The Soviet Union the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics, its government and economy were centralized; the country was a one-party state, governed by the Communist Party with Moscow as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Other major urban centres were Leningrad, Minsk, Alma-Ata, Novosibirsk, it spanned over 10,000 kilometres east to west across 11 time zones, over 7,200 kilometres north to south. It had five climate zones: tundra, steppes and mountains; the Soviet Union had its roots in the 1917 October Revolution, when the Bolsheviks, led by Vladimir Lenin, overthrew the Russian Provisional Government which had replaced Tsar Nicholas II during World War I. In 1922, the Soviet Union was formed by a treaty which legalized the unification of the Russian, Transcaucasian and Byelorussian republics that had occurred from 1918. Following Lenin's death in 1924 and a brief power struggle, Joseph Stalin came to power in the mid-1920s.
Stalin committed the state's ideology to Marxism–Leninism and constructed a command economy which led to a period of rapid industrialization and collectivization. During his rule, political paranoia fermented and the Great Purge removed Stalin's opponents within and outside of the party via arbitrary arrests and persecutions of many people, resulting in at least 600,000 deaths. In 1933, a major famine struck the country. Before the start of World War II in 1939, the Soviets signed the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, agreeing to non-aggression with Nazi Germany, after which the USSR invaded Poland on 17 September 1939. In June 1941, Germany broke the pact and invaded the Soviet Union, opening the largest and bloodiest theatre of war in history. Soviet war casualties accounted for the highest proportion of the conflict in the effort of acquiring the upper hand over Axis forces at intense battles such as Stalingrad and Kursk; the territories overtaken by the Red Army became satellite states of the Soviet Union.
The post-war division of Europe into capitalist and communist halves would lead to increased tensions with the United States-led Western Bloc, known as the Cold War. Stalin died in 1953 and was succeeded by Nikita Khrushchev, who in 1956 denounced Stalin and began the de-Stalinization; the Cuban Missile Crisis occurred during Khrushchev's rule, among the many factors that led to his downfall in 1964. In the early 1970s, there was a brief détente of relations with the United States, but tensions resumed with the Soviet–Afghan War in 1979. In 1985, the last Soviet premier, Mikhail Gorbachev, sought to reform and liberalize the economy through his policies of glasnost and perestroika, which caused political instability. In 1989, Soviet satellite states in Eastern Europe overthrew their respective communist governments; as part of an attempt to prevent the country's dissolution due to rising nationalist and separatist movements, a referendum was held in March 1991, boycotted by some republics, that resulted in a majority of participating citizens voting in favor of preserving the union as a renewed federation.
Gorbachev's power was diminished after Russian President Boris Yeltsin's high-profile role in facing down a coup d'état attempted by Communist Party hardliners. In late 1991, Gorbachev resigned and the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union met and formally dissolved the Soviet Union; the remaining 12 constituent republics emerged as independent post-Soviet states, with the Russian Federation—formerly the Russian SFSR—assuming the Soviet Union's rights and obligations and being recognized as the successor state. The Soviet Union was a powerhouse of many significant technological achievements and innovations of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite, the first humans in space and the first probe to land on another planet, Venus; the country had the largest standing military in the world. The Soviet Union was recognized as one of the five nuclear weapons states and possessed the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction, it was a founding permanent member of the United Nations Security Council as well as a member of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the World Federation of Trade Unions and the leading member of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance and the Warsaw Pact.
The word "Soviet" is derived from a Russian word сове́т meaning council, advice, harmony and all deriving from the proto-Slavic verbal stem of vět-iti, related to Slavic věst, English "wise", the root in "ad-vis-or", or the Dutch weten. The word sovietnik means "councillor". A number of organizations in Russian history were called "council". For example, in the Russian Empire the State Council, which functioned from 1810 to 1917, was referred to as a Council of Ministers after the revolt of 1905. During the Georgian Affair, Vladimir Lenin envisioned an expression of Great Russian ethnic chauvinism by Joseph Stalin and his supporters, calling for these nation-states to join Russia as semi-independent parts of a greater union, which he named as the Union of Soviet Republics of Europe and Asia. Stalin resisted the proposal, but accepted it, although with Lenin's agreement changed the name of the newly proposed sta
A soda fountain is a device that dispenses carbonated soft drinks, called fountain drinks. They can be found in concession stands and other locations such as convenience stores; the device combines flavored syrup or syrup concentrate and carbon dioxide with chilled and purified water to make soft drinks, either manually, or in a vending machine, an automated soda fountain, operated using a soda gun. Today, the syrup is pumped from a special container called a bag-in-box. Fountain coke is a confused term referring to a handheld dispenser behind a bar or counter that are used in many countries, including Spain and the United Kingdom; the term ‘fountain’ helps differentiate from, ‘machine’ coke as the fountain more controlled and offers more flavours. A soda fountain is referred to as a postmix machine in some markets. Any brand of soft drink, available as postmix syrup may be dispensed by a fountain; the term may refer to a small eating establishment or lunch counter, common from the late 19th century until the mid-20th century inside a drugstore or other business, where a soda jerk served carbonated beverages, ice cream, sometimes light meals.
The soda jerk's fountain dispensed only unflavored carbonated water, to which various syrups were added by hand. The soda fountain was an attempt to replicate mineral waters. Many civilizations believed that drinking and/or bathing in these mineral waters cured diseases, large industries sprang up around hot springs, such as Bath in England or the many onsen of Japan. Early scientists tried to create effervescent waters with curative powers, including Robert Boyle, Friedrich Hoffmann, Jean Baptiste van Helmont, William Brownrigg, Antoine Laurent Lavoisier, David Macbride. In the early 1770s, Swedish chemist Torbern Bergman and English scientist Joseph Priestley invented equipment for saturating water with carbon dioxide. In 1774 John Mervin Nooth demonstrated an apparatus. In 1807 Henry Thompson received the first British patent for a method of impregnating water with carbon dioxide; this was called soda water, although it contained no soda. The soda fountain began in Europe, but achieved its greatest success in the U.
S. Benjamin Silliman, a Yale chemistry professor, was among the first to introduce soda water to America. In 1806 Silliman purchased a Nooth apparatus and began selling mineral waters in New Haven, Connecticut. Sales were brisk, so he built a bigger apparatus, opened a pump room, took in three partners; this partnership opened soda fountains in Baltimore, Maryland. At the same time, other businessmen opened fountains in New York City and Philadelphia. Although Silliman's business failed, he played an important role in popularizing soda water. In 1832, John Matthews of New York City and John Lippincott of Philadelphia began manufacturing soda fountains. Both added innovations that improved soda-fountain equipment, the industry expanded as retail outlets installed newer, better fountains. Other pioneering manufacturers were Alvin Puffer, Andrew Morse, Gustavus Dows, James Tufts. In 1891 the four largest manufacturers—Tufts, Puffer and Matthews—formed the American Soda Fountain Company, a trust designed to monopolize the industry.
The four manufacturers continued to market fountains under their company names. The trust forced some smaller manufacturers out of business. Before mechanical refrigeration, soda fountains used ice to cool drinks and ice cream. Ice harvesters cut ice from frozen lakes and ponds in the winter and stored the blocks in ice houses for use in the summer. In the early 20th century, new companies entered the soda fountain business, marketing "iceless" fountains that used brine; the L. A. Becker Company, the Liquid Carbonic Company, the Bishop & Babcock Company dominated the iceless fountain business. In 1888 Jacob Baur of Terre Haute, Indiana founded the Liquid Carbonics Manufacturing Company in Chicago, becoming the Midwest's first manufacturer of liquefied carbon dioxide. In 1903 Liquid Carbonic began market-testing its prototype iceless fountain in a Chicago confectionery. Louis A. Becker was a salesman who started his own manufacturing business in 1898, making the 20th-Century Sanitary Soda Fountain.
In 1904 Becker's company produced its first iceless fountain. In 1908 William H. Wallace obtained a patent for an iceless fountain and installed his prototype in an Indianapolis drugstore, he sold his patent to Marietta Manufacturing Company, absorbed by Bishop & Babcock of Cleveland. Liquid Carbonic spawned the Bastian-Blessing Company. Two Liquid Carbonic employees, Charles Bastian and Lewis Blessing, started their company in 1908; the newer manufacturers competed with the American Soda Fountain Company and took a large share of the market. The trust was broken up, its member companies struggled to stay in business. During World War I, some manufacturers marketed "50% fountains," which used a combination of ice and mechanical refrigeration. In the early 1920s, many retail outlets purchased soda fountains using ammonia refrigeration. In their heyday, soda fountains flourished in pharmacies, ice cream parlors, candy stores, dime stores, department stores, milk bars and train stations, they served an important function as a public space where neighbors could socialize and exchange community news.
In the early 20th century, many fountains expanded their menus and became lunch counters, serving light meals as well as ice cream sodas, egg creams and such. Soda fountains reached their height in the 1950s. In 1950, one of th
A margarita is a cocktail consisting of tequila, orange liqueur, lime juice served with salt on the rim of the glass. The drink is served shaken with ice, blended without ice. Although it has become acceptable to serve a margarita in a wide variety of glass types, ranging from cocktail and wine glasses to pint glasses and large schooners, the drink is traditionally served in the eponymous margarita glass, a stepped-diameter variant of a cocktail glass or champagne coupe. According to cocktail historian David Wondrich, the margarita is a popular Mexican and American drink, the Daisy, remade with tequila instead of brandy, which became popular during Prohibition as people drifted over the border for alcohol. There is an account from 1936 of Iowa newspaper editor James Graham finding such a cocktail in Tijuana, years before any of the other margarita "creation myths".1937 Cafe Royal Cocktail Book contains a recipe for a Picador using the same concentrations of tequila, triple sec and lime juice as a margarita.
One of the earliest stories is of the margarita being invented in 1938 by Carlos "Danny" Herrera at his restaurant Rancho La Gloria, halfway between Tijuana and Rosarito, Baja California, created for customer and former Ziegfeld dancer Marjorie King, allergic to many spirits, but not to tequila. This story was related by Herrera and by bartender Albert Hernandez, acknowledged for popularizing a margarita in San Diego after 1947, at the La Plaza restaurant in La Jolla. There are claims that the margarita was first mixed in Juárez, Chihuahua at Tommy's Place Bar on July 4, 1942 by Francisco "Pancho" Morales. Morales left bartending in Mexico to become a US citizen, where he worked as a milkman for 25 years. Mexico's official news agency Notimex and many experts have said Morales has the strongest claim to having invented the margarita. Others say the inventor was Dallas socialite Margarita Sames, when she concocted the drink for her guests at her Acapulco, Guerrero vacation home in 1948. Tommy Hilton attended, bringing the drink back to the Hilton chain of hotels.
However, Jose Cuervo was running ad campaigns for the margarita three years earlier, in 1945, with the slogan, "Margarita: It's more than a girl's name." According to Jose Cuervo, the cocktail was invented in 1938 by a bartender in honor of Mexican showgirl Rita de la Rosa. Another common origin tale begins the cocktail's history at the legendary Balinese Room in Galveston, Texas where, in 1948, head bartender Santos Cruz created the margarita for singer Peggy Lee, he named it after the Spanish version of her name, Margarita. The first known publication of a margarita recipe was in the December 1953 issue of Esquire, with a recipe calling for an ounce of tequila, a dash of triple sec and the juice of half a lime or lemon. A recipe for a tequila-based cocktail first appeared in the 1930 book My New Cocktail Book by G. F. Steele. Without noting a specific recipe or inventor, a drink called the Tequila Daisy was mentioned in the Syracuse Herald as early as 1936. Margarita is Spanish for Daisy, a nickname for Margaret.
A certainly false, story is that the margarita was invented in October 1961, at a party in Houston, Texas, by party goer Robert James "Rusty" Thomson while acting as bartender. He concocted a mixture of equal parts tequila, Controy orange liqueur and crushed ice in a salt-rimmed glass. However, Thomson's recipe was made with Damiana Liqueur, not Cointreau orange liqueur, it is said. The IBA standard is 50 % tequila, 29 % Cointreau, 21 % fresh lime juice; the "Original Margarita" recipe as given by Cointreau on their website has less of their own sweet liqueur: 1 part white tequila, 1⁄2 part Cointreau, 1⁄2 part fresh squeezed lime juice. Besides Cointreau, other orange-flavored liqueurs that might be used include Grand Marnier, Gran Gala, other brands of triple sec, or blue curaçao; when sweeter fruit juices or freshly puréed fruits are added to the margarita, the orange-flavored liqueur is reduced or eliminated entirely. In addition to orange-flavored liqueurs, secondary liqueurs may be added to a cocktail, including melon-flavored or black raspberry-flavored.
Other flavors include watermelon. Freshly squeezed; the most common lime in the United States is the thick-skinned Persian lime. However, margaritas in Mexico are made with Mexican limes; these are small, thin-skinned limes and have more tart and an bitter flavor compared to Persian limes. In addition to being shaken and served "up" like other cocktails, margaritas can be served as a blended ice slush similar to other tropical-inspired mixed drinks like the hurricane or piña colada; this variant is known as a frozen margarita. The ingredients can be poured over crushed ice in a kitchen blender, or for larger establishments that serve many of these, a large quantity of a "house recipe" of frozen margarita can be kept in a machine designed for the purpose, it was first served in La Jolla, when Albert Hernandez Sr. stopped using crushed ice and instead combined the ingredients in a blender in 1947. The first frozen margarita machine was invented on May 11, 1971, by Dallas, Texas r
A milkshake is a sweet, cold beverage, made from milk, ice cream, or iced milk, flavorings or sweeteners such as butterscotch, caramel sauce, chocolate syrup, or fruit syrup. Many more precise and rigid definitions are subject to region. Outside of the United States, milkshakes using ice cream or iced milk are sometimes called a thick milkshake or thick shake; the term shake may be used more to refer to any cold beverage involving milk. Many food places such as McDonald's avoid the term milkshake on their menus in favor of the term shake. Full-service restaurants, soda fountains, diners prepare and mix the shake "by hand" from scoops of ice cream and milk in a blender or drink mixer using a stainless steel cup. Many fast food outlets do not make shakes by hand with ice cream. However, some fast food outlets still follow the traditional method, some serve milkshakes which are prepared by blending soft-serve ice cream with flavoring or syrups. Milkshakes can be made at home with a blender or automatic drink mixer.
A milkshake can be made by adding powder into fresh milk and stirring the powder into the milk. Milkshakes made in this way can come in a variety of flavors, including chocolate, caramel and banana. Hand-blended milkshakes are traditionally made from any flavor of ice cream; this allows a greater variety. Some unusual milkshake recipes exclude ice cream. Milkshake-like recipes which use a high proportion of fruit and no ice cream are called smoothies if frozen yogurt is used; when malted milk is added, a milkshake is called a malted milkshake, a malt shake, a malted, or a malt. An ice cream-based milkshake may be called a thick milkshake or thick shake in the United Kingdom or a frappe or frap in parts of New England and Canada; some U. S. restaurants serve milkshakes with candy bar pieces, or alcoholic beverages. Pre-made milkshakes are sold in grocery stores in North America and the UK; these drinks are made from milk mixed with sweetened flavored powder, artificial syrup, or concentrate, which would otherwise be called "flavored milk", thickened with carrageenan or other products.
Bottled milkshakes are sold in 330ml, 500ml, or 1 liter bottles. When the term "milkshake" was first used in print in 1885, milkshakes were an alcoholic whiskey drink, described as a "sturdy, healthful eggnog type of drink, with eggs, etc. served as a tonic as well as a treat". However, by 1900, the term referred to "wholesome drinks made with chocolate, strawberry, or vanilla syrups." By the "early 1900s people were asking for the new treat with ice cream." By the 1930s, milkshakes were a popular drink at malt shops, which were the "typical soda fountain of the period... used by students as a meeting place or hangout."The history of the electric blender, malted milk drinks, milkshakes are interconnected. Before the widespread availability of electric blenders, milkshake-type drinks were more like eggnog, or they were a hand-shaken mixture of crushed ice and milk and flavorings. Hamilton Beach's drink mixers began being used at soda fountains in 1911 and the electric blender or drink mixer was invented by Steven Poplawski in 1922.
With the invention of the blender, milkshakes began to take their modern, whipped and frothy form. The use of malted milk powder in milkshakes was popularized in the USA by the Chicago drugstore chain Walgreens. Malted milk powder—a mixture of evaporated milk, malted barley, wheat flour—had been invented by William Horlick in 1897 for use as an digested restorative health drink for disabled people and children, as an infant's food. However, healthy people soon began drinking beverages made with malted milk for the taste, malted milk beverages containing milk, chocolate syrup, malt powder became a standard offering at soda fountains. In 1922, Walgreens employee Ivar "Pop" Coulson made a milkshake by adding two scoops of vanilla ice cream to the standard malted milk drink recipe; this item, under the name "Horlick's Malted Milk", was featured by the Walgreen drugstore chain as part of a chocolate milk shake, which itself became known as a "malted" or "malt" and became one of the most popular soda-fountain drinks.
The automation of milkshakes developed in the 1930s, after the invention of freon-cooled refrigerators provided a safe, reliable way of automatically making and dispensing ice cream. In 1936, inventor Earl Prince used the basic concept behind the freon-cooled automated ice cream machine to develop the Multimixer, a "five-spindled mixer that could produce five milkshakes at once, all automatically, dispense them at the pull of a lever into awaiting paper cups."In the late 1930s, several newspaper articles show that the term "frosted" was used to refer to milkshakes made with ice cream. In 1937, the Denton Journal in Maryland stated that "For a'frosted' shake, add a dash of your favorite ice cream." In 1939, the Mansfield News in Ohio stated that "A frosted beverage, in the
An ice cube is a small piece of ice, rectangular as viewed from above and trapezoidal as viewed from the side. Ice cubes are products of mechanical refrigeration and are produced to cool beverages, they may be produced at home in a refrigerator with an ice tray or in an automated ice-making accessory. They may be produced industrially and sold commercially. American physician and humanitarian John Gorrie built a refrigerator in 1844 with the purpose of producing ice to cool air, his refrigerator produced ice which he hung from the ceiling in a basin to lower the ambient room temperature. During his time, bad air quality was thought to cause disease. Therefore, in order to help prevent and treat sickness, he pushed for the draining of swamps and the cooling of sickrooms. Ice cube trays are designed to be filled with water placed in a freezer until the water freezes into ice, producing ice cubes. Ice trays are flexible, so the frozen cubes can be removed by flexing the tray. "Twist ice trays" have a simple spring-loaded mechanism with a lever, used to turn the tray upside down and flex at the same time, such that the cubes that drop are collected in a removable tray below.
The spring returns the ice cube tray to its upright position without having to remove it from the freezer, which can save time and reduces accidental mess—though the tray has to be removed to be collected, the ice cube tray still has to be removed to be refilled. An alternative system is an aluminium tray with a lever that raises the ice cubes, freeing them from the tray. A motorized version of this is found in most automatic ice-making freezers. While the usual shape of the ice cube is cubical, some ice trays form hemispherical or cylindrical shapes. Edible items are frozen inside the ice cubes, both at home and commercial production. Lloyd Groff Copeman invented a rubber ice tray, after noticing that slush and ice flaked off his rubber boots rather than adhering to them while walking through some woods collecting sap for maple syrup. Recalling this 1928 incident over lunch with his patent attorney, he conducted experiments using rubber cups, which led to practical designs and patents for different types of tray.
Guy L. Tinkham, a household product executive, invented the first flexible, stainless steel, all-metal ice cube tray in 1933; the tray bent sideways to remove the ice cubes. Commercial pre-filled disposable ice trays for home freezing are designed to provide better taste and reduced risk of contamination. Dedicated ice-maker machines can be used to produce ice cubes for academic use. Ice cubes are produced commercially and sold in bulk. Commercially made ice cubes may be clear, compared to domestically made ice cubes. Cloudy ice cubes occur when water is frozen or when the water is high in dissolved solids; when water is cooled to its freezing point, ice starts to form, dissolved gases can no longer stay in solution and come out as microscopic bubbles. However, as ice floats in water, once there is enough ice to form a layer on the surface, the ice layer traps all bubbles within the ice cube. Commercial ice-makers use a flowing source of purified water to make ice with cooling elements at the bottom, allowing the bubbles to be washed away from the top as the cube grows.
Ice cubes that are sometimes crushed or sheared into irregularly-shaped flakes to provide an aesthetic effect to some cocktails. Crushed ice is used when faster cooling is desired, since the rate of cooling is governed by the number and average radius of the ice particles. Ice is also crushed to form'slushies', which can be both alcoholic and non-alcoholic. Crushed ice melts more than solid ice: it has a greater surface area, so heat transfer is faster compared to solid ice. Ice chips Ice pack Mpemba effect Pagophagia
Beer in Australia
Beer arrived in Australia at the beginning of British colonisation. In 2004 Australia was ranked fourth internationally in per capita beer consumption, at around 110 litres per year. Lager is by far the most popular type of beer consumed in Australia; the oldest brewery still in operation is the Cascade Brewery, established in Tasmania in 1824. The largest Australian-owned brewery is the family-owned Coopers Brewery, as the other two major breweries Foster's Group and Lion Nathan are owned by the South African SABMiller and the Japanese Kirin Brewing Company, respectively. Within an alcoholic beverage market worth some $16.3 billion, beer comprises about 48% compared to wine at 29% and spirits at 21%. Within the beer sector, premium beers have a 7.8% share of the market. 85 % of beer is produced by the remainder by regional or microbreweries. Microbreweries manufacturing less than 30,000 litres receive a 60% excise rebate; the history of Australian beer starts early in Australia's colonial history.
Captain James Cook brought beer with him on his ship Endeavour as a means of preserving drinking water. On 1 August 1768, as Cook was fitting out the Endeavour for its voyage, Nathaniel Hulme wrote to Joseph Banks with a recommendation: "a quantity of Molasses and Turpentine, in order to brew Beer with, for your daily drink, when your Water becomes bad. ... rewing Beer at sea will be peculiarly useful in case. Beer was still being consumed on-board two years in 1770, when Cook was the first European to discover the east coast of Australia; the drink of choice for the first settlers and convicts was rum, as represented in a supposed traditional convict song: Cut yer name across me backbone Stretch me skin across yer drum Iron me up on Pinchgut Island From now to Kingdom Come. I'll eat yer Norfolk Dumpling Like a juicy Spanish plum, Even dance the Newgate Hornpipe If ye'll only gimme Rum! The first official brewer in Australia was John Boston who brewed a beverage from Indian corn bittered with cape gooseberry leaves.
It is though that beer was brewed unofficially much earlier. The first pub, the Mason Arms was opened in 1796 in Parramatta by James Larra, a freed convict. Rum was so popular—and official currency was in such short supply—that it became a semi-official currency for a period of time, played a role in a short-lived military coup, the Rum rebellion in 1808. Drunkenness was a significant problem in the early colony: "Drunkenness was a prevailing vice. Children were to be seen in the streets intoxicated. On Sundays and women might be observed standing round the public-house doors, waiting for the expiration of the hours of public worship in order to continue their carousing; as for the condition of the prison population, indeed, is indescribable. Notwithstanding the severe punishment for sly grog selling, it was carried on to a large extent. Men and women were found intoxicated together, a bottle of brandy was considered to be cheaply bought for 20 lashes... All that the vilest and most bestial of human creatures could invent and practise, was in this unhappy country invented and practised without restraint and without shame" As a means of reducing drunkenness, beer was promoted as a safer and healthier alternative to rum: "The introduction of beer into general use among the inhabitants would lessen the consumption of spirituous liquors.
I have therefore in conformity with your suggestion taken measures for furnishing the colony with a supply of ten tons of Porter, six bags of hops, two complete sets of brewing materials." Although modern Australian beer is predominantly lager, early Australian beer were top-fermented and quick-maturing ales. Lager was not brewed in Australia until 1885. Early beers were brewed without the benefit of hops, as no-one had cultivated hops in Australia and importation was difficult. James Squire was the first to cultivate hops in 1804, he opened a pub and brewed beer; the Government Gazette from 1806 mentions that he was awarded a cow herd from the government for his efforts. In September 1804, a government-owned brewery opened in Parramatta, followed by a rival owned brewery three months later; the government brewery was sold two years to Thomas Rushton, its head brewer. Brewing expanded in all of the Australian colonies and by 1871 there were 126 breweries in Victoria alone, which at the time had a population of only 800,000.
Notable events from this period include: 1824 – Peter Degraves starts the Cascade Brewery in Hobart. It is Australia's oldest operational brewery. 1835 – Tooth brewery established in Sydney. 1837 – James Stokes establishes the Albion Brewery, Perth's first brewery, which became the Emu Brewery. 1838 – John Warren starts "The Torrens", Adelaide's first brewery. 1838 – John Mills establishes the first brewery in Melbourne. 1853 – Queensland's first brewery, "The Brisbane Brewery" is opened by John Beach. 1862 – Thomas Cooper establishes the Coopers Brewery in the Adelaide suburb of Norwood. The brewery continues to be owned and operated by the Cooper family, since 2011 has been the largest Australian-owned brewery. 1864 – Carlton brewery opens in Melbourne. 1881 – CS Button opens the Esk Brewery in Launceston. 1885 – Gambrinus brewery in Melbourne becomes the first brewery in Australia to brew lager. 1887 – The Foster brothers arrive from
A Pythagorean cup is a practical joke device in a form of a drinking cup, credited to Pythagoras of Samos. When it is filled beyond a certain point, a siphoning effect causes the cup to drain its entire contents through the base. A Pythagorean cup looks like a normal drinking cup, except that the bowl has a central column in it, giving it a shape like a Bundt pan; the central column of the bowl is positioned directly over the stem of the cup and over the hole at the bottom of the stem. A small open pipe runs from this hole to the top of the central column, where there is an open chamber; the chamber is connected by a second pipe to the bottom of the central column, where a hole in the column exposes the pipe to the bowl of the cup. When the cup is filled, liquid rises through the second pipe up to the chamber at the top of the central column, following Pascal's principle of communicating vessels; as long as the level of the liquid does not rise beyond the level of the chamber, the cup functions as normal.
If the level rises further, the liquid spills through the chamber into the first pipe and out the bottom. Gravity creates a siphon through the central column, causing the entire contents of the cup to be emptied through the hole at the bottom of the stem; some modern toilets operate on the same principle: when the water level in the bowl rises high enough, a siphon is created, flushing the toilet. Dribble glass Fuddling cup Heron's fountain List of practical joke topics Puzzle jug Soxhlet extractor, which uses the same mechanism. James Stanley — Towards a Better Pythagorean Cup A 2014 design for 3D printing your own Pythagoras Cup