Plateau is the twelfth-largest state in Nigeria. In the centre of the country, it is geographically unique in Nigeria due to its boundaries of elevated hills surrounding the Jos Plateau its capital, the entire plateau itself. Plateau State is celebrated as "The Home of Peace and Tourism". With natural formations of rocks and waterfalls, it derives its name from the Jos Plateau and has a population of around 3.5 million people. Bauchi State – to the north east Kaduna State – to the north west Nasarawa State – to the south west Taraba State – to the south east Plateau State is located in Nigeria’s middle belt. With an area of 26,899 square kilometres, the State has an estimated population of about three million people, it is located between latitude 08 ° 24 longitude 008 ° 32' and 010 ° 38' east. The state is named after the picturesque Jos Plateau, a mountainous area in the north of the state with captivating rock formations. Bare rocks are scattered across the grasslands; the altitude ranges from around 1,200 metres to a peak of 1,829 metres above sea level in the Shere Hills range near Jos.
Years of tin and columbite mining have left the area strewn with deep gorges and lakes. Though situated in the tropical zone, a higher altitude means that Plateau State has a near temperate climate with an average temperature of between 13 and 22 °C. Harmattan winds cause the coldest weather between February; the warmest temperatures occur in the dry season months of March and April. The mean annual rainfall varies between 131.75 cm in the southern part to 146 cm on the Plateau. The highest rainfall is recorded during the wet season months of August; the average lower temperatures in Plateau State has led to a reduced incidence of some tropical diseases such as malaria. The Jos Plateau, makes it the source of many rivers in northern Nigeria including the Kaduna, Gongola and Yobe rivers; the Jos Plateau is thought to be an area of younger granite, intruded through an area of older granite rock, making up the surrounding states. These "younger" granites are thought to be about 160 million years old.
This creates the unusual scenery of the Jos Plateau. There are numerous hillocks with gentle slopes emerging from the ground like mushrooms scattered with huge boulders. Volcanic activity 50 million years ago created numerous volcanoes and vast basaltic plateaus formed from lava flows; this produces regions of narrow and deep valleys and pediments from the middle of rounded hills with sheer rock faces. The phases of volcanic activities involved in the formation of Plateau State have made it one of the mineral rich states in the country. Tin is still processed on the plateau. Plateau State is known as The Home of Peace and Tourism and there is plenty to see; the Wildlife Safari Park sits in the middle of 8 km2 of unspoiled savanna bush, about 4 km from Jos. It offers a wide variety of wild animals within easy viewing; these include Buffalos, baboons, derby elands, Rock pythons, crocodiles and Marabou storks. It was once home to the rare pygmy hippopotamus, bred in the'hippo pool’; the park boasts great, panoramic views of Jos city.
The National Museum in Jos was founded in 1952, is recognised as one of the best in the country. It is renowned for its archeology and The Pottery Hall has an exceptional collection of finely crafted pottery from all over Nigeria; the museum boasts some fine specimens of Nok terracotta heads and artifacts dating from between 500 BC to 200 AD. The Museum of Traditional Nigerian Architecture is adjacent, with life-size replicas of a variety of buildings, from the walls of Kano and to a Tiv village. In addition, articles of interest from colonial times relating to the railway and tin mining can be found on display. Solomon Lar Amusement Park Situated in Jos city, it is a recreational park named after a former governor of Chief Solomon Lar. Jos Zoo is located beside the museum, it has a good stock of animals and reptiles and was established in 1957. Assop Falls is the most notable of Nigeria's many waterfalls. Located at the edge of the Jos Plateau, about 40 miles from Jos city, on the road to Abuja, this is a tourist stop for picnicking and enjoying the scenery.
Assop Falls is used as a filming location for local soap operas and advertisements. Kurra Falls is an area some 77 kilometers southeast of Jos, it is the location of the state's first hydroelectric power station. It is a beautiful area of rocks hills, lakes, ideal for boating and rock climbing. There is tourist accommodation available. Wase Rock The wase rock is a striking dome-shaped inselberg which juts out of the ground to a height of 450 meters, it is located about 216 kilometers southeast of Jos near Wase town. It is one of the only five breeding places for the white pelican in Africa; because of this, the government now protects about 321 acres of land around the rock as a bird sanctuary and for wildlife development. The Kerang highlands are located about 88 kilometres from Jos; these volcanic hills are the source of natural mountain springs, which supply the spring water company. The Shere Hills include some of the Plateau’s highest peaks, they are a range of hills to the east of Jos which have views of the city below, attract mountain climbers and hill walkers.
Riyom Rock is a rock formation, located 25 kilometers southwest of Jos, near Riyom town. Pandam Game Reserve is a wildlife sanctuary, it is a protected region of natural habitat and is home to hippopotami and snakes of all types. Local park rangers track local game
Idris Garba is a Nigerian soldier, Military Governor of Kano State from 1989 to 1992. Idris Garba was born on July 1947 in Gulu, Lapai Local Government Area of Niger State, he had a secondary education in the Nigerian Military School, Zaria 1963 - 1967. He entered the Nigerian Defence Academy and was commissioned as a second lieutenant in 1968, he attended the following courses: Artillery Troop Commanders Course USSR, July 1970 - September 1971 Young Officers Course Nowshera, July - December, 1972 Technical Gunnery Course Larkhill, Salisbury, UK, May - August, 1975. Field Artillery Officers Advanced Course, Oklahoma, USA June 1977 to February 1978, his commands were: Troop Commander, second Field Artillery Regiment, November, 1968 - September 1969. Commanding Officer, second Field Artillery Regent Ibadan, September 1969 to July 1970. Battalion Commander, Oyo September, 1971 to October, 1973. Instructor/Chief Instructor Nigerian Army School of Artillery, Kaduna 1974 to August, 1976. May to December, 1980.
During the military rule of General Ibrahim Babangida he was appointed Military Governor of Benue State in 1988. He was appointed governor of Kano State in August 1988. In December 1991, Col. Idris Garba enacted an edict which repealed previous laws and vested the Kano State Sports Council with the responsibilities of promoting and developing sports in the state
Benue State is one of the North central states in Nigeria with a population of about 4,253,641 in 2006 census. It is inhabited predominantly by the Tiv and Igede peoples, who speak Tiv and Igede languages respectively, its capital is Makurdi, Benue is a rich agricultural region. Benue State is named after the Benue River and was formed from the former Benue-Plateau State in 1976, along with Igala and some part of Kwara State. In 1991 some areas of Benue state, along with areas in Kwara State, were carved out to become part of the new Kogi State. Igbo people are found in the boundary areas like Oju etc.. Samuel Ortom is the governor and Benson Abounu is the deputy governor. Both were elected under the All Progressives Congress but defected to the Peoples Democratic Party in 2018. Benue state has three universities: Federal University of Agriculture, Benue State University, University of Mkar, it has two polytechnics: Benue State Polytechnic and Fidei polytechnic, Gboko as well as the Akperan Orshi college of Agriculture Yandev.
There are about four colleges of education which are Federal College of Education Agasha, College of Education Oju, College of Education Kastina Ala. Benue State as it exists today is a surviving legacy of an administrative entity, carved out of the protectorate of northern Nigeria at the beginning of the twentieth century; the territory was known as Munshi Province until 1918 when the name of its dominant geographical feature, the'Benue River' was adopted. The State, located in the North Central region of Nigeria, has a total population of 4,253,641 in 2006 census, with an average population density of 99 persons per km2; this makes Benue the 9th most populous state in Nigeria. However, the distribution of the population according to Local government areas shows marked duality. There are areas of low population density; such as Guma, Gwer East, Katsina-Ala, Apa and Agatu, each with less than seventy persons per km2, while Vandeikya, Ogbadibo and Gboko have densities ranging from 160 persons to 200 persons per 2.
Makurdi LGA has over 380 person per km2. The males are 49.8 percent of the total population. Benue State region was depleted of its human population during the slave trade, it is rural, with scattered settlements in tiny compounds or homesteads, whose population range from 630 people, most of whom are farmers. Urbanization in Benue State did not predate the colonial era; the few towns established during colonial rule remained small up to the creation of Benue State in 1976. Benue towns can be categorised into three groups; the first group consists of those with a population of 80,000 to 500,000 people. These include Makurdi, the State Capital and Otukpo the "headquarters" of the two dominant ethnic groups; the second group comprises towns with a population of between 20,000 and 50,000 people and includes Katsina-Ala, Zaki-Biam, Ukum￼￼, Adikpo, Kwande. These are all local government headquarters; the third category comprises towns with a population of 10,000 to 19,000 people and includes Vandeikya, lhugh, Adoka, Okpoga, Oju, Ugbokolo, Ugbokpo, Otukpa and Korinya.
Most of these towns are headquarters of created Local Government Areas and/or district headquarters or major market areas. Some of the headquarters of the newly created LGAs have populations of less than 10,000 people; such places include Tse-Agberaba, Buruku, Idekpa and Obarikeito. Apart from earth roads, periodic markets and chemists, the rural areas are used for farming, relying on the urban centres for most of their urban needs. Benue State has no problem of capital city primacy. Rather, three towns stand out clearly as important urban centres which together account for more than 70 per cent of the social amenities provided in the state and all the industrial establishments; these centres are Makurdi and Otukpo. They are amongst the oldest towns in the state and are growing at a much faster rate than the smaller younger towns. Makurdi doubles as the capital of the state and the headquarters of Makurdi LGA, while Gboko and Oju double as the local government and ethnic headquarters. All the roads in the state radiate from these three centres.
As an administrative unit, Benue State was first created on 3 February 1976. It was one of the seven states created by the military administration headed by General Murtala Mohammed, which increased the number of states in the country from 13 to 19. In 1991, its boundaries were re-adjusted with the creation of Kogi State; the new Benue State of today has twenty-three local government areas, which are administered by local government councils. Benue State lies within the lower river Benue trough in the middle belt region of Nigeria, its geographic coordinates are longitude 7° 47' and 10° 0' East. Latitude 6° 25' and 8° 8' North; the state shares a common boundary with the Republic of Cameroon on the south-east. Benue occupies a landmass of 34,059 square kilometres. Based on Köppen climate classification, Benue State lies within the AW climate and experiences two distinct seasons, the Wet season and the Dry season; the rainy season lasts from April to October with annual rai
People's Democratic Party (Nigeria)
The People's Democratic Party is a major contemporary political party in Nigeria. Its policies lie towards the centre-right of the political spectrum, it won every Presidential election between 1999 and 2011, was until the 2015 elections, the governing party in the Fourth Republic although in some cases, amid a few controversial electoral circumstances. PDP controls 14 states out of 36 states in Nigeria. In 1998 the PDP in its first presidential primary election held in Jos, Plateau State, North Central Nigeria norminated former military leader Olusegun Obasanjo who had just been released from detention as political prisoner as the presidential candidate in the elections of February 1999, with Atiku Abubakar as his running mate, they won the presidential election and were inaugurated 29 May, 1999. In the legislative election held on 12 April 2003, the party won 54.5% of the popular vote and 223 out of 360 seats in the House of Representatives, 76 out of 109 seats in the Senate. Its candidate in the presidential election of 19 April 2003, Olusegun Obasanjo, was re-elected with 61.9% of the vote.
In December 2006 Umaru Yar'Adua was chosen as the presidential candidate of the ruling PDP for the April 2007 general election, receiving 3,024 votes from party delegates. Yar'Adua was declared the winner of the 2007 general elections, held on April 21, was sworn in on May 29, 2007, amid widespread allegations of electoral fraud. In the Nigerian National Assembly election, the party won 260 out of 360 seats in the House of Representatives and 85 out of 109 seats in the Senate. At the PDP's 2008 National Convention, it chose Prince Vincent Ogbulafor as its National Chairman on March 8, 2008. Ogbulafor, the PDP's National Secretary from 2001 to 2005, was the party's consensus choice for the position of National Chairman, selected as an alternative to the rival leading candidates Sam Egwu and Anyim Pius Anyim. All 26 other candidates, including Egwu and Anyim, withdrew in favor of Ogbulafor. Meanwhile, Alhaji Abubakar Kawu Baraje was elected as National Secretary. In 2011, after the People's Democratic Party saw members defect for the Action Congress of Nigeria, some political commentators suspected that the PDP would lose the Presidency.
Following PDP candidate Goodluck Jonathan's victory in the 2011 elections, it was reported that there were violent protests from northern youth. The longtime slogan of the People's Democratic Party has been "Power to the people". During the party's National Convention in Port Harcourt, Rivers State on 21 May 2016, David Mark, a former President of the Senate of Nigeria, introduced "Change the change" as the party's campaign slogan for the 2019 general elections; the party has a neoliberal stance in its economic policies and maintains a conservative stance on certain social issues, such as same-sex relations. The PDP favors free-market policies which support economic liberalism, limited government regulation. In 2003, President Olusegun Obasanjo and Finance Minister Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala embarked on a radical economic reform program, which reduced government spending through conservative fiscal policies, saw the deregulation and privatization of numerous industries in Nigerian services sector — notably the Nigerian Telecommunications industry.
On the other hand, the PDP adopts a more leftist stance towards welfare. In 2005, President Obasanjo launched Nigeria's first National Health Insurance Scheme to ensure that every Nigerian has access to basic health care services; the PDP strives to maintain the status quo on oil revenue distribution. Though the PDP government set up the Niger Delta Development Commission to address the needs of the oil-producing Niger Delta states, it has rebuffed repeated efforts to revert to the 50% to 50% federal-to-state government revenue allocation agreement established in 1966 during the First Republic; the PDP is against same-sex relations, favors social conservatism on moral and religious grounds. In 2007, the PDP-dominated National Assembly sponsored a bill to outlaw homosexual relations, making it punishable by law for up to five years in prison; the party is a moderate advocate of religious freedom for the Nigerian states. In the year 2000 the introduction of Islamic law in some states in Northern Nigeria triggered sectarian violence in Kaduna and Abia states.
The PDP-led federal government refused to bow to pressure from the southern, predominantly Christian states to repeal the law, instead opted for a compromise where Islamic law would only apply to Muslims. Tunde Ayeni, chairman of the PDP fundraising event in December 2014 who donated N2 billion was involved in the mismanagement of bank's funds. In the 2015 elections, the incumbent president and PDP presidential nominee, Goodluck Jonathan, was defeated by General Muhammadu Buhari of the All Progressives Congress by 55% to 45%, losing by 2.6 million votes, out of 28.6 million valid votes cast. Out of Nigeria's 36 states and the Federal Capital Territory, General Muhammadu Buhari won 21 states while President Goodluck Jonathan won 15 states and the Federal Capital Territory. In the 2019 elections, Former vice president Atiku Abubakar and PDP presidential candidadate and his party on 25th of February, 2019 rejected the outcome of the elections as INEC was yet to conclude the entire process and make official pronouncement.
PDP National Party, Prince Uche Secondus alleged that the result as announced by INEC were incorrect. Official website
Aper Aku was elected governor of Benue State, Nigeria in October 1979 and reelected in October 1983, leaving office after the military coup in December 1983 which General Mohammadu Buhari came to power. Aper Aku was born in 1938 in Benue State, he was of Tiv origin. He had his primary education at Aku Primary School between 1943-1947 and from 1948 to 1951, he attended the Senior Primary School, Mkar, he had his senior secondary education at Government College, Keffi from 1952 to 1957, studied at Nigeria College of Arts and Science from 1958 to 1961. He studied for a degree at Sierra Leone, he became a teacher in 1964 at William Bristow Secondary School and taught at Bauchi Provincial Secondary School and Government Secondary School, Gombe. He attended Ahmadu Bello Zaria for a post-graduate Course in Education. In 1968 he joined the Federal Government and worked with External Aid for Education and the Federal Ministry of Establishment, he was Principal of the Federal Training Centre, Kaduna and a member of the Governing Council of the University of Ibadan.
In May 1974 and again in August 1974 Aku wrote to Joseph Dechi Gomwalk, Governor of Benue-Plateau State, accusing him of nepotism and financial wrongdoings, filed affidavits to this effect. General Yakubu Gowon ordered Aku's detention. However, a probe initiated by Gowon's successor Murtala Mohammed vindicated Aku, saying that the allegations were true. Aper Aku was appointed as Chairman of Kwande Local Government Council in 1977 by Abdullahi Shelleng, Benue state governor, he presided over a hostile council. However, his administration was perceived as effective. Aku resigned as chairman of the local council in 1978 and subsequently entered the Benue State primary race for governor under the banner of the National Party of Nigeria, he won the NPN primary over challengers such as George Atedze. In 1979, he went on to become the elected Governor of Benue State and was re-elected in 1983. Aku faced severe problems as governor in a state with a long history of neglect in the southern area, inhabited by minority groups.
However, the state has plentiful rainfall, with great agricultural potential. Aku encouraged mass agricultural production, during his tenure the state produced bumper harvests of local crops such as yams, soya beans, maize, guinea corn, groundnut, banana and oranges; the Government established a number of industries to produce fertilizer and process agricultural products, located close to the areas where the produce was grown. Aku launched commercial enterprises such as the Benue Brewery, Benro Packaging, Benue Bottling Company, Lobi Bank, Ber-Agbum Fish Farm, Ikogen Cattle Ranch, Taraku Vegetable Processing Industry and Benue International Hotel in Makurdi, he planned to establish a flour mill in Makurdi. Aku built a state of the art State Secretariat He cancelled work on a large medical centre at Apir and instead began construction of seven cottage hospitals in different locations, he established the University of Technology in Makurdi. He embarked on an ambitious program to expand the number of Secondary Schools.
He built roads in Makurdi township and provided the street lights, awarded the contract for the Art Council Complex and started work on the Makurdi stadium. On 31 December 1983 General Muhammadu Buhari took power in a coup, replaced the civilian governors with military officers; when Aku was removed from office the state's finances were overdrawn. Many of the projects he had begun were abandoned by the military governors, agricultural production plunged; the elaborate water supply schemes that Aku had initiated was abandoned, the infrastructure, built was not maintained. To this day, the Late Governor Aper Aku is regarded as the best governor to govern Benue State. Professor David Iornem once referred to him as a visionary leader ahead of his time. Buhari jailed Aku and most of the other Governors, setting up military tribunals to investigate their conduct while in office. Aku's health was broken by the harsh conditions in jail, he died in 1988 shortly after being released. Aku left four children.
At a 2008 press conference to mark the anniversary of his death, the People's Democratic Party leader in the state noted that 70% of important projects in Benue State today were started or completed during the four years of the Aku administration. "Mr. Aper Aku, Governor of Benue State". Library of Congress Africa Pamphlet Collection - Flickr. Retrieved 2014-05-11