Charles Pinckney (governor)
Charles Pinckney was an American planter and politician, a signer of the United States Constitution. He was elected and served as the 37th Governor of South Carolina serving two more non-consecutive terms, he served as a US Senator and a member of the House of Representatives. He was first cousin once removed of fellow signer Charles Cotesworth Pinckney. Pinckney's descendants included seven future South Carolina governors, including men related to the Maybank and Rhett families. Pinckney was educated in Charleston, South Carolina, his father, Colonel Charles Pinckney, was planter. His mother was Frances Brewton, daughter of a goldsmith and his wife, sister of Miles Brewton and Rebecca Brewton Motte, who were both prominent in Charleston history, his father had signed a loyalty oath to the British after they occupied Charleston in 1780 during the American Revolutionary War. This enabled him to keep his property. On his death in 1782, the senior Pinckney bequeathed Snee Farm, a plantation outside the city, his numerous slaves, to his eldest son Charles.
Busy with the war and his political career, Pinckney did not marry until 1787. He married Mary Eleanor Laurens, daughter of Henry Laurens, the wealthy and politically powerful South Carolina slave trader, they had at least three children. Among his in-laws were Colonel John Laurens and U. S. Representative David Ramsay. A brother-in-law married the daughter of South Carolina Governor John Rutledge, he was elected as a delegate to the Third Continental Congress. He started to practice law in Charleston in 1779 at the age of 21. About that time, well after the War for Independence had begun, young Pinckney enlisted in the militia, he became a lieutenant, served at the siege of Savannah. When Charleston fell to the British the next year, the young Pinckney was captured, he did not return to Charleston until 1783. Pinckney was elected again to the Continental Congress following the war, serving 1784–87, he was elected to the state legislature for several terms. As a nationalist, he worked hard in Congress trying to ensure that the United States would receive navigation rights from Spain to the Mississippi River and to strengthen congressional power.
Pinckney owned several plantations and a townhouse in Charleston in addition to Snee Farm: Frankville and Hopton, situated on both sides of the Congaree River, five miles from Columbia. After Pinckney married Eleanor Laurens in 1788, the elegant three-storied brick home at 16 Meeting Street in Charleston became his principal residence. In the 1790 federal census, he is recorded as holding "14 slaves in St. Philip's and St. Michael's Parish, 52 slaves in St. Bartholomew, 45 slaves in the Orangeburg District", all in addition to Snee Farm, where his father's probate record had listed 40 slaves in 1787. Pinckney's role in the Constitutional Convention is controversial. Although one of the youngest delegates, he claimed to have been the most influential one and contended he had submitted a draft, known as the Pinckney Plan, the basis of the final Constitution; this was disputed by James Madison and some of the other framers. Pinckney submitted an elaborate form of the Virginia Plan, proposed first by Edmund Randolph, but it was disregarded by the other delegates.
Historians assess him as an important contributing delegate. Pinckney boasted that he was 24, allowing him to claim distinction as the youngest delegate, but he was 29 years old at the time of the convention, he attended full-time and and contributed to the final draft and to resolution of problems that arose during the debates. He worked for ratification of the constitution in South Carolina. At the Convention, Pierce Butler and Pinckney, both from South Carolina, introduced the Fugitive Slave Clause. James Wilson of Pennsylvania objected, saying that it was special protection for slaveholders, requiring all state governments to enforce it at taxpayers' expense, in places where no one or most residents did not own slaves. Butler withdrew the clause. But, the next day, a southerner reinstated the clause and the Convention adopted it without further objection; this clause was added to the clause. No Person held to Service or Labour in one State, under the Laws thereof, escaping into another, shall, in Consequence of any Law or Regulation therein, be discharged from such Service or Labour, but shall be delivered up on Claim of the Party to whom such Service or Labour may be due.
This clause was first applied to fugitive slaves and required that they be extradited upon the claims of their masters. Despite the clause, free states sometimes declined to enforce it; the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 increased requirements on the states and penalties for
Henry Laurens was an American merchant, slave trader, rice planter from South Carolina who became a political leader during the Revolutionary War. A delegate to the Second Continental Congress, Laurens succeeded John Hancock as President of the Congress, he was a signatory to the Articles of Confederation and President of the Continental Congress when the Articles were passed on November 15, 1777. Laurens had earned great wealth as a partner in the largest slave-trading house in North America and Laurens. In the 1750s alone, this Charleston firm oversaw the sale of more than 8,000 enslaved Africans. Laurens served for a time as Vice-President of South Carolina, as the United States Minister to the Netherlands during the Revolutionary War, he was captured at sea by the British, imprisoned for several years in the Tower of London. His oldest son, John Laurens, was an aide-de-camp to George Washington and a colonel in the Continental Army. Henry Laurens' forebears were Huguenots who fled France after the Edict of Nantes was revoked in 1685.
Henry's grandfather Andre Laurens left earlier, in 1682, made his way to America, settling first in New York City and Charleston, South Carolina. Andre's son John married Hester Grasset a Huguenot refugee. Henry was their third eldest son. John Laurens became a saddler, his business grew to be the largest of its kind in the colonies. In 1744 John Laurens sent Henry to London to augment the young man's business training; this took place in the company of Richard Oswald. John Laurens died in 1747, he married Eleanor Ball of a South Carolina rice planter family, on June 25, 1750. They had thirteen children, many of whom died in childhood. Eleanor died in 1770, one month after giving birth to their last child. Laurens took their three sons to England for their education, encouraging their oldest, John Laurens, to study law. Instead of completing his studies, John Laurens returned to the United States in 1776, to serve in the American Revolutionary War. Henry Laurens served in the militia, he rose to the rank of Lt. Colonel in the campaigns against the Cherokee Indians in 1757–1761, during the French and Indian War.
1757 marked the first year he was elected to the colonial assembly. Laurens was elected again every year but one until the Revolution replaced the assembly with a state Convention as an interim government; the year he missed. He declined both times. In 1772 he joined the American Philosophical Society of Philadelphia, carried on extensive correspondence with other members; as the American Revolution neared, Laurens was at first inclined to support reconciliation with the British Crown. But as conditions deteriorated, he came to support the American position; when Carolina began to create a revolutionary government, Laurens was elected to the Provincial Congress, which first met on January 9, 1775. He was president of the Committee of Safety, presiding officer of that congress from June until March 1776; when South Carolina installed a independent government, he served as the Vice President of South Carolina from March 1776 to June 27, 1777. Henry Laurens was first named a delegate to the Continental Congress on January 10, 1777.
He served in the Congress from until 1780. He was the President of the Continental Congress from November 1, 1777 to December 9, 1778. In the fall of 1779, the Congress named Laurens their minister to the Netherlands. In early 1780 he took up that post and negotiated Dutch support for the war, but on his return voyage to Amsterdam that fall, the British frigate Vestal intercepted his ship, the continental packet Mercury, off the banks of Newfoundland. Although his dispatches were tossed in the water, they were retrieved by the British, who discovered the draft of a possible U. S.-Dutch treaty prepared in Aix-la-Chapelle in 1778 by William Lee and the Amsterdam banker Jean de Neufville. This prompted Britain to declare war on the Dutch Republic, it becoming known as the Fourth Anglo-Dutch War; the British charged Laurens with treason, transported him to England, imprisoned him in the Tower of London. His imprisonment was protested by the Americans. In the field, most captives were regarded as prisoners of war, while conditions were appalling, prisoner exchanges and mail privileges were accepted practice.
During his imprisonment, Laurens was assisted by Richard Oswald, his former business partner and the principal owner of Bunce Island. Oswald argued on Laurens' behalf to the British government. On December 31, 1781 he was released in exchange for General Lord Cornwallis and completed his voyage to Amsterdam, he helped raise funds for the American effort. Laurens' oldest son, Colonel John Laurens, was killed in 1782 in the Battle of the Combahee River, as one of the last casualties of the Revolutionary War, he had supported enlisting and freeing slaves for the war effort, suggested to his father that he begin with the 40 he stood to inherit. He had urged his father to free the family's slaves, but although conflicted, Henry Laurens never manumitted his 260 slaves. In 1783 Laurens was sent to Paris as one of the Peace Commissioners for the negotiations leading to the Treaty of Paris. While he was not a signatory of the primary treaty, he was instrumental in reaching the secondary accords that resolved issues related to the Netherlands and Spain.
Richard Oswald, a fo
History of South Carolina
South Carolina was one of the original thirteen states of the United States. European exploration of the area began in April 1540, with the Hernando de Soto expedition, who unwittingly introduced new Eurasian diseases that decimated the local Native American population, because they lacked any immunity. In 1663 the English Crown granted land to eight proprietors of; the first settlers came to the Province of Carolina at the port of Charleston in 1670. They started to develop their commodity crops of cotton. Pushing back the Native Americans in the Yamasee War, colonists next overthrew the proprietors' rule, seeing more direct representation. In 1719, the colony was made a crown colony. In the Stamp Act Crisis of 1765, South Carolina banded together with the other colonies to oppose British taxation and played a major role in resisting Britain, it joined the United States of America. The Revolution was bloody and hard-fought in 1780–81, as the British invaded, captured the American army and were driven out.
In the early decades, the colony cultivated cotton on plantations of the sea islands and Low Country, along with rice and some tobacco as commodity crops, all worked by African slaves, most from West Africa. In the 19th century, invention of the cotton gin enabled profitable processing of short-staple cotton, which grew better in the Piedmont than did long-staple cotton; the hilly upland areas, where landowners were subsistence farmers with few slaves, were much poorer. With outspoken leaders such as John C. Calhoun, the state vied with Virginia as the dominant social force in the South, it fought federal tariffs in the 1830s and demanded that its rights to practice slavery be recognized in newly established territories. With the 1860 election of Republicans under Abraham Lincoln, who vowed to prevent slavery's expansion, the voters demanded secession. In December 1860, the state seceded from the Union. In April 1861, the American Civil War began when Confederate forces attacked the American fort at Fort Sumter in Charleston harbor.
From 1865 to 1877, South Carolina underwent Reconstruction. Congress shut down the civilian government in 1867, put the army in charge, gave Freedmen the vote and prevented ex-Confederates from holding office. A Republican legislature supported by Freedmen, northern Carpetbaggers and white Southern Scalawags created and funded a public school system, created social welfare institutions; the constitution they passed was kept nearly unaltered for 27 years, most legislation passed during the Reconstruction years lasted longer than that. By 1877, the white conservatives, called "Redeemers" had regained political power. In the 1880s, Jim Crow laws were passed that were severe in the state, to create public segregation and control movement of African American laborers. After 1890 all blacks lost their vote, not to regain it until 1965; the Civil War ruined the economy, continued dependence on agriculture made South Carolina one of the two or three poorest states for the next century. Educational levels were low as public schools were underfunded for African Americans.
Most people grew cotton. The more affluent landowners subdivided their land into farms operated by tenant farmers or sharecroppers, along with land operated by the owner using hired labor. More industry moved into the Piedmont area, with textile factories that processed the state's raw cotton into yarn and cloth for sale on the international market. Wave after wave of revivals made most people quite religious. Politically the state became part of the Democratic Solid South after whites regained control of the state legislature and governor's office in 1876. In the first half of the 20th century, many blacks left the state to go to northern cities during the Great Migration. Whites rigidly enforced segregation in the Jim Crow era, limiting African Americans' chances for education, free public movement, closing them out of the political system; the federal Civil Rights laws of the 1960s ended segregation and protected the voting rights of African Americans. The blacks had been affiliated with the Republican Party, but after 1964 became intensely loyal Democrats, while most white conservatives moved in the opposite direction.
The cotton regime ended by the 1950s. As factories were built across the state, the great majority of farmers left agriculture. Service industries, such as tourism and medical care, grew as the textile factories faded after 1970 with movement of jobs offshore. By 2000, the white majority of South Carolina voted solidly Republican in presidential elections, but state and local government elections were contested by the two parties; the population continued to grow, reaching 4 million in 2000, as coast areas became prime locations for tourists and retirees. The poverty rate of 13.5% is worse than the national average of 11.7%. Humans arrived in the area of South Carolina around 13,000 BC; these people were hunters with crude tools made from bones. Around 10,000 BC, they hunted big game. Over the Archaic period of 8000 to 2000 BC, the people gathered nu
The Federalist Party, referred to as the Pro-Administration party until the 3rd United States Congress as opposed to their opponents in the Anti-Administration party, was the first American political party. It existed from the early 1790s to the 1820s, with their last presidential candidate being fielded in 1816, they appealed to business and to conservatives who favored banks, national over state government and preferred Britain and opposed the French Revolution. The Federalists called for a strong national government that promoted economic growth and fostered friendly relationships with Great Britain as well as opposition to Revolutionary France; the party controlled the federal government until 1801, when it was overwhelmed by the Democratic-Republican opposition led by Thomas Jefferson. The Federalist Party came into being between 1792 and 1794 as a national coalition of bankers and businessmen in support of Alexander Hamilton's fiscal policies; these supporters developed into the organized Federalist Party, committed to a fiscally sound and nationalistic government.
The only Federalist President was John Adams. George Washington was broadly sympathetic to the Federalist program, but he remained non-partisan during his entire presidency. Federalist policies called for a national bank and good relations with Great Britain as expressed in the Jay Treaty negotiated in 1794. Hamilton developed the concept of implied powers and argued the adoption of that interpretation of the United States Constitution, their political opponents, the Democratic-Republicans led by Thomas Jefferson, denounced most of the Federalist policies the bank and implied powers. The Jay Treaty passed and the Federalists won most of the major legislative battles in the 1790s, they held a strong base in New England. After the Democratic-Republicans, whose base was in the rural South, won the hard-fought presidential election of 1800, the Federalists never returned to power, they recovered some strength through their intense opposition to the War of 1812, but they vanished during the Era of Good Feelings that followed the end of the war in 1815.
The Federalists left a lasting legacy in the form of a strong Federal government with a sound financial base. After losing executive power, they decisively shaped Supreme Court policy for another three decades through the person of Chief Justice John Marshall. On taking office in 1789, President Washington nominated New York lawyer Alexander Hamilton to the office of Secretary of the Treasury. Hamilton wanted a strong national government with financial credibility. Hamilton proposed the ambitious Hamiltonian economic program that involved assumption of the state debts incurred during the American Revolution, creating a national debt and the means to pay it off and setting up a national bank, along with creating tariffs. James Madison was Hamilton's ally in the fight to ratify the new Constitution, but Madison and Thomas Jefferson opposed Hamilton's programs by 1791. Political parties had not been anticipated when the Constitution was drafted in 1787 and ratified in 1788 though both Hamilton and Madison played major roles.
Parties were considered to be harmful to republicanism. No similar parties existed anywhere in the world. By 1790, Hamilton started building a nationwide coalition. Realizing the need for vocal political support in the states, he formed connections with like-minded nationalists and used his network of treasury agents to link together friends of the government merchants and bankers, in the new nation's dozen major cities, his attempts to manage politics in the national capital to get his plans through Congress "brought strong" responses across the country. In the process, what began as a capital faction soon assumed status as a national faction and as the new Federalist Party; the Federalist Party supported Hamilton's vision of a strong centralized government and agreed with his proposals for a national bank and heavy government subsidies. In foreign affairs, they supported neutrality in the war between Great Britain; the majority of the Founding Fathers were Federalists. Alexander Hamilton, James Madison and many others can all be considered Federalists.
These Federalists felt that the Articles of Confederation had been too weak to sustain a working government and had decided that a new form of government was needed. Hamilton was made Secretary of the Treasury and when he came up with the idea of funding the debt he created a split in the original Federalist group. Madison disagreed with Hamilton not just on this issue, but on many others as well and he and John J. Beckley created the Anti-Federalist faction; these men would form the Republican party under Thomas Jefferson. By the early 1790s, newspapers started calling Hamilton supporters "Federalists" and their opponents "Democrats", "Republicans", "Jeffersonians", or—much later—"Democratic-Republicans". Jefferson's supporters called themselves "Republicans" and their party the "Republican Party"; the Federalist Party became popular with businessmen and New Englanders as Republicans were farmers who opposed a strong central government. Cities were Federalist strongholds whereas frontier regions were Republican.
However, these are generalizations as there are special cases such as the Presbyterians of upland North Carolina, who had immigrated just before the Revolution and been Tories, became Federalists. The Congregationalists of New England and the Episcopalians in the larger cities supported the Federalists while other minority denominations tended toward the Republican camp. Catholics
William Moultrie was a South Carolina planter and politician who became a general in the American Revolutionary War. As colonel leading a state militia, in 1776 he prevented the British from taking Charleston, Fort Moultrie was named in his honor. After independence, Moultrie advanced as a politician. Moultrie was born in Charlestown in the Province of South Carolina, his parents were the Scottish physician Dr. John Moultrie and Lucretia Cooper, he was educated as a planter. Moultrie fought in the Anglo-Cherokee War. Before the advent of the American Revolution, he was elected to the colonial assembly representing St. Helena Parish. In 1775, Moultrie was commissioned as colonel of the 2nd South Carolina Regiment in the state militia. In December of that year, he led a raid on an encampment of runaway slaves on Sullivan's Island, killing 50 and capturing the rest; the island had served as the main landing point for African slaves imported to Charleston. In 1776, Moultrie's defense of a small fort on Sullivan's Island prevented Sir Henry Clinton and Sir Peter Parker from taking Charleston.
The Continental Congress passed a resolution thanking Moultrie. He was promoted to brigadier general and his regiment was taken into the Continental Army. Moultrie's skill failed to prevent the fall of Savannah, Georgia to the British in 1778, they occupied the city for the remainder of the war. He was captured in 1780. Thousands of slaves in the South escaped to join British lines in this city and elsewhere, as the Crown had promised them freedom if they left rebels; when the British evacuated from Charleston, they took many freedmen, resettling them in their colonies in the Caribbean and Nova Scotia, where they were known as Black Loyalists. Moultrie was exchanged for British prisoners. In the last year of the war, he was promoted to major general in 1782, the last man appointed by Congress to that rank. After the war he was elected by the new state legislature as 35th Governor of South Carolina; the state constitution prohibited men from serving two successive terms as governor, an effort to keep power in the hands of the legislature.
Moultrie was re-elected by the legislature in 1792, serving into 1794. In his years, he returned to manage his plantation, he wrote Memoirs of the Revolution as far as it Related to the States of South Carolina. After the war, the fort he had defended was renamed Fort Moultrie in his honor, it operated as a pivotal defense point. Fort Moultrie was used as an active post of the United States Army from 1798 until the end of World War Two. Moultrie County, Illinois is named in his honor. Ochlockoney, Georgia was renamed in 1859 as Moultrie when it was incorporated by the Georgia General Assembly. During his notable defense of the fort in 1776, a flag of Moultrie's own design was flown: a field of blue bearing a white crescent with the word LIBERTY on it; the flag was shot down during the fight. Sergeant William Jasper held it up to rally the troops, the story became known; the flag became an icon of the Revolution in the South. It was called the Liberty Flag; the new state of South Carolina incorporated its design into its state flag.
Bragg, C. L. Crescent Moon Over Carolina: William Moultrie and American Liberty 336 pages SCIway Biography of William Moultrie http://www.nga.org/cms/home/governors/past-governors-bios/page_south_carolina/col2-content/main-content-list/title_moultrie_william.html Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Moultrie, William". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press
Arnoldus Vanderhorst was a general of the South Carolina militia during the Revolutionary War and the 38th Governor of South Carolina from 1794 to 1796. Born in Christ Church Parish, Vanderhorst took up planting at his plantation on the eastern half of Kiawah Island in the Lowcountry, he participated in the Revolutionary War as an officer under the command of Francis Marion. During the war, he served in the South Carolina House of Representatives from 1776 to 1780 and in the South Carolina Senate from 1780 to 1786. After his service in the state Senate, Vanderhorst was elected mayor of Charleston for two terms, he was elected mayor of Charleston, South Carolina on September 12, 1785. In 1794, he was elected by the General Assembly as a Federalist to be Governor of South Carolina. During his administration, Vanderhorst pressed the legislature for the revision of the criminal code because the sentences were so harsh that jurors would grant acquittal. In addition, he advocated for a prison system similar to that of the state of Pennsylvania instead of the state jails that were of medieval barbarity.
After leaving the governorship in 1796, he returned to his plantation on Kiawah Island where he cultivated sea island cotton. Vanderhorst died on January 29, 1815 and he was buried at the St. Michael's churchyard in Charleston, he proposed the need for a state penitentiary. The state penitentiary named Central Correction Institution, open until 1994. Papers of the Vanderhorst family are held at the South Carolina Historical Society and Bristol Archives. Arnoldus Vander Horst House Vanderhorst Row Wallace, David Duncan. South Carolina: A Short History. University of North Carolina Press. Pp. 347, 415. SCIway Biography of Arnoldus Vanderhorst NGA Biography of Arnoldus Vanderhorst
Excellency is an honorific style given to certain high-level officers of a sovereign state, officials of an international organization, or members of an aristocracy. Once entitled to the title "Excellency", the holder retains the right to that courtesy throughout their lifetime, although in some cases the title is attached to a particular office, is held only for the duration of that office. People addressed as Excellency are heads of state, heads of government, ambassadors, certain ecclesiastics and others holding equivalent rank, it is sometimes misinterpreted as a title of office in itself, but in fact is an honorific that precedes various titles, both in speech and in writing. In reference to such an official, it takes the form Her Excellency; the abbreviation HE is used instead of His/Her Excellency. In most republican nation states, the head of state is formally addressed as Her Excellency. If a republic has a separate head of government, that official is always addressed as Excellency as well.
If the nation is a monarchy, the customs may vary. For example, in the case of Australia, all ambassadors, high commissioners, state governors and the governor-general and their spouses are entitled to the use of Excellency. Governors of colonies in the British Empire were entitled to be addressed as Excellency and this remains the position for the governors of what are now known as British Overseas Territories. In various international organizations, notably the UN and its agencies, Excellency is used as a generic form of address for all republican heads of state and heads of government, it is granted to the organization's head as well, to those chiefs of UN diplomatic missions, such as Resident Coordinators, who are accredited at the Head of State level, or at the lower Head of Government level. In recent years, some international organizations, such as the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, or the European Union, have designated their Permanent Representatives in third countries as Ambassadors, although they do not represent sovereign entities.
This is now accepted, because these Ambassadors rank after the UN representative in the orders of precedence of representatives of international organizations, the UN coming first as pre-eminent, the UN Resident Coordinators are now commonly but informally referred to in diplomatic circles as ambassadors, although the UN itself does not refer to them in this way. Judges of the International Court of Justice are called Your Excellency. In some monarchies the husbands, wives, or children, of a royal prince or princess, who do not possess a princely title themselves, may be entitled to the style. For example, in Spain spouses or children of a born infante or infanta are addressed as Excellency, if not accorded a higher style. Former members of a royal house or family, who did have a royal title but forfeited it, may be awarded the style afterwards. Examples are former husbands or wives of a royal prince or princess, including Alexandra, Countess of Frederiksborg, following her divorce from Prince Joachim of Denmark.
Count Carl Johan Bernadotte of Wisborg, who lost his succession rights to the Swedish throne and discontinued use of his royal titles in 1946 when he married the commoner Elin Kerstin Margaretha Wijkmark, was accorded the style. In some emirates, only the Emir, heir apparent and prime minister are called His Highness, their children are styled with the lower treatment of His/Her Excellency. In Spain members of the high nobility, holding the dignity of grandee, are addressed as The Most Excellent Lord/Lady. In Denmark, some counts those related by blood or marriage to the monarch, who have entered a morganatic marriage or otherwise left the Royal Family have the right to be styled as Your Excellency, e.g. the Counts of Danneskiold-Samsøe, some of the counts of Rosenborg and the Countess of Frederiksborg. Excellency can attach to a prestigious quality, notably in an order of knighthood. For example, in the Empire of Brazil, it was attached to the highest classes, each time called Grand Cross, of all three imperial orders: Imperial Order of Pedro I, Imperial Order of the Southern Cross and Order of the Rose.
In modern days, Knights Collar and Knights Grand Cross of the Spanish Orders of Chivalry, like the Order of Charles III, Order of Isabella the Catholic, Order of Civil Merit, Order of Alfonso X the Wise, Royal Order of Sports Merit, Civil Order of Health, as well as recipients of the Grand Cross of Military and Aeronautical Merit are addressed as such. Furthermore, Knights Grand Cross of the Order of Saint Gregory the Great and the Order of St. Sylvester of the Holy See, Knights of the Order of the Golden Fleece, Knights Grand Cross of several other orders of high prestige, are addressed as Excellency. By a decree of the Sacred Congregation of Ceremonial of 31 December 1930 the Holy See granted bishops of the Roman Catholic Church the title of Most Reverend Excellency. In the years following the First World War, the ambassadorial title of Excellency given to nuncios, had begun to be used by other Catholic bishops; the adjective Most Reverend was intended to distinguish the religious title from that of Excellency given to civil officials.