Sir William Trelawny, 6th Baronet
Sir William Trelawny, 6th Baronet, of Trelawne, Cornwall was a British politician and colonial administrator. He was the son Captain William Trelawny, R. N. and educated at Westminster School. He succeeded his uncle Sir Harry Trelawny, 5th Baronet to the baronetcy in 1762, inheriting the Trelawne estate. Trelawny sat as Member of Parliament for West Looe from 1757 to 1767; the latter year he was appointed Governor of Jamaica, a post he held until his death in December 1772. Trelawny Parish, Jamaica was named after him, he died in Jamaica in 1772. He had married his cousin Laetitia, the daughter and heiress of Sir Harry Trelawny, 5th Baronet, with whom he had a son and a daughter. Morgan, Kenneth. "Trelawny, Edward". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. Doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/27690. Leigh Rayment's Historical List of MPs
Robert Hunter (governor)
Robert Hunter was a British military officer, colonial governor of New York and New Jersey from 1710 to 1720, governor of Jamaica from 1727 to 1734. Robert Hunter was born in Edinburgh, Scotland in 1666, grandson of the twentieth Laird of Hunterston in Ayrshire, being the son of lawyer James Hunter and his wife Margaret Spalding. Hunter had been apprenticed to an apothecary before running away to join the British Army, he became an officer in 1689 who rose to become a general, married a woman of high rank. He was a man of business whose first address to the New York Assembly was 300 words long. In it, he stated, "If honesty is the best policy, plainness must be the best oratory." He was appointed Lieutenant Governor of Virginia in 1707, but was captured by a corsair on his way to Virginia, taken to France, in 1709 exchanged for the French Bishop of Quebec. He was appointed Governor of New York and sailed to America with 3,000 Palatine refugees as settlers in 1710. In 1715 he advocated the local minting of copper coins.
Governor Hunter's philosophy was that "the true Interests of the People and Government are the same, I mean A Government of Laws. No other deserves the Name, are never Separated or Separable but in Imagination by Men of Craft."Hunter was succeeded as Governor by Pieter Schuyler as acting governor from 1719 to 1720 and by William Burnet, whose post as Comptroller of Customs was given to Hunter in exchange. Hunter was Governor of Jamaica from 1727 until his death on 31 March 1734. While in Jamaica, Hunter waged an unsuccessful war against the Jamaican Maroons, he was a member of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel. He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in May,1709, his play, written in 1714, was the first known play to be written and published in the North American British Colonies. List of colonial governors of New Jersey List of colonial governors of New York Androboros Lustig, Mary Lou. Robert Hunter, 1666–1734: New York's Augustan Statesman. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press.
ISBN 9780815622963. Biography of Robert Hunter, New Jersey State Library Colonial Governors of New York Robert Hunter Papers,1699-1744 New-York Historical Society
Jamaica is an island country situated in the Caribbean Sea. Spanning 10,990 square kilometres in area, it is the third-largest island of the Greater Antilles and the fourth-largest island country in the Caribbean. Jamaica lies about 145 kilometres south of Cuba, 191 kilometres west of Hispaniola. Inhabited by the indigenous Arawak and Taíno peoples, the island came under Spanish rule following the arrival of Christopher Columbus in 1494. Many of the indigenous people died of disease, the Spanish transplanted African slaves to Jamaica as labourers; the island remained a possession of Spain until 1655, when England conquered it and renamed it Jamaica. Under British colonial rule Jamaica became a leading sugar exporter, with its plantation economy dependent on African slaves; the British emancipated all slaves in 1838, many freedmen chose to have subsistence farms rather than to work on plantations. Beginning in the 1840s, the British utilized Chinese and Indian indentured labour to work on plantations.
The island achieved independence from the United Kingdom on 6 August 1962. With 2.9 million people, Jamaica is the third-most populous Anglophone country in the Americas, the fourth-most populous country in the Caribbean. Kingston is the country's capital and largest city, with a population of 937,700. Jamaicans have African ancestry, with significant European, Indian and mixed-race minorities. Due to a high rate of emigration for work since the 1960s, Jamaica has a large diaspora in Canada, the United Kingdom, the United States. Jamaica is an upper-middle income country with an average of 4.3 million tourists a year. Jamaica is a Commonwealth realm, with Elizabeth II as its queen, her appointed representative in the country is the Governor-General of Jamaica, an office held by Sir Patrick Allen since 2009. Andrew Holness has served as Prime Minister of Jamaica since March 2016. Jamaica is a parliamentary constitutional monarchy with legislative power vested in the bicameral Parliament of Jamaica, consisting of an appointed Senate and a directly elected House of Representatives.
The indigenous people, the Taíno, called the island Xaymaca in Arawakan, meaning the "Land of Wood and Water" or the "Land of Springs". Colloquially Jamaicans refer to their home island as the "Rock." Slang names such as "Jamrock", "Jamdown", or "Ja", have derived from this. The Arawak and Taíno indigenous people, originating in South America, first settled on the island between 4000 and 1000 BC; when Christopher Columbus arrived in 1494, there were more than 200 villages ruled by caciques. The south coast of Jamaica was the most populated around the area now known as Old Harbour; the Taino still inhabited Jamaica when the English took control of the island in 1655. The Jamaican National Heritage Trust is attempting to locate and document any evidence of the Taino/yamaye. Today, few Jamaican natives remain. Most notably among some Maroon communities as well as within some communities in Cornwall County, Jamaica Christopher Columbus claimed Jamaica for Spain after landing there in 1494, his probable landing point was Dry Harbour, called Discovery Bay, St. Ann's Bay was named "Saint Gloria" by Columbus, as the first sighting of the land.
One and a half kilometres west of St. Ann's Bay is the site of the first Spanish settlement on the island, established in 1509 and abandoned around 1524 because it was deemed unhealthy; the capital was moved to Spanish Town called St. Jago de la Vega, around 1534. Spanish Town has the oldest cathedral of the British colonies in the Caribbean; the Spanish were forcibly evicted by the English at Ocho Rios in St. Ann. In the 1655 Invasion of Jamaica, the English, led by Sir William Penn and General Robert Venables, took over the last Spanish fort on the island; the name of Montego Bay, the capital of the parish of St. James, was derived from the Spanish name manteca bahía, alluding to the lard-making industry based on processing the numerous boars in the area. In 1660, the population of Jamaica was about 4,500 1,500 black. By the early 1670s, as the English developed sugar cane plantations and "imported" more slaves, black people formed a majority of the population; the colony was shaken and destroyed by the 1692 Jamaica earthquake.
The Irish in Jamaica formed a large part of the island's early population, making up two-thirds of the white population on the island in the late 17th century, twice that of the English population. They were brought in as indentured labourers and soldiers after the conquest of Jamaica by Cromwell's forces in 1655; the majority of Irish were transported by force as political prisoners of war from Ireland as a result of the ongoing Wars of the Three Kingdoms at the time. Migration of large numbers of Irish to the island continued into the 18th century. Jews were expelled from Spain in 1492 and forcibly converted to Christianity in Portugal, during a period of persecution by the Inquisition; some Spanish and Portuguese Jewish refugees went to the Netherlands and England, from there to Jamaica. Others were part of the Iberian colonisation of the New World, after overtly converting to Catholicism, as only Catholics were allowed in the Spanish colonies. By 1660, Jamaica had become a refuge for Jews in the New World attracting those, expelled from Spain and Portugal.
An early group of Jews arrived in 1510, soon after the son of Christopher Columbus settled on the island. Working as merchants and traders, the
Sir George Nugent, 1st Baronet
Field Marshal Sir George Nugent, 1st Baronet, GCB was a British Army officer. After serving as a junior officer in the American Revolutionary War, he fought with the Coldstream Guards under the Duke of York during the Flanders Campaign, he commanded the Buckinghamshire Volunteers in the actions of St. Andria and Thuyl on the river Waal and participated in the disastrous retreat from the Rhine, he went on to be commander of the northern district of Ireland, in which post he played an important part in placating the people of Belfast during the Irish Rebellion, became Adjutant-General in Ireland. He went on to be Governor of Jamaica, commander of the Western District in England, commander of the Kent District in England and Commander-in-Chief, India. Born the illegitimate son of Lieutenant Colonel the Hon. Edmund Nugent and a Ms Fennings, Nugent was educated at Charterhouse School and the Royal Military Academy, Woolwich, he was commissioned as an ensign in the 39th Regiment of Foot on 5 July 1773 and was posted to Gibraltar.
He transferred the 7th Regiment of Foot at New York with promotion to lieutenant in September 1777 and saw action at the Battle of Forts Clinton and Montgomery in October 1777 and took part in the Philadelphia campaign during the American Revolutionary War. He continued to serve in North America and became a captain in the 57th Regiment of Foot on 28 April 1778 and a major in the same regiment on 3 May 1782. Promoted to lieutenant colonel in September 1783, Nugent was appointed commanding officer of the 97th Regiment of Foot and returned to England, but in the post-war cost reductions the regiment was disbanded and he instead became commanding officer of the 13th Regiment of Foot in 1787, he became an aide-de-camp to his brother-in-law, the Marquess of Buckingham, serving as Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, in November 1787. On Buckingham's departure from Ireland, Nugent became commanding officer of the 4th Royal Irish Dragoon Guards in 1789. Nugent became Member of Parliament for Buckingham in 1790.
He exchanged into the Coldstream Guards as a company commander in October 1790 and served at the Siege of Valenciennes in May 1793, the Battle of Lincelles in August 1793 and the Siege of Dunkirk in August 1793 under the Duke of York during the Flanders Campaign. The War Office recalled Nugent to supervise the raising of the Buckinghamshire Volunteers in March 1794, he commanded the regiment under Sir Ralph Abercromby in the actions of St. Andria and Thuyl on the river Waal and participated in the disastrous retreat from the Rhine. Promoted to major general on 1 May 1796, he became Captain of St Mawes Castle on 5 November 1796, he went on to be commander of the northern district of Ireland in 1798, in which post he played an important part in placating the people of Belfast during the Irish Rebellion that year, became Adjutant-General in Ireland in August 1799. He represented Charleville in the last Irish House of Commons before the Acts of Union 1800. Nugent became Governor of Jamaica in April 1801 with promotion to local lieutenant general on 29 May 1802.
While serving there, he strengthened the fort that the Spanish slave agent in Jamaica, James Castillo, had built in 1709 in Harbour View. Named Fort Nugent, the fort guarded the eastern entrance of the city of Kingston Harbour, although all that remains there now is a Martello tower, added after Nugent's departure. Promoted to the substantive rank of lieutenant general on 25 September 1803, Nugent returned to England in February 1806 and became commander of the Western District in England in August 1806, he was elected Member of Parliament for Aylesbury on 3 November 1806 and created a baronet of Waddesdon in the county of Buckinghamshire on 11 November 1806. He bought Westhorpe House in Buckinghamshire in October 1808 and became commander of the Kent District in England in July 1809. Nugent stood down from his seat in Parliament to become Commander-in-Chief, India in January 1811 and, having been appointed a Knight of the Order of the Bath on 1 February 1813 and promoted to full general on 4 June 1813, he was replaced as Commander-in-Chief by Lord Moira in October 1813.
Nugent was relegated to the role of Commander of the Bengal Army but instead chose to return to England in October 1814. On return he unleashed a "skin-full of venom" against Lord Moira who in turn complained to the Prince Regent about Nugent's hostile behaviour, he was advanced to Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath on 2 January 1815 and, having been elected Member of Parliament for Buckingham again in July 1818, he was awarded an honorary DCL by the University of Oxford in 1819. He retired from Parliament in 1832. Nugent served as honorary colonel of the 85th Regiment of Foot as honorary colonel of the 62nd Regiment of Foot and as honorary colonel of the 6th Regiment of Foot. Promoted to field marshal on 9 November 1846, he died at Westhorpe House on 11 March 1849 and was buried at St John the Baptist Church in Little Marlow. Nugent married Maria Skinner, a daughter of Cortlandt Skinner, the Attorney-General of New Jersey and a descendant of the Schuyler family and Van Cortlandt family of British North America, in Belfast on 16 November 1797.
Lady Nugent wrote a journal of her experiences in Jamaica first published in 1907. Clements, William. Towers of strength: the story of the Martello towers. Leo Copper. ISBN 978-0850526790. Heathcote, Tony; the British Field Marshals, 1736–1997: A Biographical Dictionary. Barnsley: Leo Cooper. ISBN 0-85052-696-5. Smith, Henry Stooks. An alphabetical list of the officers of the Eighty-Fifth, Bucks Volunteers, the Kings Light Infantry Regiment from 1800 to 1850. L
History of Jamaica
The Caribbean island of Jamaica was inhabited by the Arawak tribes prior to the arrival of Columbus in 1494. Early inhabitants of Jamaica named the land "Xaymaca", meaning "Land of wood and water"; the Spanish enslaved the Arawaks, who were so ravaged by their conflict with the Europeans and by foreign diseases that nearly the entire native population was extinct by 1600. The Spanish transported hundreds of West African slaves to the island. In the year 1655, the English invaded Jamaica. Enslaved Africans seized the moment of political turmoil and fled to the island's interior, forming independent communities. Meanwhile, on the coast, the English built the settlement of Port Royal, which became a base of operations for pirates and privateers, including Captain Henry Morgan. In the 18th century, sugar cane replaced piracy as British Jamaica's main source of income; the sugar industry was labour-intensive and the British brought hundreds of thousands of enslaved Africans to Jamaica, so that by 1850 black Jamaicans outnumbered whites by a ratio of twenty to one.
Enslaved Jamaicans mounted over a dozen major uprisings during the 18th century, including Tacky's revolt in 1760. There were periodic skirmishes between the British and the mountain communities, culminating in the First Maroon War of the 1730s and the Second Maroon War of the 2209 The first inhabitants of Jamaica came from islands to the east in two waves of migration. About 600 CE the culture known as the “Redware people” arrived. Alligator Pond in Manchester Parish and Little River in St. Ann Parish are among the earliest known sites of this Ostionoid people, who lived near the coast and extensively hunted turtles and fish. Around 800 CE, Arawak arrived settling throughout the island. Living in villages ruled by tribal chiefs called caciques, they sustained themselves on fishing and the cultivation of maize and cassava. At the height of their civilisation, their population is estimated to have numbered as much as 60,000; the Arawak brought from South America a system of raising yuca known as "conuco."
To add nutrients to the soil, the Arawak burned local bushes and trees and heaped the ash into large mounds, into which they planted yuca cuttings. Most Arawak lived in large circular buildings, constructed with wooden poles, woven straw, palm leaves; the Arawak did not have writing. Some of the words used by them, such as barbacoa, kanoa, yuca and juracán, have been incorporated into Spanish and English. Https://jis.gov.jm/information/jamaican-history/ Christopher Columbus is believed to be the first European to reach Jamaica. He landed on the island on 5 May 1494, during his second voyage to the Americas. Columbus returned to Jamaica during his fourth voyage to the Americas, he had been sailing around the Caribbean nearly a year when a storm beached his ships in St. Ann's Bay, Jamaica, on 25 June 1503. For a year Columbus and his men remained stranded on the island departing in June 1504; the Spanish crown granted the island to the Columbus family, but for decades it was something of a backwater, valued chiefly as a supply base for food and animal hides.
In 1509 Juan de Esquivel founded the first permanent European settlement, the town of Sevilla la Nueva, on the north coast. A decade Friar Bartolomé de las Casas wrote Spanish authorities about Esquivel's conduct during the Higüey massacre of 1503. In 1534 the capital was moved to Villa de la Vega, now called Spanish Town; this settlement served as the capital of both Spanish and English Jamaica, from its founding in 1534 until 1872, after which the capital was moved to Kingston. The Spanish enslaved many of the Arawak; the Spaniards introduced the first African slaves. By the early 17th century, when no Taino remained in the region, the population of the island was about 3,000, including a small number of African slaves. Disappointed in the lack of gold on the isle, the Spanish used Jamaica as a military base to supply colonising efforts in the mainland Americas; the Spanish colonists did not bring women in the first expeditions and took Taíno women for their common-law wives, resulting in mestizo children.
Sexual violence with the Taíno women by the Spanish was common. Although the Taino referred to the island as "Xaymaca," the Spanish changed the name to "Jamaica." In the so-called Admiral's map of 1507 the island was labeled as "Jamaiqua" and in Peter Martyr's work "Decades" of 1511, he referred to it as both "Jamaica" and "Jamica". In late 1654, English leader Oliver Cromwell launched the Western Design armada against Spain's colonies in the Caribbean. In April 1655, General Robert Venables led the armada in an attack on Spain's fort at Santo Domingo, Hispaniola. After the Spanish repulsed this poorly-executed attack, the English force sailed for Jamaica, the only Spanish West Indies island that did not have new defensive works. In May 1655, around 7,000 English soldiers landed near Jamaica's Spanish Town capital and soon overwhelmed the small number of Spanish troops. Spain never recaptured Jamaica, losing the Battle of Ocho Rios in 1657 and the Battle of Rio Nuevo in 1658. In 1660, the turning point was when some Spanish runaway slaves, who became Jamaican Maroons, switched sides from the Spanish to the English.
For England, Jamaica was to be the'dagger pointed at the heart of the Spanish Empire,' although in fact it was a posse
William Penn (Royal Navy officer)
Sir William Penn was an English admiral and politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1660 to 1670. He was the father of founder of the Province of Pennsylvania. Penn was born in Bristol to Giles Penn and Joan Gilbert, he served his apprenticeship at sea with his father. In the First English Civil War of 1642–1646, he fought on the side of the Parliament, commanded a ship in the squadron maintained against the king in the Irish seas; the service was arduous and called for good seamanship. In 1648, he was arrested and sent to London, but was soon released, sent back as rear-admiral in the Assurance; the exact cause of the arrest remains unknown, but it may be presumed that he came under suspicion of corresponding with the king's supporters. It is probable that he did so, for until the Restoration of 1660, he was in communication with the Royalists, while serving the parliament, or Cromwell, so long as their service was profitable, making no scruple of applying for grants of the confiscated lands of the king's Irish friends.
After 1650, Penn served as commander-in-chief of the southern fleet in the Atlantic and in the Mediterranean in pursuit of the Royalists under Prince Rupert. He was so active on this service that when he returned home on 18 March 1651 he could boast that he had not put foot on shore for more than a year. In the First Anglo-Dutch War, he served in the navy of the Commonwealth of England, commanding squadrons at the battles of the Kentish Knock, the Gabbard and Scheveningen. In this last battle, a sniper from his ship killed Dutch admiral and fleetcommander Maarten Tromp on the Dutch flagship Brederode. In 1654, he offered to carry the fleet over to the king, but in October of the same year he had no scruple in accepting the naval command in the expedition to the West Indies sent out by Cromwell. In 1655, he commanded the fleet, he was not responsible for the shameful repulse at San Domingo, due to a panic among the troops. Afterwards, English forces seized the less desirable island of Jamaica for the Commonwealth régime, Penn established the Jamaica Station there.
On their return, he and his military colleague, Robert Venables, were sent to the Tower. He made humble submission, when released retired to the estates of confiscated land he had received in Ireland. On 20 December 1658, Penn was knighted by Henry Cromwell at Dublin Castle, but the Protectorate honour passed into oblivion at the Restoration in May 1660. In April 1660, Penn was elected as one of the Members of Parliament for Weymouth and Melcombe Regis and sat in the Convention Parliament, he played a small part in the Restoration: in May 1660 he was on the Earl of Sandwich's ship, the Naseby, sent to bring King Charles II home to England from his exile at Amsterdam in the Dutch Republic. During the voyage, Penn made himself known to the Duke of York, soon to be appointed Lord High Admiral, with whom he had a lasting influence. In 1661, Penn was re-elected as a member for Melcombe Regis in the Cavalier Parliament. In the Second Anglo-Dutch War, he was flag captain at the Battle of Lowestoft, serving under James, Duke of York, in the same year was admiral of one of the fleets sent to intercept Ruyter.
Although Penn was not a high-minded man, he is a figure of considerable importance in English naval history. As admiral and General at Sea for Parliament, he helped in 1653 to draw up the first code of tactics provided for the English navy, it became the basis of the "Duke of York's Sailing and Fighting Instructions", which continued for long to supply the orthodox tactical creed of the navy. Penn was an early proponent of fighting in line ahead, so as to bring as much firepower as possible to bear. A key source for the adult life of Penn is the Diary of his next door neighbour Samuel Pepys. In 1660, Penn was appointed a Commissioner of the Navy Board where he worked with Pepys, Clerk of the Acts to the Navy Board; the character of "mean fellow", or "false knave", given him by Pepys is borne out by much, otherwise known of him. But it is no less certain that he was a good fighter. Like Pepys and the Earl of Sandwich Penn was a "moderate" Roundhead who had succeeded in maintaining his position at the Restoration.
Unsurprisingly, Penn appears several times in Pepys diary. A typical entry reads "To the office, where the falsenesse and impertinencies of Sir W. Pen would make a man mad to think of." But he is referenced most vividly in an entry for 1665, which states: "At night home and up to the leads, were contrary to expectation driven down again with a stinke by Sir W. Pen's shying of a shitten pot in their house of office". On the other hand, the diary entry for 4 July 1666 contains a long account of Penn's analysis of what was to be learnt from the Four Days' Battle, ending with the statement: "He did talk rationally to me, insomuch that I took more pleasure this night in hearing him discourse I did in my life in anything that he said." As a native of the West Country, Sir William Penn is buried in the church of St. Mary Redcliffe in Bristol, his helm and half-armour are hung on the wall, together with the tattered banners of Dutch ships that he captured in battle. His portrait by Lely, part of the Flagmen of Lowestoft series, is in the Painted Hall at Greenwich.
After his death, his son, accepted the grant of land in the American colonies in lieu of money owed by the Crown to his father, he named the new colony Pennsylvania in his father's memory. On 6 June 1643, he married Margaret Jasper
Charles Howard, 1st Earl of Carlisle
Charles Howard, 1st Earl of Carlisle was an English military leader and politician who sat in the House of Commons at various times between 1653 and 1660 and was created Earl of Carlisle in 1661. Howard was the son and heir of Sir William Howard of Naworth in Cumberland, by Mary, daughter of William, Lord Eure, great-grandson of Lord William Howard, "Belted Will", the third son of Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk. In 1645 he conformed to the Church of England and supported the government of the Commonwealth, being appointed High Sheriff of Cumberland in 1650, he became governor of the town. He distinguished himself at the Battle of Worcester on Cromwell's side and made a member of the council of state in 1653, chosen captain of the protector's body-guard and selected to carry out various public duties. In 1653 he was nominated as Member of Parliament for the Four Northern Counties in the Barebones Parliament, he was elected MP for Cumberland in 1654. In 1655 Howard was given a regiment, was appointed a commissioner to try the northern rebels, a deputy major-general of Cumberland and Northumberland.
He was re-elected MP for Cumberland in 1656. In 1657 he was included in Cromwell's House of Lords and voted for the protector's assumption of the royal title the same year. In 1659 he urged Richard Cromwell to defend his government by force against the army leaders, but his advice being refused he used his influence in favour of a restoration of the monarchy, after Richard's fall he was imprisoned. In April 1660 he sat again in parliament for Cumberland, at the Restoration was made custos rotulorum and Lord Lieutenant of Cumberland and Lord Lieutenant of Westmorland. On 20 April 1661 Howard was created Baron Dacre of Gillesland, Viscount Howard of Morpeth, Earl of Carlisle. In 1663 he was appointed ambassador to Russia and Denmark, in 1668 he carried the Garter to Charles XI of Sweden. In 1667 Howard was made lieutenant-general of the forces and joint commander-in-chief of the four northernmost counties. In 1672 he became one of the commissioners for the office of Lord Lieutenant of Durham, in 1673 deputy earl marshal.
He commanded a regiment in the fresh-raised Blackheath Army of 1673, intended to see action against the Dutch. Following the Treaty of Westminster the regiment was disbanded. In 1678 he was appointed governor of Jamaica, but his instructions to introduce Poynings' Law to the island were opposed by planters elected to the Jamaican Assembly. Calling the elected members "fools, asses and cowards", the governor arrested their leaders, William Beeston and Samuel Long, father of Jamaican planter-historian Edward Long. However, when they were deported back to England and Long argued their case, the governor's instructions were cancelled, he was reappointed governor of Carlisle. He died in 1685, was buried in York Minster, he married Anne, daughter of Edward Howard, 1st Baron Howard of Escrick and great-granddaughter of Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk, by whom he had six children: Edward Howard, 2nd Earl of Carlisle Lady Katherine Howard Hon. Frederick Christian Howard, killed at the Siege of Luxembourg Hon. Charles Howard Lady Mary Howard, married Sir John Fenwick, 3rd Baronet Lady Anne Howard, married Richard Graham, 1st Viscount PrestonColonel Thomas Howard, notorious for the 1662 duel where he left Henry Jermyn, 1st Baron Dover for dead, was his younger brother.
He was soon afterwards married as her third husband Mary Stewart, Duchess of Richmond. "Howard, Charles". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900