the outline of cosmologically significant animals and these are known as effigy mounds.
Some mounds, such as a few in Wisconsin, have rock formations, or petroforms within them, on them, while these mounds are perhaps not as famous as burial mounds, like their European analogs, Native American mounds have a variety of other uses. While some prehistoric cultures, like the Adena culture, used preferentially for burial, others used mounds for other ritual and sacred acts. The platform mounds of the Mississippian culture, for example, may have supported temples, the houses of chiefs, council houses, other mounds would have been part of defensive walls to protect a certain area. The Hopewell culture used mounds as markers of complex astronomical alignments related to ceremonies and related earthworks are the only significant monumental construction in pre-Columbian Eastern and Central North America. Mounds are given different names depending on which culture they strive from and they can be located all across the world in spots such as Asia and the Americas. Mound builders have more commonly associated with the mounds in the Americas.
They all have different meanings and sometimes are constructed as animals, kankali Tila is a famous mound located at Mathura in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. A Jain stupa was excavated here in 1890-91 by Dr. Fuhrer, mound, as a technical term in archaeology, is not generally in favor in the rest of the world. More specific local terminology is preferred, and each of these terms has its own article
Garden gnomes are lawn ornament figurines of small humanoid creatures known as gnomes or dwarfs that are typically males wearing red pointy hats. First created in 19th-century Germany, garden gnomes spread to countries in Europe in the 1840s and became particularly popular in France. In ancient Rome, small stone statues depicting the Greco-Roman fertility god Priapus, a protector of plants, Garden gnomes were first described during the Renaissance period by Swiss alchemist Paracelsus as diminutive figures two spans in height who did not like to mix with humans. During this period, stone grotesques, which were typically garishly painted, among the figures depicted were gobbi. In particular, Jacques Callot produced 21 versions of gobbi, which he engraved and printed in 1616, by the late 1700s, gnome-like statues made of wood or porcelain called house dwarfs became popular household decorations. The area surrounding town of Brienz in Switzerland was known for their production of wooden house dwarfs, in Germany, these garden figurines became conflated with their traditional stories and superstitions about the little folk or dwarfs that they believed helped around the mines and on the farm.
Nicknamed Lampy, the only gnome of the batch to survive is on display at Lamport Hall. The manufacturing of gnomes spread across Germany, with other large and small manufacturers coming in and out of the business. From around 1860 onwards, many statues were made in Gräfenroda, tom Major-Ball was the most notable producer at that time with his company Majors Garden Ornaments. World War II and the following were hard on the industry. Garden gnomes saw a resurgence in popularity again in the 1970s with the creation of more types of gnomes. Philip Griebels descendants are still producing garden gnomes in Germany, as of 2008, there were an estimated 25 million garden gnomes in Germany. A subplot in the 2001 French movie Amélie revolves around a garden gnome and Juliet is a 2011 British-American CGI film that is inspired by the tragedy of Romeo and Juliet featuring garden gnomes as the characters. The Social Democratic Party of Austria used garden gnomes, which they called Coolmen and it was intended as an ironic pun since the SPÖ historically performed poorly in elections in this part of Austria and considered itself to be a political dwarf.
The campaign placed 20,000 Coolmen holding small posters with short slogans along highly frequented roads, the party made a police report after 400 of them went missing, drawing attention from the international media. The 2010 video game Fable III includes a mission where a collection of garden gnomes are given magical properties. Garden gnomes are typically males, often bearded, usually wear red phrygian caps and they are made in various poses and shown pursuing various pastimes, such as fishing or napping. The ban was lifted during 2013 to mark the shows centenary, Gnome enthusiasts have accused the organisers of snobbery as garden gnomes are popular in the gardens of working class and suburban households
Saalfeld Fairy Grottoes
The Saalfeld Fairy Grottoes are caverns or grottoes of a former mine near Saalfeld, in the German state of Thuringia. They have long been famous for their countless colorful mineral formations formed over many years by water dripping through relatively soft rock, since 1993, the Guinness Book of World Records has termed the Feengrotten the most colorful cave grottoes in the world. The caverns consist of three connected by galleries. In the first chamber, information is presented about the history of the mine — in the 16th to 19th centuries an alum shale mine that was closed in 1850, the historical background includes information about environmental radiation treatments formerly offered there until such treatments were found to be hazardous. In the second chamber is found the source of the water that formed colorful stalagmites, stalactites. Historically, alum was employed in a range of products, as a food preservative, to clarify water. However, in the 19th century more effective chemical compounds were developed, by the 20th century, the Feengrotten had been largely forgotten.
But in 1910 the old mine was rediscovered and explorers took note of the mineral deposits that had accumulated over the geologically short period of three centuries. In 1913 the third chamber with the Fairy Kingdom was discovered, following German unification, the pavilion was renovated beginning in 1998, and new facilities were added. Between 1914 and 2007, more than 20 million people visited the grottoes, list of show caves in Germany Official website
A grotto is a natural or artificial cave used by humans in both modern times and antiquity, and historically or prehistorically. Naturally occurring grottoes are often small caves near water that are usually flooded or liable to flood at high tide, artificial grottoes are used as garden features. The Grotta Azzurra at Capri and the grotto at the villa of Tiberius in the Bay of Naples are examples of popular natural seashore grottoes, the word grotto comes from Italian grotta, Vulgar Latin grupta, and Latin crypta. It is related by an accident to the word grotesque. The rooms had sunk underground over time, the Romans who discovered this historical monument found it very strange, a sentiment enhanced by the fact that it was uncovered from an underworld source. This led the Romans to give it the name grottesche, or grotesque, grottoes were very popular in Greek and Roman culture. Spring-fed grottoes were a feature of Apollos oracles at Delphi, the Hellenistic city of Rhodes was designed with rock-cut artificial grottoes incorporated into the city, made to look natural.
According to tradition, Praenestes sacred spring had a native nymph, the Roman emperor, filled his grotto with sculptures to create a sense of mythology, perhaps channeling Polyphemus cave in the Odyssey. The numinous quality of the grotto is still more ancient, in a grotto near Knossos in Crete, Eileithyia was venerated, even farther back in time, the immanence of the divine in a grotto is seen in the sacred caves of Lascaux. The popularity of artificial grottoes introduced Mannerist style to Italian and French gardens of the mid-16th century, two famous grottoes in the Boboli Gardens of Palazzo Pitti were begun by Vasari and completed by Ammanati and Buontalenti between 1583 and 1593. One of these grottoes originally housed the Prisoners of Michelangelo, before Boboli grotto, a garden was laid out by Niccolò Tribolo at the Medici Villa Castello, near Florence. At Pratolino, in spite of the dryness of the site, there was a Grotto of Cupid, with water tricks for the unsuspecting visitor. The Fonte di Fata Morgana at Grassina, not far from Florence, is a garden building.
It is decorated with sculptures in the Giambolognan manner, the outside of garden grottoes are often designed to look like an enormous rock, a rustic porch or a rocky overhang. Damp grottoes were cool places to retreat from the Italian sun, in Kuskovo at the Sheremetev estate there is a Summer Grotto, built in 1775. Grottoes could serve as baths, an example of this is at the Palazzo del Te, in the Casino della Grotta, courtiers once bathed in the small cascade that splashed over the pebbles and shells encrusted in the floor and walls. Grottoes have served as chapels, or at Villa Farnese at Caprarola and they were often combined with cascading fountains in Renaissance gardens. The grotto designed by Bernard Palissy for Catherine de Medicis château in Paris, there are grottoes in the gardens designed by André Le Nôtre for Versailles
A parterre is a formal garden constructed on a level substrate, consisting of plant beds, typically in symmetrical patterns, which are separated and connected by paths. The borders of the plant beds may be formed with stone or tightly pruned hedging, the paths are constituted with gravel or turf grass. French parterres originated in the gardens of the French Renaissance of the 15th century, during the 17th century Baroque era, they became more elaborate and stylised. The French parterre reached its greatest development at the Palace of Versailles, claude Mollet, the founder of a dynasty of nurserymen-designers that lasted into the 18th century, developed the parterre in France. His inspiration in developing the 16th-century patterned compartimens, i. e. C, clipped boxwood met with resistance from horticultural patrons for its naughtie smell as the herbalist Gervase Markham described it. By the 1630s, elaborate parterres de broderie appeared at Wilton House in Wilton, England that were so magnificent that they were engraved, which engraving is the only remaining trace of them.
Parterres de pelouse or parterres de gazon denominate cutwork parterres of low growing herbs, e. g. camomile, the separation of plant beds of a pareterre is denominated an alley of compartiment. Parterre gardens lost favour in the 18th century and were superseded by naturalistic English landscape gardens, level substrates and a raised vantage point from which to view the design were required, and so the parterre was revived in a modified style. At Kensington Palace the planting of the parterres was by Henry Wise, whose nursery was nearby at Brompton, subsidiary wings have subsidiary parterres, with no attempt at overall integration. To either side, walls with busts on herm pedestals backed by young trees screen the parterre from the garden spaces. Formal baroque patterns have given way to symmetrical paired free scrolling rococo arabesques, little attempt seems to have been made to fit the framework to the shape of the parterre. Beyond paired basins have central jets of water, in the UK, modern parterres exist at Trereife Park in Penzance, at Drumlanrig Castle in Dumfriesshire and at Bodysgallen Hall near Llandudno.
Examples can be found in the Republic of Ireland, such as at Birr Castle, sentinel pyramids of yew stand at the corners. Some early knot gardens have been covered over by lawn or other landscaping, an example of this phenomenon is the early 17th-century garden of Muchalls Castle in Scotland. At Charlecote Park in Warwickshire the original parterre from the 1700s has been recreated on the terrace overlooking the river, making of a modern parterre This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Ephraim, ed. article name needed. Cyclopædia, or an Universal Dictionary of Arts and Sciences and John Knapton, et al
In gardening, a terrace is an element where a raised flat paved or gravelled section overlooks a prospect. A raised terrace keeps a house dry and provides a transition between the materials of the architecture and softer ones of the garden. Such a terrace had its origins in the far older practice of terracing a sloping site. The Hanging Gardens of Babylon must have built on an artificial mountain with stepped terraces. At Praeneste during the early Imperial period, the sanctuary of Fortuna was enlarged and elaborated, the imperial villas at Capri were built to take advantage of varied terraces. At the seaside Villa of the Papyri in Herculaneum, the gardens of Julius Caesars father-in-law fell away in a series of terraces, giving pleasant. Only some of them have been excavated, at Villa of Livia, probably part of Livia Drusillas dowry brought to the Julio-Claudian dynasty, rooms in the cryptoporticus beneath terracing were frescoed with trees in bloom and fruit. At the influential Cortile del Belvedere at the Vatican Palace, perfected under a series of popes from the earliest 16th century, the view in this case was from the Stanze of Raphael on an upper floor of the Palace.
They are often discussed in conjunction with roof gardens, although they are not always true roof gardens, instead being balconies and these outdoor spaces can become lush gardens through the use of container gardening, automated drip irrigation and low-flow irrigation systems, and outdoor furnishings
Stourhead is a 1, 072-hectare estate at the source of the River Stour near Mere, England. The estate includes a Palladian mansion, the village of Stourton, farmland, Stourhead is part owned with the National Trust since 1946. The Stourton family, the Barons of Stourton, had lived in the Stourhead estate for 500 years until sold it to Sir Thomas Meres in 1714. His son, John Meres, sold it to Henry Hoare I, the original manor house was demolished and a new house, one of the first of its kind, was designed by Colen Campbell and built by Nathaniel Ireson between 1721 and 1725. Over the next 200 years the Hoare family collected many heirlooms, including a large library, in 1902 the house was gutted by fire but many of the heirlooms were saved, and the house was rebuilt in a near identical style. The last Hoare family member to be born at the house was Edward Hoare on 11 October 1949, although the main design for the estate at Stourhead was created by Colen Campbell, there were various other architects involved in its evolution through the years.
William Benson, Henry Hoares brother-in-law, was in part responsible for the building of the estate in 1719, francis Cartwright, a master builder and architect, was established as a competent provincial designer in the Palladian manner. He worked on Stourhead between the years of 1749–1755, Cartwright was a known carver, presumably of materials such as wood and stone. It is assumed that his contribution to Stourhead was in this capacity, Nathaniel Ireson is the master builder credited for much of the work on the Estate. It is this work established his career, in 1720. The original estate remained intact, though changes and additions were made over time, Henry Flitcroft built three temples and a tower on the property. The Temple of Ceres was added in 1744, followed by the Temple of Hercules in 1754 and that same year he designed Alfreds Tower, but it wasnt built until 1772. In 1806, the mason and surveyor John Carter added an ornamental cottage to the grounds, the architect William Wilkins created a Grecian style lodge in 1816, for Sir R.
Colt Hoare. In 1840, over a century after the buildings were constructed. A portico was added to the house, along with other alterations. The design of the additions was in keeping with original plans, the lake at Stourhead is artificially created. Following a path around the lake is meant to evoke a similar to that of Aeneass descent in to the underworld. In addition to Greek mythology, the layout is evocative of the genius of the place and monuments are erected in remembrance of family and local history
Water gardens, known as aquatic gardens, are a type of water feature. They can be defined as any interior or exterior landscape or architectural element whose primary purpose is to house, the primary focus is on plants, but they will sometimes house ornamental fish, in which case the feature will be a fish pond. Water gardening is gardening that is concerned with growing plants adapted to pools, although water gardens can be almost any size or depth, they are typically small and relatively shallow, generally less than twenty inches in depth. This is because most aquatic plants are sensitive and require a specific water depth in order to thrive. The particular species inhabiting each water garden will ultimately determine the surface area. When the aquatic flora and fauna are balanced, an ecosystem is created that will support sustainable water quality and clarity. Water gardens, and water features in general, have been a part of public and private gardens since ancient Persian gardens, for instance, the Nanfang Caomu Zhuang records cultivating Chinese spinach on floating gardens.
Water features have been present and well represented in every era and in culture that has included gardens in their landscape. Historically, water features were used to plant and fish production both for food purposes and for ornamental aesthetics. In Italy several royal houses constructed large water gardens incorporating mechanical devices in water settings, the best-known is the Villa dEste at Tivoli, constructed in 1550 AD. A hill cascaded with many fountains and grottoes, some with water-driven figures that moved or spouted water, on a constructed stream, placing rocks in the path of the water makes small patterns and waterfalls. The rocks disrupt the waterflow, causing splashing and bubbles that can make pleasant sounds and micro-habitats for plants, well-placed rocks can create splashing water that adds oxygen to prevent hypoxia, the more bubbles, the more dissolved oxygen in the water. Water garden plants are divided into three categories, submerged and floating. Submerged plants are those that live almost completely under the water and these plants are placed in a pond or container usually 1–2 ft below the water surface.
Some of these plants are called oxygenators because they create oxygen for the fish live in a pond. Examples of submerged plants are, Water lily Hornwort Marginal plants are those that live with their roots under the water and these are usually placed so that the top of the pot is at or barely below the water level. In water gardening, these are used as a provider of shade to reduce algae growth in a pond. These are often extremely fast growing/multiplying, algae are found in almost all ponds