Independence Party of Minnesota
The Independence Party of Minnesota the Reform Party of Minnesota, is a political party in the U. S. state of Minnesota. It was the party of former Minnesota Governor Jesse Ventura. An affiliate of the Reform Party of the United States of America, the IPM was affiliated with the Independence Party of America, but is no longer affiliated with any national party, focusing on Minnesota politics; the party has fielded candidates for most statewide races and was considered a major party by the state from 1994 to 2014. It lost that status when none of its statewide candidates won 5% of the vote in the 2014 gubernatorial election; the party, represented in the U. S. Senate by Dean Barkley in 2002–2003, nominated former U. S. Representative Tim Penny as its candidate in the 2002 gubernatorial election, Peter Hutchinson in 2006 and Tom Horner in 2010. Despite its name, the IPM does not support or otherwise call for secession from the United States; the party was formed in 1992 by Minnesota supporters of Ross Perot, fielded Dean Barkley that year as a candidate for a seat in the US House of Representatives.
Other supporters led by Don Dow, State Director, Victoria Staten, Assistant State Director and Ross Perot's spokesperson on NAFTA, worked as part of United We Stand America, some found their way to the Independence Party after the elections. Over the following years, the party began to field candidates in other state races. In 1995 the IPMN affiliated with the national Reform Party and renamed itself the Reform Party of Minnesota; the state party carried that name until it disaffiliated from the national party in 2000 due to factional dissent and the increasing influence of Pat Buchanan within the party. The party changed its name back to Independence Party. After his most influential opponents left the party, Buchanan went on to become the Reform Party's candidate for president. On 2004's Super Tuesday, March 2, the party held caucuses around the state along with Minnesota's other three parties. Since the organization had no national party affiliation, it ran a straw poll to gauge the opinions of members with regard to the available presidential candidates in the 2004 election.
For the poll, the group used instant-runoff voting, a voting method, gaining interest in the state. Additionally, the party had several progressive agenda items to vote on. For a bit of levity, there was a vote on the mascot to use for the party. Three top possibilities were the bison and white buffalo. Technology was involved in the IPMN's caucusing, as it used the Internet to conduct a two-day online "virtual caucus" for people who were unable to attend the evening of Super Tuesday. On March 5, 2004, the party announced that the presidential winner was John Edwards, who had circulated his decision to withdraw shortly before IP members voted; the Super Tuesday ballot was the first statewide experiment in instant-runoff voting. The Bison, to be named Indy, won the mascot vote, out-polling the nearest competitors by a 19% margin. In May 2005, Peter Hutchinson, Minnesota Finance Commissioner in the Rudy Perpich administration, announced that he was planning to seek the Independence Party's nomination for governor in the 2006 election.
Hutchinson finished 3rd of 6 earning 141,735 votes for 6.4% of the total vote. As of 2006, the party has had two members in the Minnesota Senate. Bob Lessard of International Falls, joined the party in 2001 after he was re-elected to the Senate as an independent with 54.3% of the vote. He did not seek re-election in 2002. In the 2002 election, Sheila Kiscaden of Rochester was turned down for endorsement for re-election to the Minnesota Senate by the Republican party, she joined the IP and won re-election, giving the Independence Party its first victory in a Minnesota legislative election. She joined the Democratic-Farmer-Labor Party in January 2006. There have been no members of the IPM in the Minnesota House of Representatives. In the 2006 elections IP 5th district congressional candidate Tammy Lee received 51,456 votes for 21.01% of the total vote. Lee's strong showing resulted in part from her unusually strong fundraising, Lee raised $228,938 for her run. In May 2008, a "Draft Dean Barkley" movement started on the web to encourage the former senator to run again.
He accepted, came in 3rd, winning a significant 15% of all votes cast. His candidacy had a significant impact on a race in which the eventual winner Al Franken and then-incumbent Senator Norm Coleman were separated by only 312 votes. Two other federal candidates, David Dillon in the 3rd congressional district and Bob Anderson in the 6th congressional district, received 10% of the vote in their races. Thus, 2008 is high-water mark for the Minnesota Independence Party in both the number of federal candidates running and the percent of vote received—both key measures of the growing base of support. In 2010 gubernatorial candidate Tom Horner, a former public relations executive and chief of staff to U. S. Senator David Durenberger received 12% of the vote, nearly doubling the total of previous IP gubernatorial candidate Peter Hutchinson. Horner polled as high as 18% in the weeks leading up to the election, but was outspent by the GOP and DFL candidates and the third-party expenditure groups supporting their candidacies.
Horner did receive endorsement from three of the state's five living ex-governors: Republicans Arne Carlson and Al Quie as well as Ventura. Former U. S. Senate candidate and prominent Minnesota attorney Mike Ciresi endorsed Horner. Most Minnesota newspapers including the Star Tribune, St. Paul Pioneer Press, St. Cloud Times, Duluth News Tribune, Rochester Post-Bulletin
Samuel Medary was an American newspaper owner and politician. Born and raised in Montgomery County, Pennsylvania, he settled in Bethel, Ohio, in 1825. After a term in the Ohio House of Representatives and the Ohio State Senate as a Jackson Democrat, he purchased a newspaper in Columbus that became the Ohio Statesman, which he edited until 1857, he was active at the National Democratic Conventions at Baltimore in 1844, where he was instrumental in the nomination of James K. Polk. President James Buchanan appointed him as the third Territorial Governor of Minnesota from April 23, 1857, to May 24, 1858. Minnesota became a state on May 11, 1858, elected Henry Hastings Sibley as the state's first governor. Samuel Medary was Governor of Kansas Territory from December 1858 to December 1860. William F. Wheeler was the Governor's Secretary while in office. Returning to Columbus, Ohio, he established a newspaper. While living in Columbus, Medary resided at his estate, Northwood Place, located along the Worthington Pike, now North High Street, near Northwood Avenue.
Medary was indicted by a federal grand jury in 1864 for conspiracy against the government and was arrested. He died in Columbus, Ohio before he could be tried. One of the first townsites in Dakota Territory is named after Medary; the town of Medaryville, Indiana was named after him. In North Columbus, Ohio a street dating back to the early 1900s Medary Avenue was named for him; because Columbus Public Schools names its schools for the street on which they are located, Medary Elementary School carried his surname. Medary was buried at Green Lawn Cemetery, Ohio
The Territory of Minnesota was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from March 3, 1849, until May 11, 1858, when the eastern portion of the territory was admitted to the Union as the State of Minnesota. The boundaries of the Minnesota Territory, as carved out of Iowa Territory, included the current Minnesota region and most of what became Dakota Territory east of the Missouri River. Minnesota Territory included portions of Wisconsin Territory that did not become part of Wisconsin, located between the Mississippi River and Wisconsin, including the Arrowhead Region. At the time of its formation, the territory contained three cities: St. Paul, St. Anthony, Stillwater; the major territorial institutions were divided among the three: St. Paul was made the capital. Charles K. Smith, 1849–1851 Alexander Wilkin, 1851–1853 Joseph Rosser, 1853–1857 Charles L. Chase, 1857–1858 Lorenzo A. Babcock, 1849–1853 Lafayette Emmett, 1853–1858 Henry Hastings Sibley, 31st Congress, 32nd Congress, 1849–1853 Henry Mower Rice, 33rd Congress, 34th Congress, 1853–1857 William W. Kingsbury, 35th Congress, 1857–1858 John Catlin Historic regions of the United States History of Minnesota Interior Plains Territorial era of Minnesota Territorial evolution of the United States Territory of France that encompassed land that would become part of the Territory of Minnesota: Louisiane, 1682–1764 and 1803 Territory of Spain that would be returned to France: Luisiana, 1764–1803 Territory of the United Kingdom that encompassed land that would become part of the Territory of Minnesota: Rupert's Land, 1670–1870 U.
S. territories that encompassed land that would become part of the Territory of Minnesota: Territory Northwest of the River Ohio, 1787–1803 Territory of Indiana, 1800–1816 Louisiana Purchase, 1803–1804 District of Louisiana, 1804–1805 Territory of Louisiana, 1805–1812 Territory of Illinois, 1809–1818 Territory of Missouri, 1812–1821 Territory of Michigan, 1805–1837 Territory of Wisconsin, 1836–1848 U. S. territories that encompassed land, part of the Territory of Minnesota: Territory of Dakota, 1861–1889 U. S. states that encompass land, once part of the Territory of Minnesota: State of Minnesota, 1858 State of North Dakota, 1889 State of South Dakota, 1889 Media related to Minnesota Territory at Wikimedia Commons Minnesota historic documents Debates and proceedings of the Constitutional convention for the territory of Minnesota, to form a state constitution preparatory to its admission into the Union as a state
Willis A. Gorman
Willis Arnold Gorman was an American lawyer, politician, a general in the Union Army during the American Civil War. Gorman was born near Kentucky, he was the only child of both of Irish descent. In 1835, the family moved to Bloomington, where Gorman graduated from Indiana University's law school in 1835 and established a law practice. In January 1836, he married Martha Stone in Bloomington. By 1837 he began his move into politics. From 1841 to 1844, he was elected to the Indiana House of Representatives. In 1846 he volunteered for the army, enlisted as a private, went to fight in the Mexican–American War, he was appointed as a major in the 3rd Indiana Volunteer Infantry, led an independent rifle battalion at the Battle of Buena Vista, where he was wounded. When his term of service expired, he was appointed colonel of the 4th Indiana, he served in the capture of Huamantla and in several other campaigns and battles under General Joseph Lane. In 1848 he was military governor of Puebla, but soon after he returned to Indiana.
He served in the United States House of Representatives from March 4, 1849, to March 3, 1853, as a representative of that state. Gorman, politically a Democrat, served as the second Territorial Governor of Minnesota from May 15, 1853, to April 23, 1857, at the appointment of President Franklin Pierce. During his time as Governor of Minnesota, he masterminded an unsuccessful plan to move the capital of the territory from St. Paul to St. Peter, where he owned land that would have been eminently suitable for use as the new capitol grounds; the plan was sidetracked when legislator Joe Rolette disappeared with the bill until the last seconds of the legislative session. He spent a number of years practicing law in St. Paul and served in the Minnesota House of Representatives from May 11, 1858, to January 1859. With the secession of several Southern slave states, Gorman offered his services to the army, he was appointed Colonel of the 1st Minnesota Infantry, serving in the First Battle of Bull Run on July 21, 1861.
On September 7, 1861, he was appointed brigadier general of volunteers and assigned to command a brigade in the II Corps in Army of the Potomac during the Peninsular Campaign. His troops suffered high casualties during the Battle of Antietam in an ill-fated attack on Confederate positions in the West Woods. In the year, he was assigned to command the District of Eastern Arkansas. In 1864 he resumed his law practice in St. Paul, he was elected City attorney in 1869, continued in that position until his death. He is buried in Oakland Cemetery in St. Paul. List of American Civil War generals United States Congress. "Willis A. Gorman". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved on 2008-02-14 Heitman, Historical Register and Dictionary of the United States Army 1789-1903, Washington: U. S. Government Printing Office Folsom, William Henry Carman. Willis A. Gorman at Find a Grave
The Territory of Iowa was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from July 4, 1838, until December 28, 1846, when the southeastern portion of the territory was admitted to the Union as the state of Iowa. The remainder of the territory would have no organized territorial government until the Minnesota Territory was organized on March 3, 1849. Most of the area in the territory was part of the Louisiana Purchase and was a part of the Missouri Territory; when Missouri became a state in 1821, this area became unorganized territory. The area was closed to white settlers until the 1830s, it was attached to the Michigan Territory on June 28, 1834. At an extra session of the Sixth Legislative Assembly of Michigan held in September, 1834, the Iowa District was divided into two counties by running a line due west from the lower end of Rock Island in the Mississippi River; the territory north of this line was named Dubuque County, all south of it was Demoine County. When Michigan became a state in 1836 the area became the Iowa District of western Wisconsin Territory—the region west of the Mississippi River.
The original boundaries of the territory, as established in 1838, included Minnesota and parts of the Dakotas, covering about 194,000 square miles of land. Burlington was the stop-gap capital; when Iowa became a state on December 28, 1846, no provision was made for official organization of the remainder of the territory. Morgan L. Martin, the Wisconsin territorial delegate to congress, pushed through a bill to organize a territory of Minnesota which would encompass this land. While the bill passed in the house, it did not pass the senate. In the following session a bill by Stephen A. Douglas was introduced in the senate but did not pass; the situation was resolved when Minnesota Territory was organized on March 3, 1849, the day before the close of congress. Territorial officers of Iowa Territory from 1838–1846. Robert Lucas, appointed 1838. John Chambers, appointed 1841. James Clarke, appointed 1845. William B. Conway, appointed 1838. James Clarke, appointed 1839. O. H. W. Stull, appointed 1841. Samuel J. Burr, appointed 1843.
Jesse Williams, appointed 1845. Jesse Williams, appointed 1840. William L. Gilbert, appointed 1843. Robert M. Secrest, appointed 1845. Thornton Bayless, appointed 1839. Morgan Reno, appointed 1840. William W. Chapman 25th and 26th Congresses, 1838–1840 Francis Gehon, irregularly "elected" in 1839, but never served as delegate Augustus C. Dodge, in the 27th, 28th, 29th Congresses, 1840–1846 Historic regions of the United States History of Iowa Territorial evolution of the United States Territory of France that encompassed land that became part of the Territory of Iowa: Louisiane, 1682–1764 and 1803 Territory of Spain that would be returned to France: Luisiana, 1764–1803 Territory of the United Kingdom that encompassed land that became part of the Territory of Iowa: Rupert's Land, 1670–1870 U. S. territories that encompassed land that became part of the Territory of Iowa: Louisiana Purchase, 1803–1804 District of Louisiana, 1804–1805 Territory of Louisiana, 1805–1812 Territory of Missouri, 1812–1821 Territory of Michigan, 1805–1837 Territory of Wisconsin, 1836–1848 U.
S. territories that encompassed land, part of the Territory of Iowa: Territory of Minnesota, 1849–1858 Territory of Dakota, 1861–1889 U. S. states that encompass land, once part of the Territory of Iowa: State of Iowa, 1846 State of Minnesota, 1858 State of North Dakota, 1889 State of South Dakota, 1889 Template:Coord missing:United States
Ignatius L. Donnelly
Ignatius Loyola Donnelly was a U. S. Congressman, populist writer, amateur scientist, he is known now for his fringe theories concerning Atlantis and Shakespearean authorship, which many modern historians consider to be pseudoscience and pseudohistory. Donnelly's work corresponds to the writings of late 19th and early 20th century figures such as Helena Blavatsky, Rudolf Steiner, James Churchward. Donnelly was the son of Philip Carrol Donnelly, an Irish Catholic immigrant who had settled in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, his sister was the writer Eleanor C. Donnelly. On June 29, 1826, Philip had married Catherine Gavin, a second generation American of Irish ancestry. After starting as a peddler, Philip studied medicine at the Philadelphia College of Medicine, he contracted typhus from a patient and died at age 31, leaving his wife with five children. Catherine provided for her children by operating a pawn shop. Ignatius, her youngest son, was admitted to the prestigious Central High School, the second oldest public high school in the United States.
There he studied under the presidency of John S. Hart, excelling in literature. Donnelly decided to become a lawyer, became a clerk for Benjamin Brewster, who became Attorney-General of the United States. Donnelly was admitted to the bar in 1852. In 1855, he married Katherine McCaffrey. In 1855, he resigned his clerkship, entered politics, participated in communal home building schemes, he quit the Catholic Church some time in the 1850s, thereafter was never active in any religious group. Donnelly moved to the Minnesota Territory in 1857 amidst rumors of financial scandal, there he settled in Dakota County, he initiated. However, the Panic of 1857 doomed the attempt at a cooperative farm and community, left Donnelly in debt, his wife Katherine died in 1894. In 1898, he married Marian Hanson. Donnelly died on January 1, 1901, in Minneapolis, age 69 years, he is buried at Calvary Cemetery in Minnesota. His personal papers are archived at the Minnesota Historical Society. Donnelly entered politics and was lieutenant governor of Minnesota from 1860–1863.
He was a Radical Republican Congressman from Minnesota in the 38th, 39th, 40th congresses, a state senator from 1874–1878 and 1891-1894 and a state representative from 1887-1888 and 1897-1898. As a legislator, he advocated extending the powers of the Freedmen's Bureau to provide education for freedmen so that they could protect themselves once the bureau was withdrawn. Donnelly was an early supporter of women's suffrage. After leaving the Minnesota State Senate in 1878, he returned to his law writing. In 1877, Donnelly spoke at a meeting of 10,000 people where he read his preamble to the conference platform; the document of twelve short paragraphs, as altered for the party’s first nominating convention in Omaha that July, was the pithiest—and soon became the most circulated—statement of the Populist credo. Donnelly talked about the corruption of politics and voting, newspapers giving out false and bias material, how the Populists needed to take back the country, their own. In 1882, he published Atlantis: his best known work.
It details theories concerning the mythical lost continent of Atlantis. The book sold well, is credited with initiating the theme of Atlantis as an antediluvian civilization that became such a feature of popular literature during the 20th century, contributed to the emergence of Mayanism. Donnelly suggested that Atlantis, whose story was told by Plato in the dialogues of Timaeus and Critias, had been destroyed during the same event remembered in the Bible as the Great Flood, he cited research on the ancient Maya civilization by Charles Étienne Brasseur de Bourbourg and Augustus Le Plongeon, claiming that it had been the place of a common origin of ancient civilizations in Africa and the Americas). He thought that it had been the original home of an Aryan race whose red-haired, blue-eyed descendants could be found in Ireland. A year after Atlantis, he published Ragnarok: The Age of Fire and Gravel, in which he expounded his belief that the Flood had been brought about by the near-collision of the earth with a massive comet.
This book sold well, both books seem to have had an important influence on the development of Immanuel Velikovsky's controversial ideas half a century later. In 1888, he published The Great Cryptogram in which he proposed that Shakespeare's plays had been written by Francis Bacon, an idea, popular during the late 19th and early 20th century, he travelled to England to arrange the English publication of his book by Sampson Low, speaking at the Oxford Union, where his thesis "Resolved, that the works of William Shakespeare were composed by Francis Bacon" was put to an unsuccessful vote. The book was a complete failure and Donnelly was discredited. Donnelly made several other campaigns for public office during the 1880s, he made a losing campaign for Congress in 1884. In 1887, he campaigned for a seat in the Minnesota State Legislature as an Independent. During this period, he was an organizer of the Minnesota Farmers' Alliance. In 1892, Donnelly wrote the preamble of the People's Party's Omaha Platform for the presidential campaign of that year.
He was nominated for Vice President of the United States in 1900 by the People's
James Buchanan Jr. was the 15th president of the United States, serving prior to the American Civil War. A member of the Democratic Party, he was the 17th United States secretary of state and had served in the Senate and House of Representatives before becoming president. Buchanan was born in Pennsylvania, to parents of Ulster Scots descent, he became a prominent lawyer in Lancaster and won election to the Pennsylvania House of Representatives as a Federalist. In 1820, Buchanan won election to the United States House of Representatives becoming aligned with Andrew Jackson's Democratic Party. After serving as Jackson's Minister to Russia, Buchanan won election as a senator from Pennsylvania. In 1845, he accepted appointment as President James K. Polk's Secretary of State. A major contender for his party's presidential nomination throughout the 1840s and 1850s, Buchanan won his party's nomination in 1856, defeating incumbent President Pierce and Senator Stephen A. Douglas at the 1856 Democratic National Convention.
Buchanan and his running mate, John C. Breckinridge of Kentucky, defeated Republican John C. Frémont and Know-Nothing Millard Fillmore to win the 1856 election. Shortly after his election, Buchanan lobbied the Supreme Court to issue a broad ruling in Dred Scott v. Sandford, which he endorsed as president, he allied with the South in attempting to gain the admission of Kansas to the Union as a slave state under the Lecompton Constitution. In the process, he alienated both Republican abolitionists and Northern Democrats, most of whom supported the principle of popular sovereignty in determining a new state's slaveholding status, he was called a "doughface", a Northerner with Southern sympathies, he fought with Douglas, the leader of the popular sovereignty faction, for control of the Democratic Party. In the midst of the growing sectional crisis, the Panic of 1857 struck the nation. Buchanan indicated in his 1857 inaugural address that he would not seek a second term, he kept his word and did not run for re-election in the 1860 presidential election.
Buchanan supported the North during the Civil War and publicly defended himself against charges that he was responsible for the war. He died in 1868 at age 77, was the last president to be born in the eighteenth century, he is the only president to remain a lifelong bachelor. Buchanan wished and aspired to be a president who would rank in history with George Washington, by using his tendencies toward neutrality and impartiality. Historians fault him, for his failure to address the issue of slavery and the secession of the southern states, bringing the nation to the brink of civil war, his inability to address the divided pro-slavery and anti-slavery partisans with a unifying principle on the brink of the Civil War has led to his consistent ranking by historians as one of the worst presidents in American history. Historians who participated in a 2006 survey voted his failure to deal with secession as the worst presidential mistake made. James Buchanan Jr. was born in a log cabin in Cove Gap, Pennsylvania, in Franklin County, on April 23, 1791, to James Buchanan, Sr. a businessman and farmer, Elizabeth Speer, an educated woman.
His parents were both of Ulster Scot descent, his father having emigrated from Milford, County Donegal, Ireland, in 1783. One of eleven siblings, Buchanan was the oldest child in the family to survive infancy. Shortly after Buchanan's birth the family moved to a farm near Mercersburg, in 1794 the family moved to Mercersburg itself. Buchanan's father became the wealthiest person in town, having attained success as a merchant and real estate investor. Buchanan attended the village academy and, starting in 1807, Dickinson College in Carlisle, Pennsylvania. Though he was nearly expelled at one point for poor behavior, he pleaded for a second chance and subsequently graduated with honors on September 19, 1809; that year, he moved to Lancaster, which, at the time, was the capital of Pennsylvania. James Hopkins, the most prominent lawyer in Lancaster, accepted Buchanan as a student, in 1812 Buchanan was admitted to the Pennsylvania bar after an oral exam. Though many other lawyers moved to Harrisburg, after it became the capital of Pennsylvania in 1812, Lancaster would remain Buchanan's home town for the rest of his life.
Buchanan's income rose after he established his own practice and by 1821 he was earning over $11,000 per year. Buchanan handled various types of cases, including a high-profile impeachment trial in which he defended Pennsylvania Judge Walter Franklin. Buchanan began his political career in the Pennsylvania House of Representatives as a member of the Federalist Party; the legislature met for only three months a year, Buchanan's notoriety as a legislator helped him earn clients for his legal practice. Like his father, Buchanan believed in federally-funded internal improvements, a high tariff, a national bank, he emerged as a strong critic of the leadership of Democratic-Republican President James Madison during the War of 1812. When the British invaded neighboring Maryland in 1814, he served in the defense of Baltimore after enlisting as a private in Henry Shippen's Company, 1st Brigade, 4th Division, Pennsylvania Militia, a unit of yagers or light dragoons. Buchanan is the only president with military experience who did not, at some point, serve as an officer.
An active Freemason, he was the Master of Masonic Lodge No. 43 in Lancaster, a District Deputy Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania. By 1820, the F