Impeachment is the process by which a legislative body levels charges against a government official. It does not mean removal from office. Once an individual is impeached, he or she must face the possibility of conviction by a legislative vote, which judgment entails removal from office; because impeachment and conviction of officials involve an overturning of the normal constitutional procedures by which individuals achieve high office and because it requires a supermajority, they are reserved for those deemed to have committed serious abuses of their office. In the United States, for example, impeachment at the federal level is limited to those who may have committed "Treason, Bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors". Impeachment exists under constitutional law in many countries around the world, including Brazil, the Republic of Ireland, the Philippines, South Korea and the United States; the word "impeachment" derives from Old French empeechier from Latin word impedicare expressing the idea of becoming caught or entrapped, has analogues in the modern French verb empêcher and the modern English impede.
Medieval popular etymology associated it with derivations from the Latin impetere. Impeachment was first used in the British political system; the process was first used by the English "Good Parliament" against Baron Latimer in the second half of the 14th century. Following the British example, the constitutions of Virginia and other states thereafter adopted the impeachment mechanism, but they restricted the punishment to removal of the official from office; as well, in private organizations, a motion to impeach can be used to prefer charges. The Austrian Federal President can be impeached by the Federal Assembly before the Constitutional Court; the constitution provides for the recall of the president by a referendum. Neither of these courses has been taken; this is because while the President is vested with considerable powers on paper, they act as a ceremonial figurehead in practice, are thus hardly in a position to abuse their powers. The President of the Federative Republic of Brazil, state governors and municipal mayors may be impeached by the Chamber of Deputies and tried and removed by the Federal Senate.
Upon conviction, the officeholder has his political rights revoked for eight years—which has the effect of barring him from running for any office. Fernando Collor de Mello, the 32nd President of Brazil, resigned in 1992 amidst impeachment proceedings. Despite his resignation, the Senate nonetheless voted to convict him and bar him from holding any office for eight years, due to evidence of bribery and misappropriation. In 2016, the Chamber of Deputies initiated an impeachment case against President Dilma Rousseff on allegations of budgetary mismanagement. Following her conviction, she was replaced by Vice President Michel Temer, who had served as acting president while Rousseff's case was pending; the President of Bulgaria can be removed only for violation of the constitution. The process is started by a two-thirds majority vote of the Parliament to impeach the President, whereupon the Constitutional Court decides whether the President is guilty of the crime of which he is charged. If he is found guilty, he is removed from power.
No Bulgarian President has been impeached. The same procedure can be used to remove the Vice President of Bulgaria, which has never happened; the process of impeaching the President of Croatia can be initiated by a two-thirds majority vote in favor in the Sabor and is thereafter referred to the Constitutional Court, which must accept such a proposal with a two-thirds majority vote in favor in order for the president to be removed from office. This has, never occurred in the history of the Republic of Croatia. However, in case of a successful impeachment motion a president's constitutional term of five years would be terminated and an election called within 60 days of the vacancy occurring. During the period of vacancy the presidential powers and duties would be carried out by the Speaker of the Croatian Parliament in his/her capacity as Acting President of the Republic. Prior to 2013 the President of the Czech Republic could be impeached only for an act of high treason; the process has to start in the Senate of the Czech Republic which only has the right to impeach the president, this passes the case to the Constitutional Court of the Czech Republic which has to decide whether the President is guilty or not.
If the Court decides that the President is guilty the President loses his office and the ability to be elected President of the Czech Republic again. No Czech president has been impeached, members of the Senate sought to impeach President Vaclav Klaus in 2013; this case was dismissed by the court reasoning. In 2013 the constitution changed; the President can be impeached not only for high treason but for a serious infringement of the Constitution. The President of France can be impeached by the French Parliament for willfully violating the Constitution or the national laws; the process of impeachment is written in the 68th article of the French Constitution. A group
Pierre Van Cortlandt
Pierre Van Cortlandt was an American politician who served as the first Lieutenant Governor of New York. He was first elected to the New York Assembly in March 1768 and served in that body as the representative from Van Cortlandt Manor until 1775. Subsequently, he was a member of the Second Provincial Congress, 1775-1776, Chairman of its Committee of Safety, 1776, he sat for Westchester County at all four of the Provincial Congresses and was chosen to preside over the last three. On July 9, 1776, he was among thirty-eight delegates to ratify the Declaration of Independence at White Plains; as a Colonel, General, be commanded the Third Westchester Militia Regiment and was advanced to be a General. Gen. George Washington referred to Pierre Van Cortlandt as his most trusted friend and ally. With NY Gov. George Clinton away from the state in active military service, Lt. Gov. Van Cortlandt had full charge of the revolutionary government of the state and directed its entire war effort. On November 25, 1783 this earnest patriot accompanied General Washington on his triumphant ride into New York City.
He was made an original honorary member of the New York State Society of the Cincinnati on July 6, 1784. In 1787 he was elected President of the State Convention meeting in Poughkeepsie to ratify the Constitution of the United States, he was born in New York City, the son of Philip Van Cortlandt, Catherine de Peyster. Pierre's uncle Johannes de Peyster, Jr. was Mayor of New York City, 1698-1699. His great uncle Jacobus Van Cortlandt was Mayor of New York City, 1719-1720. In 1697, King William III granted by Royal Charter, Van Cortlandt Manor to his grandfather, Stephanus Van Cortlandt, it was a 86,000-acre tract stretching from the Hudson River on the west to the first boundary line between the Province of New York and the Colony of Connecticut, on the east, twenty English miles in length by ten in width, in shape nearly a rectangular parallelogram, forming, "The Manor of Cortlandt." The massive holding was acquired by direct purchase from the Indians, in part, by Stephanus van Cortlandt, a native born Dutch gentleman of New York, in part by others whose titles he subsequently bought, this tract, together with a small tract on the west side of the Hudson River opposite the promontory of Anthony's Nose, which he purchased from the Indians.
The Van Cortlandt Manor House was built sometime before 1732 but was not any owner's principal residence until Pierre moved there in 1749. In 1748, Pierre inherited from his father the Van Cortlandt Manor House and significant surrounding lands, he organized the Croton lands to develop income-producing tenant farms. Pierre maintained lands as a farmer/planter. Upon the survey of the Manor of Cortlandt and lands adjoining constituted a portion of Front Lot No. 10, the river portion lot, bequeathed to Gertrude Beekman, Pierre's aunt and daughter and devisee of Stephanus Van Cortlandt. It was on 340 acres of Gertrude's land where Pierre built farm. Two miles to the north was Front Lot No. 10, on which another Van Cortlandt mansion, was built, near the bay the Fort Independence Hotel. Fort Independence was located on the high bluff on the western end of Roa Hook. Mrs. Gertrude Beekman, one of the original heirs of the first Lord of the Manor, died on March 23, 1777, leaving what was known as the "Peekskill estate" to her great nephew, Pierre's son Gilbert L. Van Cortlandt.
It comprised that part of the manor lying on the river from the line of Putnam County and two tracts of land in Peekskill being about 340 acres, embracing Anthony's Nose, Roa Houk and the large estate on which, in years, was the residence of Pierre Van Cortlandt, Jr. where a spacious mansion was built about 1769. These properties were inherited and occupied by General Pierre Van Cortlandt, Jr. the Lt. Governor's son, Pierre, III, deriving title to this portion of the ancient Manor from Pierre's son Gilbert, heir of his great-aunt Gertrude Beekman. "The situation of the Van Cortlandt estate is fine, covering, as it does, some of the most graceful undulations of a hilly district, diversified with the richest scenery. The old brick mansion erected A. D. 1773, occupies a sequestered and romantic spot on the north side of the post road above the vale of Annsville." In 1749, Pierre turned the family's simple hunting lodge into an elegant residence known as Van Cortlandt Manor House, adding the upper stories and porches.
The house remained in the Van Cortlandt family until 1945 and was purchased in 1953 by John D. Rockefeller Jr. to assure its preservation. The restored manor house was designated as a National Historic Landmark in 1961. During the American Revolutionary War Pierre entertained Washington, Lafayette, von Steuben and other generals at the Manor House.
Vice President of the United States
The Vice President of the United States is the second-highest officer in the executive branch of the U. S. federal government, after the President of the United States, ranks first in the presidential line of succession. The Vice President is an officer in the legislative branch, as President of the Senate. In this capacity, the Vice President presides over Senate deliberations, but may not vote except to cast a tie-breaking vote; the Vice President presides over joint sessions of Congress. The Vice President is indirectly elected together with the President to a four-year term of office by the people of the United States through the Electoral College. Section 2 of the Twenty-fifth Amendment, ratified in 1967, created a mechanism for intra-term vice presidential succession, establishing that vice presidential vacancies will be filled by the president and confirmed by both houses of Congress. Whenever a vice president had succeeded to the presidency or had died or resigned from office, the vice presidency remained vacant until the next presidential and vice presidential terms began.
The Vice President is a statutory member of the National Security Council, the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution. The Office of the Vice President organises the vice president's official functions; the role of the vice presidency has changed since the office was created during the 1787 constitutional Convention. Over the past 100 years, the vice presidency has evolved into a position of domestic and foreign policy political power, is now seen as an integral part of a president's administration; as the Vice President's role within the executive branch has expanded, his role within the legislative branch has contracted. The Constitution does not expressly assign the vice presidency to any one branch, causing a dispute among scholars about which branch of government the office belongs to: 1) the executive branch; the modern view of the vice president as an officer of the executive branch is due in large part to the assignment of executive authority to the vice president by either the president or Congress.
Mike Pence of Indiana is the current Vice President of the United States. He assumed office on January 20, 2017. No mention of an office of vice president was made at the 1787 Constitutional Convention until near the end, when an 11-member committee on "Leftover Business" proposed a method of electing the chief executive. Delegates had considered the selection of the Senate's presiding officer, deciding that, "The Senate shall choose its own President," and had agreed that this official would be designated the executive's immediate successor, they had considered the mode of election of the executive but had not reached consensus. This all changed on September 4, when the committee recommended that the nation's chief executive be elected by an Electoral College, with each state having a number of presidential electors equal to the sum of that state's allocation of representatives and senators; the proposed presidential election process called for each state to choose members of the electoral college, who would use their discretion to select the candidates they individually viewed as best qualified.
Recognizing that loyalty to one's individual state outweighed loyalty to the new federation, the Constitution's framers assumed that individual electors would be inclined to choose a candidate from their own state over one from another. So they created the office of vice president and required that electors vote for two candidates, requiring that at least one of their votes must be for a candidate from outside the elector's state, believing that this second vote could be cast for a candidate of national character. Additionally, to guard against the possibility that some electors might strategically throw away their second vote in order to bolster their favorite son's chance of winning, it was specified that the first runner-up presidential candidate would become vice president. Creating this new office imposed a political cost on strategically discarded electoral votes, incentivizing electors to make their choices for president without resort to electoral gamesmanship and to cast their second ballot accordingly.
The resultant method of electing the president and vice president, spelled out in Article II, Section 1, Clause 3, allocated to each state a number of electors equal to the combined total of its Senate and House of Representatives membership. Each elector was allowed to vote for two people for president, but could not differentiate between their first and second choice for the presidency; the person receiving the greatest number of votes would be president, while the individual who received the next largest number of votes became vice president. If there were a tie for first or for second place, or if no one won a majority of votes, the president and vice president would be selected by means of contingent elections protocols stated in the clause; the emergence of political parties and nationally coordinated election campaigns during the 1790s soon frustrated this original plan. In the election of 1796, Federalist John Adams won the presidency, but his bitter rival, Democratic-Republican Thomas Jefferson came second and became vice president.
Thus, the president and vice president were from opposing parties.
The Netherlands is a country located in Northwestern Europe. The European portion of the Netherlands consists of twelve separate provinces that border Germany to the east, Belgium to the south, the North Sea to the northwest, with maritime borders in the North Sea with Belgium and the United Kingdom. Together with three island territories in the Caribbean Sea—Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba— it forms a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands; the official language is Dutch, but a secondary official language in the province of Friesland is West Frisian. The six largest cities in the Netherlands are Amsterdam, The Hague, Utrecht and Tilburg. Amsterdam is the country's capital, while The Hague holds the seat of the States General and Supreme Court; the Port of Rotterdam is the largest port in Europe, the largest in any country outside Asia. The country is a founding member of the EU, Eurozone, G10, NATO, OECD and WTO, as well as a part of the Schengen Area and the trilateral Benelux Union.
It hosts several intergovernmental organisations and international courts, many of which are centered in The Hague, dubbed'the world's legal capital'. Netherlands means'lower countries' in reference to its low elevation and flat topography, with only about 50% of its land exceeding 1 metre above sea level, nearly 17% falling below sea level. Most of the areas below sea level, known as polders, are the result of land reclamation that began in the 16th century. With a population of 17.30 million people, all living within a total area of 41,500 square kilometres —of which the land area is 33,700 square kilometres —the Netherlands is one of the most densely populated countries in the world. It is the world's second-largest exporter of food and agricultural products, owing to its fertile soil, mild climate, intensive agriculture; the Netherlands was the third country in the world to have representative government, it has been a parliamentary constitutional monarchy with a unitary structure since 1848.
The country has a tradition of pillarisation and a long record of social tolerance, having legalised abortion and human euthanasia, along with maintaining a progressive drug policy. The Netherlands abolished the death penalty in 1870, allowed women's suffrage in 1917, became the world's first country to legalise same-sex marriage in 2001, its mixed-market advanced economy had the thirteenth-highest per capita income globally. The Netherlands ranks among the highest in international indexes of press freedom, economic freedom, human development, quality of life, as well as happiness; the Netherlands' turbulent history and shifts of power resulted in exceptionally many and varying names in different languages. There is diversity within languages; this holds for English, where Dutch is the adjective form and the misnomer Holland a synonym for the country "Netherlands". Dutch comes from Theodiscus and in the past centuries, the hub of Dutch culture is found in its most populous region, home to the capital city of Amsterdam.
Referring to the Netherlands as Holland in the English language is similar to calling the United Kingdom "Britain" by people outside the UK. The term is so pervasive among potential investors and tourists, that the Dutch government's international websites for tourism and trade are "holland.com" and "hollandtradeandinvest.com". The region of Holland consists of North and South Holland, two of the nation's twelve provinces a single province, earlier still, the County of Holland, a remnant of the dissolved Frisian Kingdom. Following the decline of the Duchy of Brabant and the County of Flanders, Holland became the most economically and politically important county in the Low Countries region; the emphasis on Holland during the formation of the Dutch Republic, the Eighty Years' War and the Anglo-Dutch Wars in the 16th, 17th and 18th century, made Holland serve as a pars pro toto for the entire country, now considered either incorrect, informal, or, depending on context, opprobrious. Nonetheless, Holland is used in reference to the Netherlands national football team.
The region called the Low Countries and the Country of the Netherlands. Place names with Neder, Nieder and Nedre and Bas or Inferior are in use in places all over Europe, they are sometimes used in a deictic relation to a higher ground that consecutively is indicated as Upper, Oben, Superior or Haut. In the case of the Low Countries / Netherlands the geographical location of the lower region has been more or less downstream and near the sea; the geographical location of the upper region, changed tremendously over time, depending on the location of the economic and military power governing the Low Countries area. The Romans made a distinction between the Roman provinces of downstream Germania Inferior and upstream Germania Superior; the designation'Low' to refer to the region returns again in the 10th century Duchy of Lower Lorraine, that covered much of the Low Countries. But this time the corresponding Upper region is Upper Lorraine, in nowadays Northern France; the Dukes of Burgundy, who ruled the Low Countries in the 15th century, used the term les pays de par deçà for the Low Countries as opposed to les pays de par delà for their original
Stephen Van Rensselaer
Stephen Van Rensselaer III was a New York landowner, militia officer, politician. A graduate of Harvard University, at age 21, Van Rensselaer took control of Rensselaerswyck, his family's manor, he developed the land by encouraging tenants to settle it, granting them perpetual leases at moderate rates, which enabled the tenants to use more of their capital to make their farms and businesses productive. Active in politics as a Federalist, Van Rensselaer served in the New York State Assembly and New York State Senate, as Lieutenant Governor of New York. After the demise of the Federalist Party, Van Rensselaer was a John Quincy Adams supporter, served in the United States House of Representatives for one partial term and three full ones. Van Rensselaer was a supporter of higher education, he was a civic activist and philanthropist, was a founder of Albany's public library and the city's Institute of History & Arts. Long active in the militia, Van Rensselaer attained the rank of major general. After Van Rensselaer's 1839 death, efforts by his sons to collect past due lease payments led to the Anti-Rent War, the break up and sale of the manor.
As the heir to and owner of one of the largest estates in New York, Van Rensselaer's holdings made him the tenth richest American of all time, based on the ratio of his fortune to contemporary GDP. Van Rensselaer was born in New York City, the eldest child of Stephen Van Rensselaer II, the ninth patroon of Rensselaerswyck, a large land grant in upstate New York awarded by the Dutch to his ancestor Kiliaen Van Rensselaer, his mother was Catharina Livingston, daughter of Philip Livingston, a signer of the Declaration of Independence. His family was wealthy, the Van Rensselaer Manor House was a rich childhood environment for the young boy to grow up in. However, his father died in 1769. Van Rensselaer was raised by his mother and stepfather, the Rev. Eilardus Westerlo, whom his mother married in 1775, his Livingston grandfather, his uncle, Abraham Ten Broeck, administered the Van Rensselaer estate after the untimely death of Van Rensselaer's father. From an early age, Van Rensselaer was raised to succeed his father as lord of the manor.
Stephen's younger brother Philip S. Van Rensselaer served as Mayor of Albany from 1799 to 1816 and again from 1819 to 1820. Van Rensselaer began attending Princeton College. On his 21st birthday, Van Rensselaer took possession of Rensselaerswyck, his family's 1,200 square mile estate, began a long tenure as lord of the manor. Van Rensselaer desired to profit from the land, but was reluctant to sell it off. Instead, he developed the land by granting perpetual leases at moderate rates; this meant that they could invest more in their operations, which led to increased productivity in the area. Over time, Van Rensselaer became landlord to more than 80,000 tenants, he proved to be a lenient landowner. One facet of the leases Van Rensselaer granted was the "quarter-sale"—tenants who sold their leases were required to pay Van Rensselaer one fourth of the sale price or one additional year's rent. Over time, this requirement became a point of contention between Van Rensselaer and the tenants, which in part led to the Anti-Rent War.
In 1791, Van Rensselaer was one of the incorporators of the Albany Library, which evolved over time into the Albany Public Library, he was chosen to serve on the board of trustees. In the First Census of the United States in 1790, it was noted. By the time of the 1830 Census, he had none, in keeping with New York's gradual emancipation law, under which all slaves in the state were freed by 1827. Van Rensselaer became an advocate of enabling African Americans to emigrate to colonies in Africa, such as Liberia, he served as a vice president of the Albany Auxiliary Society and the American Colonization Society. In 1797, Van Rensselaer was an organizer of the Albany and Schenectady Turnpike Company, served on its board of directors. A Federalist, Van Rensselaer was a member of the New York State Assembly from 1789 to 1791, the New York State Senate from 1791 to 1796, he was Lieutenant Governor of New York from 1795 to 1801, elected with Governor John Jay. Van Rensselaer, over his time in politics, acquired a reputation as something of a reformer, voting in favor of extending suffrage and going against much of New York's upper class in doing so.
In 1801, Van Rensselaer presided over the state constitutional convention, was the Federalist nominee for Governor of New York, lost to George Clinton, 24,808 votes to 20,843. He was one of the first to advocate for a canal from the Hudson River to the Great Lakes and was appointed to a commission to investigate the route in 1810, reporting favorably to the Assembly in 1811. Van Rensselaer served on the Erie Canal Commission for 23 years, fourteen of which he served as its president. In 1821, he was a me
Charles Poletti was an American lawyer and politician. He was the 46th Governor of New York in December 1942, was the first Italian-American governor in the United States. Born in Barre, Vermont to Italian immigrants, Poletti graduated from Barre's Spaulding High School, Harvard University, Harvard Law School, became an attorney in New York City, he became active in the Democratic Party, served as counsel to the Democratic National Committee, counsel to Governor Herbert H. Lehman, a Justice of the New York State Supreme Court. Poletti served as Lieutenant Governor of New York from 1939 to 1942, he lost his bid for reelection in 1942. In December, Lehman resigned as governor in order to accept an appointment with the United States Department of State. After leaving office, Poletti served in World War II. After the war, Poletti practiced law, served as a member of the New York State Power Authority, was an executive responsible for planning and overseeing execution of foreign exhibits at the 1964 New York World's Fair.
After retirement, he resided in New York. He died in Florida at age 99, was buried in Elizabethtown. At the time of his death, he was the earliest serving living former governor of a U. S. state. Aldo Charles Poletti was born in Vermont to Dino Poletti and Carolina Poletti. Dino Poletti worked as a stonecutter in a Barre granite quarry. Poletti intended to manage a bakery after graduating from Spaulding High School in 1920, but was encouraged by his principal to attend college, he attended Harvard University on a scholarship, worked at a variety of part-time jobs to finance his studies, including waiting tables, washing dishes, tutoring. He received his bachelor's degree in 1924, was admitted to Phi Beta Kappa, studied at the University of Rome, the University of Bologna and the University of Madrid. Poletti served on Harvard's Board of Overseers. Poletti graduated from Harvard Law School in 1928. After passing the bar exam Poletti joined the New York City firm of 1924 Democratic nominee for president John W. Davis.
In 1928 he was active in the presidential campaign of Governor Alfred E. Smith, in 1932 he became counsel to the Democratic National Committee. In addition, he was appointed to a seat on the state Board of Social Welfare. In 1933 Poletti was appointed on the recommendation of Felix Frankfurter to be counsel to Governor Herbert H. Lehman. Lehman relied on Poletti, asking him to move into the executive mansion, assigning him tasks from drafting legislation and speeches to lobbying for passage of New Deal measures advocated by the administration of President Franklin Roosevelt. In 1937 Lehman appointed Poletti to a vacancy as a Justice of the New York State Supreme Court, that year he was elected to a full 14-year term. In 1938, Poletti was elected Lieutenant Governor of New York on the Democratic ticket with Governor Lehman. In 1939 Poletti was elected to the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People's board of directors. In 1940 Poletti threw out the first pitch at a game between the New York Cubans and the New York Black Yankees, opening the season of the Negro National League with a speech advocating the integration of Major League Baseball.
Poletti was a candidate for the Democratic nomination for governor in November 1942. When state Attorney General John J. Bennett was selected, Poletti accepted the nomination for reelection as lieutenant governor. Bennett and Poletti were defeated by Thomas W. Wallace; when Governor Lehman resigned on December 3, 1942 to accept appointment as Director of Foreign Relief and Rehabilitation Operations for the United States Department of State, Poletti succeeded to the governorship. He served the shortest term of any New York governor. After leaving office Poletti was appointed special assistant to Secretary of War Henry L. Stimson. In this position Poletti worked on efforts to racially integrate the military. On Dec. 27, 1942 Poletti broadcast for the Office of War Information a radio address in the Italian language to the Italian people, urging them to "throw out both Hitler and Mussolini."In July, 1943 Poletti was assigned to serve as a U. S. Army civil affairs officer in Italy, selected because as a first-generation Italian-American who had studied in Italy, was fluent in Italian and had served as a state governor, he had an understanding of the local culture and sufficient stature to earn the respect of the Sicilian people.
Assigned to assist in restoring civil government in Palermo, he became responsible for rebuilding efforts throughout Sicily. As the Allies continued to liberate mainland Italy Poletti's command would follow to restore water and electricity, distribute food and water, begin the process of returning the fascist country to democracy; some sources state that while he served in Sicily Poletti's driver and interpreter was Mafia boss Vito Genovese, who had fled New York in the 1930s to escape prosecution for murder. Genovese was heavily involved in black market activities with other Sicilian Mafiosi, including Calogero Vizzini. Another Mafia boss, Lucky Luciano, is alleged to have once described Poletti as "one of our good friends." Poletti always stated that he had no connection to Genovese, the Mafia, or black market activities
A ticket refers to a single election choice which fills more than one political office or seat. For example, in Guyana, the candidates for President and Parliament run on the same "ticket", because they are elected together on a single ballot question — as a vote for a given party-list in the Parliamentary election counts as a vote for the party's corresponding presidential candidate — rather than separately. A ticket can refer to a political party. In this case, the candidates for a given party are said to be running on the party's ticket. "Straight party voting" is voting for the entire party ticket, including every office for which the party has a candidate running. In the era of mechanical voting machines, it was possible to accomplish this in many jurisdictions by the use of a "party lever" which automatically cast a vote for each member of the party by the activation of a single lever. Ticket Splitters are people who vote for candidates from more than one political party when they vote for public offices, voting on the basis of individual personalities and records instead of on the basis of party loyalties.
While a ticket does refer to a political party, they are not the same. In rare cases, members of a political party can run against their party's official candidate by running with a rival party's ticket label or creating a new ticket under an independent or ad hoc party label depending on the jurisdiction's election laws. Depending on the party's rules, these rogue members may retain the membership of their original party, thus two individuals from one political party can oppose each other under different tickets. This was the case for Taiwanese politician James Soong, who withdrew from the Kuomintang and ran against its official candidate, Lien Chan, for election as President in the 2000 elections. Political party factions may sponsor tickets in primary elections; when that occurs, several candidates one for each office for which the party's nomination is being contested in the primary, endorse one another and may make joint appearances and share advertising with the goal of securing the party's nomination for the office each is seeking for all ticket members.
This system was seen in the "Solid South" era in the Southern United States when there was no effective two party system and victory in the Democratic Party primary was considered to be "tantamount to election"