A top hat, beaver hat, high hat, silk hat, cylinder hat, chimney pot hat or stove pipe hat, sometimes known by the nickname "topper", is a tall, flat-crowned, broad-brimmed hat, worn by men from the latter part of the 18th to the middle of the 20th century. By the end of World War II, it had become a rarity in ordinary dress, though it continued to be worn in specific instances, such as state funerals by those occupying prominent positions in the Bank of England, by certain City stock exchange officials and when passing between the Law Courts and Lincoln's Inn, London by judges of the Chancery Division and Queen's Counsel; as of the early 21st century, top hats are still worn at some society events in the UK, notably at church weddings and racing meetings attended by members of the royal family, such as Royal Ascot. They remain part of the formal uniform of certain British institutions, such as the boy-choristers of King's College Choir, they are worn with morning dress or white tie, in dressage, as part of servants' or doormen's livery.
The top hat was associated with the upper class, was used by satirists and social critics as a symbol of capitalism or the world of business. The use of the top hat persisted in politics and international diplomacy for many years, including at U. S. presidential inaugurations, the last being worn at the inauguration of John Fitzgerald Kennedy in 1961. The top hat forms part of the traditional dress of Uncle Sam, a symbol of the United States striped in red and blue; the top hat is associated with stage magic, both in traditional costume and the use of hat tricks. One such trick involving a top hat is the famous "Pulling a Rabbit out of a Hat" trick. Instances of this trick date back to Louis Comte who performed the trick in 1814. According to fashion historians, the top hat may have descended directly from the sugarloaf hat. Gentlemen began to replace the tricorne with the top hat at the end of the 18th century; the first silk top hat in England is credited to George Dunnage, a hatter from Middlesex, in 1793.
The invention of the top hat is erroneously credited to a haberdasher named John Hetherington. Within 30 years top hats had become popular with all social classes, with workmen wearing them. At that time those worn by members of the upper classes were made of felted beaver fur; the hats became part of the uniforms worn by postmen. Between the latter part of 18th century and the early part of the 19th century, felted beaver fur was replaced by silk "hatter's plush", though the silk topper met with resistance from those who preferred the beaver hat; the 1840s and the 1850s saw it reach its most extreme form, with ever-higher crowns and narrow brims. The stovepipe hat was a variety with straight sides, while one with convex sides was called the "chimney pot"; the style we refer to as the stovepipe was popularized in the United States by Abraham Lincoln during his presidency. It is said. One of Lincoln's top hats is kept on display at the National Museum of American History in Washington, DC. During the 19th century, the top hat developed from a fashion into a symbol of urban respectability, this was assured when Prince Albert started wearing them in 1850.
Whether it directly affected or was coincidental to the decline of the beaver trade is debatable. James Laver once observed that an assemblage of "toppers" resembled factory chimneys and thus added to the mood of the industrial era. In England, post-Brummel dandies went in for swooping brims, their counterparts in France, known as the "Incroyables", wore top hats of such outlandish dimensions that there was no room for them in overcrowded cloakrooms until the invention of the collapsible top hat. A silk top hat is made from hatters' plush, a soft silk weave with a long, defined nap; this is rare now, since it is no longer in general production since the 1950s, it is thought that there are no looms capable of producing the traditional material any more. The standard covering is now fur melusine as Christys' calls it. A grey flat fur felt, it is common to see top hats in stiff wool felt and soft wool though these are not considered on the same level as the silk or fur plush or grey felt varieties.
The standard crown shape nowadays is the'semi-bell crown'. Because of the rarity of vintage silk hats, the expense of modern top hats, the vintage/antique market is lively, with models in wearable condition hard to find. In the past, top hats were made by blocking a single piece of woo
A hat is a head covering, worn for various reasons, including protection against weather conditions, ceremonial reasons such as university graduation, religious reasons, safety, or as a fashion accessory. In the past, hats were an indicator of social status. In the military, hats may denote branch of service, rank or regiment. Police wear distinctive hats such as peaked caps or brimmed hats, such as those worn by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police; some hats have a protective function. As examples, the hard hat protects construction workers' heads from injury by falling objects and a British police Custodian helmet protects the officer's head, a sun hat shades the face and shoulders from the sun, a cowboy hat protects against sun and rain and a Ushanka fur hat with fold-down earflaps keeps the head and ears warm; some hats are worn for ceremonial purposes, such as the mortarboard, worn during university graduation ceremonies. Some hats are worn by members such as the Toque worn by chefs; some hats have religious functions, such as the mitres worn by the turban worn by Sikhs.
While there are not many official records of hats before 3000 BC, they were commonplace before that. The 27-30,000 year old Venus of Willendorf figurine may depict a woman wearing a woven hat. One of the earliest known confirmed hats was worn by a bronze age man whose body was found frozen in a mountain between Austria and Italy, where he'd been since around 3250 BC, he was found wearing a bearskin cap with a chin strap, made of several hides stitched together resembling a Russian fur hat without the flaps. One of the first pictorial depictions of a hat appears in a tomb painting from Thebes, which shows a man wearing a conical straw hat, dated to around 3200 BC. Hats were worn in ancient Egypt. Many upper-class Egyptians shaved their heads covered it in a headdress intended to help them keep cool. Ancient Mesopotamians wore conical hats or ones shaped somewhat like an inverted vase. Other early hats include a simple skull-like cap. Women wore veils, hoods and wimples. Like Ötzi, the Tollund Man was preserved to the present day with a hat on having died around 400 BC in a Danish bog, which mummified him.
He wore a pointed cap made of wool, fastened under the chin by a hide thong. St. Clement, the patron saint of felt hatmakers, is said to have discovered felt when he filled his sandals with flax fibers to protect his feet, around 800 AD. In the Middle Ages, hats used to single out certain groups; the 1215 Fourth Council of the Lateran required that all Jews identify themselves by wearing the Judenhat, marking them as targets for anti-Semitism. The hats were yellow and were either pointed or square. In the Middle Ages, hats for women ranged from simple scarves to elaborate hennin, denoted social status. Structured hats for women similar to those of male courtiers began to be worn in the late 16th century; the term'milliner' comes from the Italian city of Milan, where the best quality hats were made in the 18th century. Millinery was traditionally a woman's occupation, with the milliner not only creating hats and bonnets but choosing lace and accessories to complete an outfit. In the first half of the 19th century, women wore bonnets that became larger, decorated with ribbons, flowers and gauze trims.
By the end of the century, many other styles were introduced, among them hats with wide brims and flat crowns, the flower pot and the toque. By the middle of the 1920s, when women began to cut their hair short, they chose hats that hugged the head like a helmet; the tradition of wearing hats to horse racing events began at the Royal Ascot in Britain, which maintains a strict dress code. All guests in the Royal Enclosure must wear hats; this tradition was adopted at other horse racing events, such as the Kentucky Derby in the United States. Extravagant hats were popular in the 1980s, in the early 21st century, flamboyant hats made a comeback, with a new wave of competitive young milliners designing creations that include turban caps, trompe-l'oeil-effect felt hats and tall headpieces made of human hair; some new hat collections have been described as "wearable sculpture." Many pop stars, among them Lady Gaga, have commissioned hats as publicity stunts. One of the most famous London hatters is James Co. of St James's Street.
The shop claims to be the oldest operating hat shop in the world. Another was Davis of 6 Fish Street Hill. In the late 20th century, museums credited London-based David Shilling with reinventing hats worldwide. Notable Belgian hat designers are Elvis Pompilio and Fabienne Delvigne, whose hats are worn by European royals. Philip Treacy OBE is an award-winning Irish milliner whose hats have been commissioned by top designers and worn at royal weddings. In North America, the well-known cowboy-hat manufacturer Stetson made the headgear for the Royal Canadian Mounted Police and the Texas Rangers. John Cavanagh was one of the notable American hatters. Italian hat maker Borsalino has covered the heads of Hollywood stars and the world's rich and famous; the Philippi Collection is a collection of religious headgear assembled by a German entrepreneur, Dieter Philippi, located in Kirkel. The collection features over 500 hats, is the world's largest collection of cl
A cap is a form of headgear. Caps have crowns that fit close to the head, they are designed for warmth, when including a visor used for blocking sunlight from the eyes. They come in many shapes and sizes, various different brands. Ascot cap Ayam Baggy green Balmoral Baseball cap Beanie Bearskin Beret Biretta Busby Cap and bells Cap of Maintenance Casquette Caubeen Caul Coif Combination cap Coppola Cricket cap Deerstalker Do-rag Dutch cap Fez Fitted cap Flat cap Forage cap Gandhi cap Garrison cap Glengarry Greek fisherman's cap International cap Juliet cap Karakul Kepi Kippah Knit cap Kufi Lika cap M43 field cap Mao cap Monmouth cap Newsboy cap Nightcap Nurse cap Ochipok Papakhi Patrol cap Peaked cap Phrygian cap Rastacap Sailor cap Shako Shower cap Sindhi cap Snapback Sports visor Square academic cap Stormy Kromer cap Swim cap Tam o' Shanter Taqiyah, worn by Muslim males Toque Trucker hat Tubeteika Ushanka Utility cover Zucchetto Bonnet, until about 1700, the usual word for brimless male headgear Cap, metaphorical term List of headgear
A knit cap of wool is designed to provide warmth in cold weather. The knit cap is of simple, tapering constructions, though many variants exist; the wool knit cap was an common form of headgear for seamen, fishers and others spending their working day outdoors from the 18th century and forward, is still used for this purpose in Canada and other cold regions of the world. Being found all over the world where climate demands a warm hat, the knit cap can be found under a multitude of local names. Most beanie hats are tapered at the top; the stretch of the knitting itself hugs the head. They are sometimes topped with loose tassels. Knit caps may have a folded brim, or none, may be worn fitting the head or loose on top. A South American tradition from the Andes Mountains is for the cap to have ear flaps, with strings for tying under the chin. A special type of cap called a balaclava folds down over the head with openings for just the face or for the eyes or mouth only; some modern variants are constructed as a parallel sided tube, with a draw-string closure at one end.
This version can be worn as a neck-warmer with the draw-string loose and open, or as a hat with the draw-string pulled tight and closed. The pull-down knit cap was known in the army of the British Empire as a Templar cap. During the Crimean War, handmade pull-down caps were sent over to the British troops to help protect them from the bitter cold weather before or after the battle of Balaclava; the cap became popularly known a Balaclava helmet or just balaclava among the soldiers. In Scandinavia, caps resembling a typical knit cap with a pom-pom has been in use since the Viking period and earlier; the term means "top cap", refers to the pom-pom. The Rällinge statuette, depicting Viking fertility god Freyr shows him wearing a pointed cap with pom-pom. Early caps were sewn or made with nålebinding, but were knitted from the 17th century onwards, when knitting became known in Scandinavia. Inspired by the phrygian cap of the French revolution, it became ubiquitous during the 18th and 19th century.
It is still found in many of the Scandinavian folk costumes for men. The precursor to the modern tuque was a small, close-fitting hat, brimless or with a small brim known as a Monmouth cap. In the 12th and 13th centuries, women wore embroidered "toques", made of velvet, satin, or taffeta, on top of their head-veils. In the late 16th century, black velvet toques were popular with men and women. Throughout the 19th century, women wore toques small, trimmed with fur, bows, flowers, or leaves; the term tuque is French Canadian. Some etymologists think it comes from an Old Spanish word for a type of headdress—specifically, a soft, close-fitting cap worn about 500 years ago; the word tuque is related to the name of the chef's toque, an alternate spelling from Middle Breton, the language spoken by Breton immigrants at the founding of New France. In Modern Breton, it is spelled tok, it just means "hat". In Old Breton, it was spelled toc; the tuque is similar to the Phrygian cap, and, as such, during the 1837 Patriotes Rebellion, a red tuque became a symbol of French-Canadian nationalism.
The symbol was revived by the Front de libération du Québec in the 1960s. It is considered cold-weather outerwear and is not worn indoors. In Canadian English, knit caps are known as a tuque, a word related to the French word toque referring to a traditional headwear and now used for a type of chef's hat. Toque is commonly used across New England as well among the working class; the word is occasionally spelled touque. Although this is not considered a standard spelling by the Canadian Oxford Dictionary, some informal media polls have suggested that it is the preferred spelling by many Canadians. In some sections of Canada, a tuque with a brim on it worn by snowboarders, is nicknamed a bruque. A bobble hat or bobble cap is a knit cap that has pom-pom on top, it is similar to a watch cap. Bobble hats were traditionally considered utilitarian cold-weather wear. In the early 21st century they were considered popular only with nerds. A surprise rise in popularity, driven by the Geek-Chic trend saw them become a fashionable and, with a real fur bobble, luxury designer item.
In the late 20th century, in the United Kingdom they were associated with utilitarian unfashionability or with older football supporters, as they had been popular in club colours during the 1960s and 1970s. Along with the pin-on rosette and the football scarf, the bobble hat was seen as traditional or old-fashioned British working-class football regalia. Knit caps are common in cold climates, are worn worldwide in various forms, they have become the common headgear for stereotypical dockworkers and sailors in movies and television. Bill Murray wore this type of hat in The Life Aquatic with Steve Zissou as a parody of the red tuque worn by Jacques Cousteau. Famous media characters to sport a knit cap are Doug McKenzie. Michael Nesmith of The Monkees wore this hat in his television series, as did Jay in the films of the View Askewniverse, Robert Clothier's character "Relic" in the long-running Canadian TV series The Beachcombers, Hanna-Barbera's character Loopy de Loop wore a knit cap as well.
Michael Parks wore one as James "
A hood is a kind of headgear that covers most of the head and neck, sometimes the face. Hoods that cover the sides and top of the head, leave the face or open may be worn for protection from the environment, for fashion, as a form of traditional dress or uniform, or in the case of knights, an armoured hood is used for protection against bladed weapons. In some cases, hoods are used to prevent the wearer from seeing. Hoods with eye holes can be used to prevent the wearer from being identified, as in the case of Ku Klux Klan members, terrorists, or criminals such as robbers; the word traces back to PIE. Old English hod "hood," from Proto-Germanic *hodaz, from PIE *kadh- "cover"." The modern spelling was developed in the 15th century to indicate a "long" vowel, no longer pronounced as such. Hoods were either similar to modern hoods forming part of a cloak or cape, or a separate form of headgear. Hoods with short capes, called chaperons in French, were common in medieval Europe, evolved into big hats.
Soft hoods were worn by men under hats. Hoods have been used as part of uniforms for organizations such as the Ku Klux Klan. A hood to hide or control the wearer covers the whole head, with the result that the wearer can see little or nothing, like a blindfold, or it can be to prevent identification of the wearer, it may be used on or by a person, arrested or kidnapped, or about to suffer judicial execution. The hood may be a bag. Traditional women's hoods varied from close-fitting, soft headgear to stiffened, structured hoods or large coverings made of material over a frame which fashionable women wore over towering wigs or hairstyles to protect them from the elements. Today, fashion hoods are soft headcoverings which form part of robbing a larger garment, they can be pulled up over the head when left to hang down the back when not. They may be detachable to turn a winter overcoat into a summer one, or may be designed to be folded or rolled into a small pocket in the neck of the garment when not in use.
A familiar type of soft and smooth fashion hood is the visored bubble rainhood, which consists of a 3-sectioned bucket-style bubble hood with its 2 side sections extending frontwards towards the front center of the neck. The distinguishing feature is a curvy, wavy swerve U-bowl shaped duckbill pouf visor, which serves as a shield to guard the eyes, so that rain water or snow does not get in contact with the face; the rainhood visor is sometimes flipped upwards, or cupped upwards into a pouf. Small clips are affixed to the sides along the hood next to the visor to help it keep its pouffed shape; the Inuit peoples of the Arctic are expert clothing manufacturers, the women's anorak, technically called an amauti, features a large hood used to shelter an infant on its mother's back. In Japan hoods covered with chainmail or armour plates were worn by samurai warriors and their retainers. Scuba divers who dive in cold water wear neoprene wetsuit hoods for thermal insulation or watertight latex rubber drysuit hoods to prevent water ingress.
They cover the whole neck except the face. A hood is a component of academic dress, an bright and decorative garment worn over a gown and used only at graduations or on other special occasions; the shape of hoods of universities and colleges in the UK and in many Commonwealth countries have been derived from those prescribed at the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge. Oxford bachelors and masters use a'simple' consisting of hood with a cowl but without a cape, whereas the University of Cambridge uses a'full' shape, with both cowl and square cape and substantial liripipe for all hoods. Other English universities adapt them. Newer universities, such as the University of Kent use a hood with triangular cape but with no cowl, with a distinctive V shaped segment denoting the faculty; the hoods of the University of Aberdeen have a rounded flat cape but no cowl. The pattern of hoods in the US follow an intercollegiate code; the length of the hood and the width of its velvet trim indicate the academic achievement level of the wearer.
Balaclava Bondage hood Burqini French Hood Gable hood Headscarf Hoodie Sartorial hijab Cucullus, a Latin word meaning hood
A kerchief known as a bandana or bandanna, is a triangular or square piece of cloth tied around the head or neck for protective or decorative purposes. The popularity of head kerchiefs may vary by culture or religion, may vary among Orthodox Jewish and Christian, Catholic and Muslim people; the neckerchief and handkerchief are related items. A bandana or bandanna is a type of large colourful kerchief, originating from the Indian subcontinent worn on the head or around the neck of a person, it is considered to be a hat. Bandanas are printed in a paisley pattern and are most used to hold hair back, either as a fashionable head accessory, or for practical purposes. Bandanas originated in India as bright coloured handkerchiefs of silk and cotton with spots in white on coloured grounds, chiefly red and blue; the silk styles were made of the finest quality yarns, were popular. Bandana prints for clothing were first produced in Glasgow from cotton yarns, are now made in many qualities; the term, at present means a fabric in printed styles, whether silk and cotton, or all cotton.
The word bandana stems from the Hindi words'bāndhnū,' or "tie-dyeing," and'bāndhnā,' "to tie." These stem from Sanskrit roots'bandhnāti,' "he ties," and Sanskrit'bandhana', "a bond." In the 18th and 19th centuries bandanas were known as bandannoes. Pañuelo or alampay in the Philippines were lace-like embroidered neck scarves worn around the shoulders over the camisa, they were traditionally made from abaca fiber. They were an intrinsic part of the traditional traje de mestiza women's attire, along with the tapis and the abaniko fans, they were worn in the 18th and 19th centuries but are used today in modern versions of the terno dress. Kerchiefs are worn as headdresses by Austronesian cultures in maritime Southeast Asia. Among Malay men it is known as tengkolok, it is worn traditional occasions, such as weddings and the pesilat. Citations References Yule, Henry, & A. C. Burnell (2013 Hobson-Jobson: The Definitive Glossary of British India.. ISBN 9780191645839 How to tie a bandanna
A helmet is a form of protective gear worn to protect the head. More a helmet complements the skull in protecting the human brain. Ceremonial or symbolic helmets without protective function are sometimes worn. Soldiers wear helmets made from lightweight plastic materials; the word helmet is diminutive from a medieval word for protective combat headgear. The medieval great helm covers the whole head and is accompanied with camail protecting throat and neck as well. A helmet was a helm which covered the head only and protected it from injury in accidents. In civilian life, helmets are used for recreational sports. Since the 1990s, most helmets are made from resin or plastic, which may be reinforced with fibers such as aramids; some British gamekeepers during the 18th and 19th centuries wore helmets made of straw bound together with cut bramble. Europeans in the tropics wore the pith helmet, developed in the mid-19th century and made of pith or cork. Military applications in the 19th-20th centuries saw a number of leather helmets among aviators and tank crews in the early 20th century.
In the early days of the automobile, some motorists adopted this style of headgear, early football helmets were made of leather. In World War II, Soviet, German and French flight crews wore leather helmets, the German pilots disguising theirs under a beret before disposing of both and switching to cloth caps; the era of the First and Second World Wars saw a resurgence of metal military helmets, most notably the Brodie helmet and the Stahlhelm. Modern helmets have a much wider range of applications, including helmets adapted to the specific needs of many athletic pursuits and work environments, these helmets often incorporate plastics and other synthetic materials for their light weight and shock absorption capabilities; some types of synthetic fibers used to make helmets in the 21st century include Aramid and Twaron. Helmets of many different types have developed over time. Most early helmets had military uses, though some may have had more ceremonial than combat applcations. Two important helmet types to develop in antiquity were the Roman galea.
During the Middle Ages, many different military helmets and some ceremonial helmets were developed all being metal. Some of the more important medieval developments included the great helm, the bascinet, the frog-mouth helm and the armet; the great seal of Owain Glyndŵr depicts the prince of Wales & his stallion wearing full armour, they both wear protective headgear with Owain's gold dragon mounted on top, this would have been impractical in battle so therefore these would have been ceremonial. In the 19th century, more materials were incorporated, namely leather and pith; the pith helmet and the leather pickelhaube were important 19th century developments. The greatest expansion in the variety of forms and composition of helmets, took place in the 20th century, with the development of specialized helmets for a multitude of athletic and professional applications, as well as the advent of modern plastics. During World War I, the French army developed the Adrian helmet, the British developed the Brodie helmet, the Germans produced the Stahlhelm.
Flight helmets were developed throughout the 20th century. A multitude of athletic helmets, including football helmets, batting helmets, cricket helmets, bicycle helmets, motorcycle helmets and racing helmets, were developed in the 20th century. Helmets since the mid-20th century have incorporated lightweight plastics and other synthetic materials, their use has become specialized; some important recent developments include the French SPECTRA helmet, Spanish MARTE helmet or the American PASGT and Advanced Combat Helmet, or ACH. As the coat of arms was designed to distinguish noble combatants on the battlefield or in a tournament while covered in armour, it is not surprising that heraldic elements incorporated the shield and the helmet, these being the most visible parts of a knight's military equipment; the practice of indicating peerage through the display of barred or grilled helmets first appeared around 1587-1615, the heraldic convention of displaying helmets of rank in the United Kingdom, which came into vogue around Stuart times, is as follows: Sovereign: a gold barred-face helm placed affronté Peer's helmet: silver barred-face helm placed in profile Knight's or baronet's helmet: steel helm placed affronté with visor open Esquire's helmet: steel helm placed in profile with visor closedEarlier rolls of arms reveal, that early heraldic helmets were depicted in a manner faithful to the styles in actual military or tournament use at the time.
Helmets portal Balaclava Cap Combat helmet Face shield Firefighter's helmet Helmet boxing The Stackhat "Helmets... A Medieval Note In Modern Warfare", August 1942, Popular Science evolution of military helmets