Stevens T. Mason
Stevens Thomson Mason was an American politician who served as the first Governor of Michigan from 1835 to 1840. Coming to political prominence at an early age, Mason was appointed his territory's acting Territorial Secretary by Andrew Jackson at 19, becoming the acting territorial governor soon thereafter in 1834 at 22; as territorial governor, Mason was instrumental in guiding Michigan to statehood, secured in 1837. A member of the Democratic Party, he was elected as Michigan's first state governor in 1835, where he served until 1840. Elected at 23 and taking office at 24, Mason was and remains the youngest state governor in American history. Mason was born near Leesburg in Loudoun County, into a politically powerful family, his great-grandfather, Thomson Mason, was chief justice of the Virginia supreme court and younger brother of George Mason, who took part in the Constitutional Convention. His grandfather, Stevens Thomson Mason, was a U. S. Senator from Virginia from 1794 until his death, his uncle, Armistead Thomson Mason, was a U.
S. Senator from Virginia. In addition, his uncles by marriage, Benjamin Howard and William Taylor Barry, both served in the Kentucky House of Representatives and were U. S. Representatives from Kentucky. Howard was Governor of the Louisiana Territory and the Missouri Territory. Barry served as a U. S. Senator from Kentucky had a long career in a number of Kentucky government positions, became U. S. Postmaster General. In 1812, Mason's father, John Thomson Mason, left the Mason family stronghold in Virginia to attempt to make his own fortune in Lexington, Kentucky. In 1817, President James Monroe appointed the elder Mason United States marshal. While his business ventures were a complete failure and the family became nearly broke in the 1820s, he was a lawyer and land agent from an influential family, went on to become an important figure in the Texas Revolution. John Mason was appointed Secretary of the Michigan Territory and superintendent of Indian affairs in 1830 by President Andrew Jackson. Young Stevens was more politically savvy than his father and helped to protect him from schemes launched by anti-Jackson forces.
This gained him notice from Lewis Cass. In 1831, President Jackson sent the elder Mason on a mission to Mexico and named Stevens to replace his father as Secretary, at the age of nineteen before he could vote. At about the same time, Governor Cass became Jackson's Secretary of War; as the territorial secretary traditionally served as acting governor, young Mason held that role until George Bryan Porter, named to replace Cass in August 1831, arrived in Detroit in 1832. As it turned out, Porter was absent and Mason was, for all practical purposes, the acting governor during this time, leading to his nickname of the "Boy Governor". Porter died of cholera in Detroit in 1834, so Mason was once again Acting Governor of the Michigan Territory. Mason was influential in petitioning for Michigan statehood; when the first petition in 1832 was not acted upon by the U. S. Congress, Mason commissioned a territorial census; when the census was completed in 1834, it determined that 86,000 people lived in the lower peninsula, more than the 60,000 required for statehood by the Northwest Ordinance of 1787.
A dispute over a strip of land, the Toledo Strip, claimed by both Michigan and Ohio led to the Toledo War. President Jackson appointed Benjamin Chew Howard of Baltimore and Richard Rush of Philadelphia to arbitrate the dispute, but Mason was not satisfied with the proposal and refused to back down. Not wanting to alienate his political support in Ohio, President Jackson removed Mason as territorial secretary in August 1835 and appointed John S. Horner as his replacement. Although replaced by Horner, Mason was still popular in Michigan. Voters elected Mason as governor. However, the U. S. Congress refused to recognize Michigan as a state. In 1836, facing financial difficulties due to Michigan not being recognized as a state, Mason agreed to a compromise reached by the U. S. Congress and agreed to cede the disputed land to Ohio in exchange for the western two-thirds of the Upper Peninsula. A convention in September 1836 refused to go along with Mason, but Mason prevailed in a second convention in December 1836.
On January 26, 1837, Michigan was admitted to the Union. In 1835, Mason had initiated an ambitious internal improvements program, which included development of three railroads and two canals. Mason was re-elected in 1837, but the state's economy soon began to suffer from the effects of the Panic of 1837. Earlier in 1837, Mason had negotiated to fund the internal improvements program through the sale of $5,000,000 in bonds; this arrangement fell apart in 1837 and following bankruptcies by both the company building the canal and the bank backing the loans, the state was left with over $2,000,000 in bad debt. During his business trips to New York to finance his internal improvements program, Mason became acquainted with Julia Phelps and the two married on November 1, 1838. In early 1838, Mason led the state militia in helping to thwart the Patriot War, an attempt by irregulars to invade and annex parts of Canada; the schooner Ann sailed down to Gibraltar, Michigan. Mason, along with a detachment of 200 militiamen, pursued them in two steamships.
A hundred Canadian militia followed in the steamer Alliance. Mason met with the P
Andrew Jackson was an American soldier and statesman who served as the seventh president of the United States from 1829 to 1837. Before being elected to the presidency, Jackson gained fame as a general in the United States Army and served in both houses of Congress; as president, Jackson sought to advance the rights of the "common man" against a "corrupt aristocracy" and to preserve the Union. Born in the colonial Carolinas to a Scotch-Irish family in the decade before the American Revolutionary War, Jackson became a frontier lawyer and married Rachel Donelson Robards, he served in the United States House of Representatives and the United States Senate, representing Tennessee. After resigning, he served as a justice on the Tennessee Supreme Court from 1798 until 1804. Jackson purchased a property known as The Hermitage, became a wealthy, slaveowning planter. In 1801, he was appointed colonel of the Tennessee militia and was elected its commander the following year, he led troops during the Creek War of 1813–1814, winning the Battle of Horseshoe Bend.
The subsequent Treaty of Fort Jackson required the Creek surrender of vast lands in present-day Alabama and Georgia. In the concurrent war against the British, Jackson's victory in 1815 at the Battle of New Orleans made him a national hero. Jackson led U. S. forces in the First Seminole War. Jackson served as Florida's first territorial governor before returning to the Senate, he ran for president in 1824, winning a plurality of the electoral vote. As no candidate won an electoral majority, the House of Representatives elected John Quincy Adams in a contingent election. In reaction to the alleged "corrupt bargain" between Adams and Henry Clay and the ambitious agenda of President Adams, Jackson's supporters founded the Democratic Party. Jackson ran again in 1828. Jackson faced the threat of secession by South Carolina over what opponents called the "Tariff of Abominations." The crisis was defused when the tariff was amended, Jackson threatened the use of military force if South Carolina attempted to secede.
In Congress, Henry Clay led the effort to reauthorize the Second Bank of the United States. Jackson, regarding the Bank as a corrupt institution, vetoed the renewal of its charter. After a lengthy struggle and his allies dismantled the Bank. In 1835, Jackson became the only president to pay off the national debt, fulfilling a longtime goal, his presidency marked the beginning of the ascendancy of the party "spoils system" in American politics. In 1830, Jackson signed the Indian Removal Act, which forcibly relocated most members of the Native American tribes in the South to Indian Territory; the relocation process resulted in widespread death and disease. Jackson opposed the abolitionist movement. In foreign affairs, Jackson's administration concluded a "most favored nation" treaty with Great Britain, settled claims of damages against France from the Napoleonic Wars, recognized the Republic of Texas. In January 1835, he survived the first assassination attempt on a sitting president. In his retirement, Jackson remained active in Democratic Party politics, supporting the presidencies of Martin Van Buren and James K. Polk.
Though fearful of its effects on the slavery debate, Jackson advocated the annexation of Texas, accomplished shortly before his death. Jackson has been revered in the United States as an advocate for democracy and the common man. Many of his actions proved divisive, garnering both fervent support and strong opposition from many in the country, his reputation has suffered since the 1970s due to his role in Indian removal. Surveys of historians and scholars have ranked Jackson favorably among U. S. presidents. Andrew Jackson was born on March 1767 in the Waxhaws region of the Carolinas, his parents were Scots-Irish colonists Andrew and Elizabeth Hutchinson Jackson, Presbyterians who had emigrated from present day Northern Ireland two years earlier. Jackson's father was born in Carrickfergus, County Antrim, in current-day Northern Ireland, around 1738. Jackson's parents lived in the village of Boneybefore in County Antrim, his paternal family line originated in Killingswold Grove, England. When they immigrated to North America in 1765, Jackson's parents landed in Philadelphia.
Most they traveled overland through the Appalachian Mountains to the Scots-Irish community in the Waxhaws, straddling the border between North and South Carolina. They brought two children from Ireland and Robert. Jackson's father died in a logging accident while clearing land in February 1767 at the age of 29, three weeks before his son Andrew was born. Jackson, his mother, his brothers lived with Jackson's aunt and uncle in the Waxhaws region, Jackson received schooling from two nearby priests. Jackson's exact birthplace is unclear because of a lack of knowledge of his mother's actions following her husband's funeral; the area was so remote that the border between North and South Carolina had not been surveyed. In 1824 Jackson wrote a letter saying that he was born on the plantation of his uncle James Crawford in Lancaster County, South Carolina. Jackson may have claimed to be a South Carolinian because the state was considering nullification of the Tariff of 1824, which he opposed. In the mid-1850s, second-hand evidence indicated that he might have been born at a different uncle's home in North Carolina.
As a young boy, Jackson was offended and was considered something of a bully. He was, said to have taken a group of younger and weaker boys under his wing
Michigan Governor's Mansion
The Michigan Governor's Mansion and summer residence are located in the U. S. state of Michigan. The primary residence is a gated mansion in a secured area of a private neighborhood of Lansing; the second home, a summer residence, is located on Mackinac Island. Both residences are maintained with private donations; the Michigan Constitution specifies that there is to be a Governor's residence at the seat of government, that the seat of Government shall be at Lansing. The governor's mansion in Lansing was built in 1957 for Howard and Letha Sober, who donated it to the state in 1969; the furnishings were provided by the State of Michigan. American architect Wallace Frost, known for traditional architecture, designed the ranch-style residence with its stone exterior in a contemporary style; the contemporary architecture was a change from his usual style. A garden room was added in the mid-1970s; the gated mansion sits on four acres of secured area in the Moores River Drive estates of Lansing near the scenic Grand River.
Governors who have lived in the mansion during their office tenure include William Milliken, James Blanchard, John Engler, Jennifer Granholm and current Governor Gretchen Whitmer. The mansion in Lansing was renovated during the early 2000s and contains 10,300 sq ft, five bedrooms, four baths. Former Governor, Rick Snyder, elected to remain at his Ann Arbor residence; the Michigan Governor's Summer Residence on Mackinac Island is a three-story structure located on a bluff overlooking the Straits of Mackinac. It was built as a private residence for Chicago attorney Lawrence Andrew Young. In 1944, the Mackinac Island State Park Commission purchased the home for its original cost of $15,000. Since Michigan's governors have used this home to host important events with national and state leaders; the house was named to the National Register of Historical Places in 1997. Governor's Mansion "The Governors Residence Foundation" - State of Michigan
Head of state
A head of state is the public persona who represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state. Depending on the country's form of government and separation of powers, the head of state may be a ceremonial figurehead or concurrently the head of government. In a parliamentary system the head of state is the de jure leader of the nation, there is a separate de facto leader with the title of prime minister. In contrast, a semi-presidential system has both heads of state and government as the leaders de facto of the nation. In countries with parliamentary systems, the head of state is a ceremonial figurehead who does not guide day-to-day government activities or is not empowered to exercise any kind of political authority. In countries where the head of state is the head of government, the head of state serves as both a public figurehead and the highest-ranking political leader who oversees the executive branch. Former French president Charles de Gaulle, while developing the current Constitution of France, said that the head of state should embody l'esprit de la nation.
Some academic writers discuss states and governments in terms of "models". An independent nation state has a head of state, determines the extent of its head's executive powers of government or formal representational functions. In protocolary terms, the head of a sovereign, independent state is identified as the person who, according to that state's constitution, is the reigning monarch, in the case of a monarchy, or the president, in the case of a republic. Among the different state constitutions that establish different political systems, four major types of heads of state can be distinguished: The parliamentary system, with three subset models; the non-executive model, in which the head of state has either none or limited executive powers, has a ceremonial and symbolic role. The Parliamentary-Presidential model, or South African Method, where Parliament chooses the President, who acts as both Head of State and Head of Government; some argue this is unfair, becouse citizens dont get a direct say in their executive leadership.
However, this method makes it impossible for a dictator to come to power. The semi-presidential system, in which the head of state shares key executive powers with a head of government or cabinet. In a federal constituent or a dependent territory, the same role is fulfilled by the holder of an office corresponding to that of a head of state. For example, in each Canadian province the role is fulfilled by the Lieutenant Governor, whereas in most British Overseas Territories the powers and duties are performed by the Governor; the same applies to Indian states, etc.. Hong Kong's constitutional document, the Basic Law, for example, specifies the Chief Executive as the head of the special administrative region, in addition to their role as the head of government; these non-sovereign-state heads have limited or no role in diplomatic affairs, depending on the status and the norms and practices of the territories concerned. In parliamentary systems the head of state may be the nominal chief executive officer, heading the executive branch of the state, possessing limited executive power.
In reality, following a process of constitutional evolution, powers are only exercised by direction of a cabinet, presided over by a head of government, answerable to the legislature. This accountability and legitimacy requires that someone be chosen who has a majority support in the legislature, it gives the legislature the right to vote down the head of government and their cabinet, forcing it either to resign or seek a parliamentary dissolution. The executive branch is thus said to be responsible to the legislature, with the head of government and cabinet in turn accepting constitutional responsibility for offering constitutional advice to the head of state. In parliamentary constitutional monarchies, the legitimacy of the unelected head of state derives from the tacit approval of the people via the elected representatives. Accordingly, at the time of the Glorious Revolution, the English parliament acted of its own authority to name a new king and queen. In monarchies with a written constitution, the position of monarch is a creature of the constitution and could quite properly be abolished through a democratic procedure of constitutional amendment, although there are significant procedural hurdles imposed on such a procedure.
In republics with a parliamentary system the head of state is titled president and the principal functions of such presidents are ceremonial and symbolic, as opposed to the presidents in a presidential or semi-presidential system. In reality, numerous variants exist to the position of a head of state within a parliamentary system; the older the cons
A term limit is a legal restriction that limits the number of terms an officeholder may serve in a particular elected office. When term limits are found in presidential and semi-presidential systems they act as a method of curbing the potential for monopoly, where a leader becomes "president for life"; this is intended to protect a democracy from becoming a de facto dictatorship. Sometimes, there is an lifetime limit on the number of terms an officeholder may serve. Term limits have a long history. Ancient Athens and Ancient Rome, two early classic republics, had term limits imposed on their elected offices as did the city-state of Venice. In ancient Athenian democracy, only offices selected by sortition were subject to term limits. Elected offices were all subject to possible re-election, although they were minoritarian, these positions were more prestigious and those requiring the most experience, such as military generals and the superintendent of springs. In the Roman Republic, a law was passed imposing a limit of a single term on the office of censor.
The annual magistrates—tribune of the plebs, quaestor and consul—were forbidden reelection until a number of years had passed.. There was a term limit of 6 months for a dictator. Many modern presidential republics employ term limits for their highest offices; the United States placed a limit of two terms on its presidency by means of the 22nd Amendment to the Constitution in 1951. There are no term limits for Vice Presidency and Senators, although there have been calls for term limits for those offices. Under various state laws, some state governors and state legislators have term limits. Formal limits in America date back to the 1682 Pennsylvania Charter of Liberties, the colonial frame of government of the same year, authored by William Penn and providing for triennial rotation of the provincial council, the upper house of the colonial legislature.. The Russian Federation has a rule for the head of state that allows the President of Russia to serve more than two terms if not consecutive. For governors of federal subjects, the same two-term limit existed until 2004, but now there are no term limits for governors.
Term limits are common in Latin America, where most countries are presidential republics. Early in the last century, the Mexican revolutionary Francisco Madero popularized the slogan Sufragio Efectivo, no Reelección. In keeping with that principle, members of the Congress of Mexico cannot be reelected for the next immediate term under article 50 and 59 of the Constitution of Mexico, adopted in 1917; the President of Mexico is limited to a single six-year term. This makes every presidential election in Mexico a non-incumbent election. Countries that operate a parliamentary system of government are less to employ term limits on their leaders; this is because such leaders have a set "term" at all: rather, they serve as long as they have the confidence of the parliament, a period which could last for life. Many parliaments can be dissolved for snap elections which means some parliaments can last for mere months while others can continue until their expiration dates; such countries may impose term limits on the holders of other offices—in republics, for example, a ceremonial presidency may have a term limit if the office holds reserve powers.
Term limits may be divided into two broad categories: lifetime. With consecutive term limits, an officeholder is limited to serving a particular number of terms in that particular office. Upon hitting the limit in one office, an officeholder may not run for the same office again. After a set period of time, the clock resets on the limit, the officeholder may run for election to his/her original office and serve up to the limit again. With lifetime limits, once an officeholder has served up to the limit, he/she may never again run for election to that office. Lifetime limits are much more restrictive than consecutive limits. Term limits in the United States Term of office List of political term limits Reelection Real Term Limits: Now More Than Ever, an article by Doug Bandow in favor of term limits Legislative Term Limits: An Overview at the Library of Congress Web Archives, term limits information from the National Conference of State Legislatures
Michigan Secretary of State
The Michigan Department of State is administered by the Secretary of State, elected on a partisan ballot for a term of four years in gubernatorial elections. The Secretary of State is the third highest official in the State of Michigan; as the name implies, the officeholder was responsible for much of state government, but now the duties are similar to those of the other 46 secretaries of states across the United States. In the event that the Governor and Lieutenant Governor are both absent from the state, or the offices are concurrently vacant for some other reason, the secretary of state serves as acting governor. In Michigan, the Secretary of State is not only responsible for elections, but oversees vehicle registration and the licensing of automobile drivers, similar to a motor vehicles regulator in other states; the officeholder oversees and regulates notaries public and is the keeper of the Great Seal of Michigan. Under state law, the Secretary of State must have at least one office in each of Michigan's 83 counties.
The current Secretary of State is a Democrat. The Customer Services Administration is divided into the Bureau of Branch Office Services, the Driver and Vehicle Records Division, the Office of Customer Services, the Department of State Information Center, the Program Procedures Section, the Program Support Section; the Bureau of Branch Office Services operates a network of branch offices providing driver’s licensing, vehicle titling and registration, voter registration services to the citizens of Michigan. The Driver and Vehicle Records Division manages vehicle records maintenance activities; the Office of Customer Services oversees the Renewal-By-Mail and Internet Renewal, as well as the Uniform Commercial Code. The office serves International Registration Plan vehicle owners and Michigan residents who are out of state; the Department of State Information Center is the point of contact for many citizens seeking information about Secretary of State programs and services. The center oversees driver and vehicle record sales and the distribution of the annual jury listing to Michigan counties.
The Department Services Administration provides coordination and support to the agency in the areas of administration, technology, project management, human resources, employee development, occupancy management. It facilitates the strategic vision and support for the Secretary of State’s high-priority programs to ensure continued innovation and effective use of resources; the DSA includes the Office of Technology and Project Services, the Office of Human Resources, the Office of Occupancy Services, the Accounting Services Division, the Budget Services Division, the department’s Business Application Modernization initiative. The Legal and Regulatory Services Administration is divided into the Bureau of Information Security, the Bureau of Regulatory Services, the Legal Policy and Procedures Section; the LRSA provides counsel to the Secretary of State on statutes and rules administered. The Secretary of State is elected for a four-year term, concurrent with that of the governor. Candidates are nominated at partisan conventions.
Under an amendment to the state Constitution, passed in 1992, the Secretary of State is restricted to two four-year terms in that office. The Secretary of State receives the courtesy title of The Honorable for life. Source: Michigan Manual 2003-2004, Chapter IV, Former Officials of Michigan
Jennifer Mulhern Granholm is a Canadian-American politician, educator, political commentator and member of the Democratic Party who served as the Attorney General of Michigan from 1999 to 2003 and as the 47th Governor of Michigan from 2003 to 2011. In January 2017, she became a CNN political contributor. Born in Vancouver, British Columbia, Granholm moved from Canada to California at age four, she graduated from San Carlos High School and attempted an acting career held a variety of jobs before attending the University of California, Berkeley. She graduated with a Bachelor of Arts degree in 1984 and a Juris Doctor from Harvard Law School, where she served as Editor-in-Chief of the Harvard Civil Rights-Civil Liberties Law Review, she clerked for Judge Damon Keith of the United States Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit, became an Assistant U. S. Attorney for the Eastern District of Michigan in 1991 and in 1995 she was appointed to the Wayne County Corporation Counsel. Granholm ran for Attorney General of Michigan in 1998 to succeed 37-year Democratic incumbent Frank J. Kelley.
She defeated Republican John Smietanka, the 1994 nominee and former U. S. Attorney for the Western District of Michigan, by 52% to 48% and served from 1999 to 2003, she ran for Governor in 2002 to succeed Republican John Engler. She defeated Engler's Lieutenant Governor Dick Posthumus by 51% to 47% and became Michigan's first female governor on January 1, 2003, she was re-elected to a second term in 2006 against Republican businessman Dick DeVos by a large margin and served until January 1, 2011, when she was term-limited. As Governor, Granholm received praise for her focus on renewable energy and in leading the state's automotive industry through the crisis of 2008–10, she was a member of the presidential transition team for Barack Obama before he assumed office on January 20, 2009. After leaving public office, Granholm took a position at U. C. Berkeley and, with her husband Daniel Mulhern, authored A Governor's Story: The Fight for Jobs and America's Future, released in September 2011, she became host of The War Room with Jennifer Granholm on Current TV.
Additionally, Granholm was a supporter of Obama's re-election campaign in 2012 and Hillary Clinton's 2016 presidential campaign. Granholm was born in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, to Shirley Alfreda and Victor Ivar Granholm, both bank tellers. Granholm's maternal grandparents came from Newfoundland, her paternal grandmother was an emigrant from Norway and her paternal grandfather, who immigrated to Canada in the 1930s, came from Robertsfors, where his father was the mayor. The former Minister for Enterprise and Energy and former Deputy Prime Minister of Sweden, Maud Olofsson, lives in Robertsfors, when the two met in Sweden, the media revealed that Olofsson's husband is a relative of Granholm. Granholm's family moved to California, she grew up in Anaheim, San Jose, San Carlos. Granholm won the Miss San Carlos beauty pageant; as a young adult she attempted to launch a Hollywood acting career but was unsuccessful and abandoned her efforts at the age of 21. In 1978 she appeared on The Dating Game, held jobs as a tour guide at Universal Studios and in customer service at the Los Angeles Times and was the first female tour guide at Marine World Africa USA in Redwood City, piloting boats with 25 tourists aboard.
In 1980, at the age of 21 years, she became a naturalized U. S. citizen, worked for John B. Anderson's campaign for President of the United States as an Independent in the 1980 election, she enrolled at the University of California, the first person in her family to do so, joining Phi Beta Kappa and graduating in 1984 with a B. A. in Political Science and French. During a year in France, she helped to smuggle clothes and medical supplies to Jewish people in the Soviet Union and became involved in the Anti-Apartheid Movement, she earned a Juris Doctor degree at Harvard University with honors, in 1987. At Harvard Law School, Granholm served as Editor-in-Chief of the Harvard Civil Rights-Civil Liberties Law Review, the leading progressive law journal in the United States. After graduating, Granholm clerked for Judge Damon Keith, a Senior Judge on the U. S. Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit, from 1987 to 1988, she worked for the Michael Dukakis campaign for President in the 1988 election. After working as an attorney in the Wayne County executive office from 1989 to 1991, she became an Assistant U.
S. Attorney for the Eastern District of Michigan in 1991, she helped to prosecute drug dealers, gang members and child pornographers, sued the state and fought against credit card fraud. Of the 154 people she tried, 151 were convicted. In 1995 she was appointed to serve as Corporation Counsel for Wayne County, becoming the youngest person to hold the position, she defended the County against lawsuits, sued the state over road taxes and fought to uphold environmental laws. Thirty-seven year Democratic Attorney General Frank J. Kelley chose not to run for a 10th term in 1998 and Granholm entered the race to succeed him. Unopposed for the Democratic nomination, she faced Republican John Smietanka, the 1994 nominee and former U. S. Attorney for the Western District of Michigan, in the general election; the campaign began as a friendly one, with both agreeing that they wanted to expand the Internet Crimes Unit, start neighbourhood-based crime-fighting programmes and continue working as a consumer advocate, as Kelley had done.
However, the race turned bitter in mid-September, when Smietanka ran television ads that called Granholm an "inexperienced" and "dangerous" liberal. He tried to link Granholm to Democratic gubernatorial nominee Geoff