Bill Lee (Tennessee politician)
William Byron Lee is an American businessman and politician serving as the 50th Governor of Tennessee since 2019. Elected in 2018, Lee campaigned as a business-oriented Republican. Prior to entering politics, he held various positions at a family business. Lee was raised on his family's 1,000-acre cattle farm in Franklin, Triple L Ranch. Lee entered Auburn University in Auburn, Alabama in 1977 and graduated in 1981, receiving a bachelor's degree in mechanical engineering. In college, Lee was a member of the Kappa Alpha Order, a fraternity known at the time for its use of Confederate imagery, a photo printed in the university's 1980 yearbook shows Lee wearing a Confederate military uniform at the fraternity's "Old South" party. In 2019, after his attendance came to light, Lee expressed regret for his participation, saying: "I never intentionally acted in an insensitive way, but with the benefit of hindsight, I can see that participating in, insensitive and I've come to regret it."Lee was named President and CEO of his family's home-services and construction company, Lee Company, holding the position from 1992 until 2016.
He served as Chairman. Lee announced his campaign in the 2018 election for governor of Tennessee in April 2017. A self-described social conservative, Lee targeted pro-business Republicans. In the August 2 Republican primary election, he ran against congresswoman Diane Black, Knoxville businessman and former Tennessee Economic and Development Commissioner Randy Boyd, state House speaker Beth Harwell. Considered a long-shot candidate for the nomination, Lee's standing in the polls increased as Boyd and Black launched negative advertising against each other. Lee won the August 2 Republican primary election with 291,414 votes. Lee defeated the Democratic nominee, former Nashville mayor Karl Dean, in the November 6 general election, receiving 1,336,106 votes to Dean's 864,863 votes. Lee has chaired and served on the committee of the Tennessee Prayer Breakfast. Lee was sworn in on January 19, 2019, he issued five executive orders in his two months in office. Lee announced that the governor's website would include a new feature to allow citizens to give their feedback on bills that had passed through the General Assembly and were awaiting his signature or veto.
As governor, Lee has rejected proposals to expand the state's Medicaid program. He supports legislation introduced in the Tennessee General Assembly to ban abortion as early as six weeks into pregnancy, in conflict with the Supreme Court decision in Roe v. Wade. In February 2019, Lee announced that his budget proposal for the 2020 fiscal year would include a repeal of the 10% amusement tax levied by the state of Tennessee on gyms, fitness centers, health clubs. Lee argued. If enacted, the repeal would reduce state revenues by around $10 million. Lee lives in Fernvale with his second wife, whom he married in 2008, his first wife, Carol Ann, died in 2000 in a horseback riding accident. After his wife's death, Lee took extended time off from his construction company to raise his four children. Lee attends Grace Chapel Church in Leiper's Fork. Lee has served as a member of the board of trustees of Belmont University, chairman of the YMCA of Middle Tennessee, president of the Associated Builders and Contractors, board member of the Hope Clinic for Women board member and Men of Valor Prison Ministry.
Official governor website Official campaign website
Tennessee is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States. Tennessee is the 16th most populous of the 50 United States. Tennessee is bordered by Kentucky to the north, Virginia to the northeast, North Carolina to the east, Georgia and Mississippi to the south, Arkansas to the west, Missouri to the northwest; the Appalachian Mountains dominate the eastern part of the state, the Mississippi River forms the state's western border. Nashville is the state's capital and largest city, with a 2017 population of 667,560. Tennessee's second largest city is Memphis, which had a population of 652,236 in 2017; the state of Tennessee is rooted in the Watauga Association, a 1772 frontier pact regarded as the first constitutional government west of the Appalachians. What is now Tennessee was part of North Carolina, part of the Southwest Territory. Tennessee was admitted to the Union as the 16th state on June 1, 1796. Tennessee was the last state to leave the Union and join the Confederacy at the outbreak of the American Civil War in 1861.
Occupied by Union forces from 1862, it was the first state to be readmitted to the Union at the end of the war. Tennessee furnished more soldiers for the Confederate Army than any other state besides Virginia, more soldiers for the Union Army than the rest of the Confederacy combined. Beginning during Reconstruction, it had competitive party politics, but a Democratic takeover in the late 1880s resulted in passage of disenfranchisement laws that excluded most blacks and many poor whites from voting; this reduced competition in politics in the state until after passage of civil rights legislation in the mid-20th century. In the 20th century, Tennessee transitioned from an agrarian economy to a more diversified economy, aided by massive federal investment in the Tennessee Valley Authority and, in the early 1940s, the city of Oak Ridge; this city was established to house the Manhattan Project's uranium enrichment facilities, helping to build the world's first atomic bombs, two of which were dropped on Imperial Japan near the end of World War II.
Tennessee's major industries include agriculture and tourism. Poultry and cattle are the state's primary agricultural products, major manufacturing exports include chemicals, transportation equipment, electrical equipment; the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, the nation's most visited national park, is headquartered in the eastern part of the state, a section of the Appalachian Trail follows the Tennessee-North Carolina border. Other major tourist attractions include the Tennessee Aquarium in Chattanooga; the earliest variant of the name that became Tennessee was recorded by Captain Juan Pardo, the Spanish explorer, when he and his men passed through an American Indian village named "Tanasqui" in 1567 while traveling inland from South Carolina. In the early 18th century, British traders encountered a Cherokee town named Tanasi in present-day Monroe County, Tennessee; the town was located on a river of the same name, appears on maps as early as 1725. It is not known whether this was the same town as the one encountered by Juan Pardo, although recent research suggests that Pardo's "Tanasqui" was located at the confluence of the Pigeon River and the French Broad River, near modern Newport.
The meaning and origin of the word are uncertain. Some accounts suggest, it has been said to mean "meeting place", "winding river", or "river of the great bend". According to ethnographer James Mooney, the name "can not be analyzed" and its meaning is lost; the modern spelling, Tennessee, is attributed to James Glen, the governor of South Carolina, who used this spelling in his official correspondence during the 1750s. The spelling was popularized by the publication of Henry Timberlake's "Draught of the Cherokee Country" in 1765. In 1788, North Carolina created "Tennessee County", the third county to be established in what is now Middle Tennessee; when a constitutional convention met in 1796 to organize a new state out of the Southwest Territory, it adopted "Tennessee" as the name of the state. Tennessee is known as The Volunteer State, a nickname some claimed was earned during the War of 1812 because of the prominent role played by volunteer soldiers from Tennessee during the Battle of New Orleans.
Other sources differ on the origin of the state nickname. This explanation is more because President Polk's call for 2,600 nationwide volunteers at the beginning of the Mexican–American War resulted in 30,000 volunteers from Tennessee alone in response to the death of Davy Crockett and appeals by former Tennessee Governor and Texas politician, Sam Houston. Tennessee borders eight other states: Virginia to the north. Tennessee is tied with Missouri as the state bordering the most other states; the state is trisected by the Tennessee River. The highest point in the state is Clingmans Dome at 6,643 feet (
Willie Blount was an American politician who served as Governor of Tennessee from 1809 to 1815. Blount's efforts to raise funds and soldiers during the War of 1812 earned Tennessee the nickname, "Volunteer State." He was the younger half-brother of William Blount. Willie was born at Blount Hall in Bertie County in the Province of North Carolina, to Jacob Blount and his second wife, Hannah Salter Blount, he studied at the College of King's College. He read law with Judge John Sitgreaves in New Bern, North Carolina, in the 1780s, was admitted to the North Carolina bar. In 1790, Willie's brother, was appointed governor of the newly created Southwest Territory, Willie accompanied him to the new territory to serve as his private secretary; when Tennessee was admitted as a state in 1796, the state legislature appointed Willie Blount to the Superior Court of Law and Equity, though he either declined the appointment or resigned before issuing any opinions. Following William Blount's death in 1800, Willie Blount took charge of the family finances, discovered that his brother's risky land investments had left the family in debt.
In 1802, he moved to Montgomery County, where he established a large plantation, began restoring the family's financial affairs. He represented Montgomery County in the Tennessee House of Representatives from 1807 to 1809. In 1809, Blount ran for governor against former U. S. senator and frontiersman, William Cocke. Population shifts had begun to favor Middle and West Tennessee over Cocke's home of East Tennessee, Blount won the election, 13,686 votes to 8,435, he was reelected without opposition in 1811 and 1813. Like his predecessors and Archibald Roane, much of Blount's governorship was spent dealing with conflicts between Indians and white settlers, he persistently sought to acquire land from the Cherokee and Chickasaw, attempted to suppress the activities of hostile Choctaws and Creeks. Early in his term, he suggested in a letter to Secretary of War William Eustis that the Cherokee be relocated to lands west of the Mississippi River, an act carried out two decades by President Andrew Jackson.
He blamed northern tribes for encouraging the Creeks to harass white settlers, at one point requested Eustis send troops to sever communications between northern and southern tribes. During Blount's tenure, Tennessee was divided into five judicial districts, he signed anti-counterfeiting measures, enacted legislation to settle conflicting land claims from Tennessee's pre-statehood period. Blount sought navigational improvements, overseeing the completion of the Cumberland Turnpike, calling for a navigable waterway from Tennessee to Mobile, Alabama. During his second and third terms, Blount was occupied with the War of 1812. During the first few months of the war, he struggled with a lack of communication with the War Department as he awaited permission to order the militia south to New Orleans. Following the Fort Mims massacre in 1813, a call to arms issued by Blount was met by 3,500 volunteers; these were divided into two divisions led by Jackson and John Cocke, ordered south to suppress the hostile Creek tribes.
Blount managed to raise over $300,000 for an astonishing sum of money for the time. The surprising number of volunteers earned Tennessee the nickname, "Volunteer State."At the end of the War of 1812, Blount was at the height of his popularity. Historian J. G. M. Ramsey wrote, "Willie's popularity with the masses has been equalled." In 1815, constitutional term limits prevented him from seeking a fourth consecutive term. In 1827, Blount ran for governor against Congressman Sam Houston and ex-Congressman Newton Cannon, but placed a distant third, winning just 1,784 votes to 44,243 for Houston and 32,929 for Cannon. In 1834, Blount represented Montgomery County at the state constitutional convention, which drafted a new document to replace the one in effect since the state had been admitted in 1796, which has many similarities to the 1870 constitution, still in effect. One of the chief differences between the 1834 constitution and its predecessor was greater powers being granted to the executive branch than in the earlier document.
Blount died in Nashville on September 10, 1835, is interred at Greenwood Cemetery in Clarksville. In 1878, the state placed a large monument on his grave. Blount married Lucinda Baker in 1802, they had Eliza Ann Blount and Lucinda Blount. Blount was the younger half-brother of William Blount, a signer of the United States Constitution and governor of the Southwest Territory. Another half-brother, Thomas Blount, was a congressman from North Carolina, a nephew, William Grainger Blount, represented Tennessee's 2nd district in Congress from 1815 to 1819. Willie Blount was the great-great grandfather of Harry Hill McAlister, who served as Governor of Tennessee in the 1930s. In 1803, Blount published a school textbook, A Catechetical Exposition of the Constitution of the State of Tennessee, printed by early Knoxville newspaper editor George Roulstone. Blount made plans to write a comprehensive history of the state, but this work was never completed. Blount County, Alabama, is named in Willie Blount's honor for his assistance during the Creek War.
Finding Aid for Governor Willie Blount Papers – Tennessee State Library and Archives
United States Senate
The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress, which along with the United States House of Representatives—the lower chamber—comprises the legislature of the United States. The Senate chamber is located in the north wing of the Capitol, in Washington, D. C; the composition and powers of the Senate are established by Article One of the United States Constitution. The Senate is composed of senators; each state, regardless of its population size, is represented by two senators who serve staggered terms of six years. There being at present 50 states in the Union, there are presently 100 senators. From 1789 until 1913, senators were appointed by legislatures of the states; as the upper chamber of Congress, the Senate has several powers of advice and consent which are unique to it. These include the approval of treaties, the confirmation of Cabinet secretaries, Supreme Court justices, federal judges, flag officers, regulatory officials, other federal executive officials and other federal uniformed officers.
In addition to these, in cases wherein no candidate receives a majority of electors for Vice President, the duty falls to the Senate to elect one of the top two recipients of electors for that office. Furthermore, the Senate has the responsibility of conducting the trials of those impeached by the House; the Senate is considered both a more deliberative and more prestigious body than the House of Representatives due to its longer terms, smaller size, statewide constituencies, which led to a more collegial and less partisan atmosphere. The presiding officer of the Senate is the Vice President of the United States, President of the Senate. In the Vice President's absence, the President Pro Tempore, customarily the senior member of the party holding a majority of seats, presides over the Senate. In the early 20th century, the practice of majority and minority parties electing their floor leaders began, although they are not constitutional officers; the drafters of the Constitution created a bicameral Congress as a compromise between those who felt that each state, since it was sovereign, should be represented, those who felt the legislature must directly represent the people, as the House of Commons did in Great Britain.
This idea of having one chamber represent people while the other gives equal representation to states regardless of population, was known as the Connecticut Compromise. There was a desire to have two Houses that could act as an internal check on each other. One was intended to be a "People's House" directly elected by the people, with short terms obliging the representatives to remain close to their constituents; the other was intended to represent the states to such extent as they retained their sovereignty except for the powers expressly delegated to the national government. The Senate was thus not designed to serve the people of the United States equally; the Constitution provides that the approval of both chambers is necessary for the passage of legislation. First convened in 1789, the Senate of the United States was formed on the example of the ancient Roman Senate; the name is derived from Latin for council of elders. James Madison made the following comment about the Senate: In England, at this day, if elections were open to all classes of people, the property of landed proprietors would be insecure.
An agrarian law would soon take place. If these observations be just, our government ought to secure the permanent interests of the country against innovation. Landholders ought to have a share in the government, to support these invaluable interests, to balance and check the other, they ought to be so constituted. The Senate, ought to be this body. Article Five of the Constitution stipulates that no constitutional amendment may be created to deprive a state of its equal suffrage in the Senate without that state's consent; the District of Columbia and all other territories are not entitled to representation allowed to vote in either House of the Congress. The District of Columbia elects two "shadow U. S. Senators", but they are officials of the D. C. City Government and not members of the U. S. Senate; the United States has had 50 states since 1959, thus the Senate has had 100 senators since 1959. The disparity between the most and least populous states has grown since the Connecticut Compromise, which granted each state two members of the Senate and at least one member of the House of Representatives, for a total minimum of three presidential electors, regardless of population.
In 1787, Virginia had ten times the population of Rhode Island, whereas today California has 70 times the population of Wyoming, based on the 1790 and 2000 censuses. This means some citizens are two orders of magnitude better represented in the Senate than those in other states. Seats in the House of Representatives are proportionate to the population of each state, reducing the disparity of representation. Before the adoption of the Seventeenth Amendment in 1913, senators were elected by the individual state legislatures. Problems with repeated vacant seats due to the inability of a legislature to elect senators, intrastate political struggles, bribery and intimidation had led to a growing movement to amend the Constitution to allow for the direct election of senators; the party composition of the Senate during the 116th Congress: Art
Robert L. Caruthers
Robert Looney Caruthers was an American judge and professor. He helped establish Cumberland University in 1842, serving as the first president of its Board of Trustees, was a cofounder of the Cumberland School of Law, one of the oldest law schools in the South, he served as a Tennessee state attorney general in the late 1820s and early 1830s, was a justice of the Tennessee Supreme Court in the 1850s and early 1860s. He served one term in the United States House of Representatives. In 1863, he never took office. Caruthers was born near Carthage, the youngest of seven children of Samuel and Elizabeth Looney Caruthers, his father had represented Sullivan County at the constitutional convention of the State of Franklin in the 1780s. After his death, Robert went to live with an uncle in Columbia, where he attended Woodward Academy, he attended Washington College near Jonesborough and Greeneville College in Greeneville, studied law under Judge Samuel Powell in Greeneville. Caruthers returned to Carthage in 1823 to practice law.
He served as the clerk for the Tennessee House of Representatives for the 1823–1824 term, worked as editor of the Tennessee Republican newsletter. In 1826, he moved to Lebanon and married Sally Sanders, a niece of Andrew Jackson's wife, Rachel Donelson Jackson; that same year, he was appointed attorney general for the Sixth Judicial District by Governor Sam Houston. He served in this position until 1832. In 1834, he was elected brigadier general in the Tennessee militia. In 1836, he and Alfred O. P. Nicholson published A Compilation of the Statutes of Tennessee, which remained the state's standard compilation of statutes for over two decades. In 1835, Caruthers was elected to the Tennessee House of Representatives, representing Wilson County, he served on the House Judiciary Committee, did not seek reelection. He was elected to the U. S. House of Representatives for Tennessee's 7th District for the 1841–1843 term. Once again, he served just one term, did not seek reelection. In 1844, he was the Whig elector for Tennessee's at-large district, as such, canvassed the state for unsuccessful presidential candidate Henry Clay.
In 1852, Caruthers was appointed by Governor William B. Campbell to fill the term of Nathan Green as Middle Tennessee's justice of the Tennessee Supreme Court; the following year, the state legislature voted to give Caruthers a full term. In 1854, after the state constitution was amended to allow popular election of justices, Caruthers managed to win reelection to the court. One of Caruthers' most important decisions on the court was his opinion in Rippy v. State, which involved killing in self-defense. In this decision, he rejected a literal interpretation of a statement in Judge John Catron's opinion in Grainger v. State, issued three decades earlier, that suggested a person did not need sufficient grounds to kill in self-defense, but needed to testify that there was imminent danger. Caruthers' opinion reinstated the "sufficient grounds" rule, he wrote of Grainger, "no case has been more perverted and misapplied by advocates and juries."Prior to the outbreak of the Civil War, Caruthers was a delegate to the Washington Peace Convention in February 1861, which sought to find a peaceful resolution to the sectional strife between the North and South.
He remained pro-Union until the Battle of Fort Sumter in April 1861, after which he aligned himself with the Confederacy. In August 1861, he resigned from the court to represent Tennessee in the Provisional Confederate Congress. On July 17, 1863, the state's Confederate leaders met in Winchester and nominated Caruthers for governor to replace Isham G. Harris, prohibited by the state constitution from seeking a fourth consecutive term. Caruthers was elected on August 6, but the state constitution required that the governor-elect take the Oath of Office before the General Assembly. Since the Union Army controlled most of Middle and West Tennessee at this time, the Assembly was unable to convene, Caruthers never took office. Confederates continued to recognize Harris as governor until the end of the war. Union forces, in the mean time, had installed Andrew Johnson as military governor. Cumberland University was established in Lebanon by the Cumberland Presbyterian Church in 1842. Winstead Paine Bone, in his book, A History of Cumberland University, wrote that Caruthers, a member of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church, "had more to do with the founding of Cumberland University than any other person."
He was appointed president of the school's first Board of Trustees in the Summer of 1842, helped the school secure a charter in December of the following year. He remained president of the Board until his death in 1882. In 1847, Caruthers and his brother, Abraham Caruthers, founded the Cumberland School of Law, one of the first law schools in the South; the school, which had an initial enrollment of seven students, held its first classes in Robert Caruthers' law office. As an instructor, Abraham Caruthers abandoned the lecture system, instead assigned a chapter from a law text, quizzed each student on the chapter the following day, considering this the best way to determine the areas in which a student was struggling, he held moot courts. During the Civil War, Nathan Green, Jr. whose father had been succeeded by Robert Caruthers on the Tennessee Supreme Court in 1852, managed to keep the school open. Caruthers joined the Cumberland School of Law's faculty as a Professor of Law in 1868, replacing Judge Henry Cooper.
In 1878, in memory of his brother, Abraham, he funded the construction
Constitution of Tennessee
The Constitution of the State of Tennessee defines the form, activities and fundamental rules of the U. S. State of Tennessee; the original constitution of Tennessee came into effect on June 1, 1796, concurrent with the state's admission to the Union. A second version of the constitution was adopted in 1835. A third constitution was adopted in 1870 and is the one still in use today, with subsequent amendments; the original Tennessee state constitution was not submitted to the voters for approval, but it was approved by US Congress, in conjunction with the resolution admitting Tennessee as a state. It went into effect on June 1796, when Tennessee entered the Union; the first constitution was criticized as giving the executive a full-time governor, insufficient authority and investing too much authority in the legislature a part-time body. That was cited as a primary reason for its replacement; the 1796 constitution did not create a state supreme court, providing only for "such superior and inferior courts" as the legislature should create, with judges elected by the legislature for indefinite terms.
In spite of its shortcomings, the original document had its admirers. Thomas Jefferson described Tennessee's as the "least imperfect and most republican of the state constitutions." The second Tennessee State Constitution, adopted in 1835, resulted from a state constitutional convention that convened in Nashville on May 19, 1834, with 60 delegates in attendance. William Carter, of Carter County, presided over the 1834 convention. Antislavery interests petitioned the convention to abolish slavery, rejected by the convention delegates; the constitution adopted increased opportunities for citizens to engage in the political process, but it limited suffrage to white males. To other southern states, such as Virginia, it disfranchised free black men, who had had the right to vote under the 1796 constitution; that followed. The second constitution provided for a state supreme court, with three judges, with one judge from each grand division of the state. Judges would serve 12-year terms; the constitution was ratified by voters in March 1835, receiving 42,666 votes for it and 17,691 against it.
The Tennessee General Assembly, on November 15, 1869, called for an election to be held in December 1869 for two purposes: to determine if a constitutional convention should be called to amend or replace the 1835 constitution and to elect delegates to that convention if the voters determined that it was to be held. The voters decided for the convention, which began on January 10, 1870; the convention adjourned on February 23, 1870, after adopting the constitution and recommending its approval by the voters in a special election, conducted on the fourth Saturday in March 1870. The third document was written as a response to the requirement for all ex-Confederate to adopt new constitutions explicitly banning slavery, it contains many provisions. It is longer than the federal constitution but is not long by the standards of state constitutions; this 1870 document stood unamended until 1953, according to the Tennessee Blue Book, was the longest period that any such document had remained in effect without amendment anywhere in the world.
The constitution's preamble is much longer than its counterpart in the federal Constitution. Much of that length is devoted to justifying the authority behind the new constitution: that the new constitution was created under the authority of the constitution of 1835, itself created under the authority of the 1796 convention. Article I, is Tennessee's bill of rights, it mimics many of the US Bill of Rights, but the provisions describing them are much lengthier. The provisions in this article state: The people of Tennessee are responsible for Tennessee's government; the people of Tennessee have the right to change any laws, constitution amendments, etc that they deem is necessary. Basing laws off of personal beliefs, political beliefs, institutional or religious beliefs does harm to all of man kind. Establishment of a state religion is banned and personal freedom of religion is inviolate. Test oaths except to the State or Federal Constitutions as qualifications for office or jury are illegal. Universal suffrage is granted.
Unreasonable searches and seizures may not be carried out. Bills of attainder may not be issued. Fair trial rights are granted, compelled self-incrimination is outlawed. Double jeopardy and cruel and unusual punishment may not be practiced. Ex post facto laws banned. No one will be punished without evidence.. Habeas corpus must be respected. Freedom of the press is guaranteed. Monopolies are illegal. Freedom of assembly is granted. In all cases the military is subordinated to the civil authority. Military law may not be levied except against people in active army service; the right to bear arms is granted, but the General Assembly may legislate against the wearing of arms in the interest of preventing crime. Soldiers may not be quartered in private houses during peacetime. Citizens may not be forced to perform in the militia. Orders of nobility or hereditary titles and rights are forbidden; the state's b
Whig Party (United States)
The Whig Party was a political party active in the middle of the 19th century in the United States. Four presidents belonged to the party while in office, it emerged in the 1830s as the leading opponent of Jacksonian democracy, pulling together former members of the National Republican and the Anti-Masonic Party. It had some links to the upscale traditions of the long-defunct Federalist Party. Along with the rival Democratic Party, it was central to the Second Party System from the early 1840s to the mid-1860s, it formed in opposition to the policies of President Andrew Jackson and his Democratic Party. It became a formal party within his second term, receded influence after 1854. In particular terms, the Whigs supported the supremacy of Congress over the presidency and favored a program of modernization and economic protectionism to stimulate manufacturing, it appealed to entrepreneurs, planters and the emerging urban middle class, but had little appeal to farmers or unskilled workers. It included many active Protestants and voiced a moralistic opposition to the Jacksonian Indian removal.
Party founders chose the "Whig" name to echo the American Whigs of the 18th century who fought for independence. The political philosophy of the American Whig Party was not related to the British Whig party. Historian Frank Towers has specified a deep ideological divide: The Whig Party nominated several presidential candidates in 1836. General William Henry Harrison of Ohio was nominated in 1840, former Senator Henry Clay of Kentucky in 1844, General Zachary Taylor of Louisiana in 1848, General Winfield Scott of New Jersey in 1852 and the last nominee, former President Millard Fillmore from New York in 1856. In its two decades of existence, the Whig Party had two of its candidates and Taylor, elected president and both died in office. John Tyler succeeded to the presidency after Harrison's death in 1841, but was expelled from the party that year. Millard Fillmore, who became President after Taylor's death in 1850, was the last Whig President; the party fell apart because of internal tension over the expansion of slavery to the territories.
With deep fissures in the party on this question, the anti-slavery faction prevented the nomination for a full term of its own incumbent President Fillmore in the 1852 presidential election—instead, the party nominated General Scott. Most Whig Party leaders quit politics or changed parties; the Northern voter base gravitated to the new Republican Party. In the South, most joined the Know Nothing Party, which unsuccessfully ran Fillmore in the 1856 presidential election, by which time the Whig Party had become defunct having endorsed Millard Fillmore's candidacy; some former Whigs became Democrats. The Constitutional Union Party experienced significant success from conservative former Whigs in the Upper South during the 1860 presidential election. Whig ideology as a policy orientation persisted for decades, played a major role in shaping the modernizing policies of the state governments during Reconstruction; the name "Whig" repeated the term that Patriots used to refer to themselves during the American Revolution.
It indicated hostility to the king. Despite the identical name it did not directly derive from the British Whig Party; the American Whigs were modernizers who saw President Andrew Jackson as "a dangerous man on horseback"—like a king—with a "reactionary opposition" to the forces of social and moral modernization. The Democratic-Republicans who formed the Whig Party, led by Kentucky Senator Henry Clay, drew on a Jeffersonian tradition of compromise, balance in government and territorial expansion combined with national unity and support for a Federal transportation network and domestic manufacturing. Casting their enemy as "King Andrew", they sought to identify themselves as modern-day opponents of governmental overreaching. Despite the apparent unity of Jefferson's Democratic-Republicans from 1800 to 1824, the American people preferred partisan opposition to popular political agreement; as Jackson purged his opponents, vetoed internal improvements and killed the Second Bank of the United States, alarmed local elites fought back.
In 1831, Henry Clay started planning a new party. He defended national rather than sectional interests. Clay's plan for distributing the proceeds from the sale of lands in the public domain among the states was intended to serve the nation by providing the states with funds for building roads and canals, which would stimulate growth and knit the sections together. However, his Jacksonian opponents distrusted the federal government and opposed all federal aid for internal improvements and they again frustrated Clay's plan. Jacksonians promoted opposition to the National Bank and internal improvements and support of egalitarian democracy, state power and hard money; the Tariff of Abominations of 1828 had outraged Southern feelings—the South's leaders held that the high duties on foreign imports gave an advantage to the North. Clay's own high tariff schedule of 1832 further disturbed them as did his stubborn defense of high duties as necessary to his American System. However, Clay moved to pass the Compromise of 1833, which met Southern complaints by a gradual reduction of the rates on imports to a maximum of twenty percent.
Controlling the Senate for a while, Whigs passed a censure motion denouncing Jackson's arrogant assumption of executive power in the face of the true will of the people as represented by Congress. The Whig Party began to take shape in 1833. Clay had run as a National Republican against J