List of heads of state of Iran

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This article lists the heads of state of Iran since establishment of the Iran's modern Nation-State[1] on 1501 AD.

Heads of State of Iran[edit]

The Expansive Realm of Iran (1501–1736)[edit]

Safavid dynasty[edit]

No. Name Birth–Death Reign start Reign end Dynasty
Shah of Persia
1 Shah Ismail I Shah Ismail I.jpg 1487–1524 July 1501[a] 23 May 1524 Safavi
.
2 Shah Tahmasp I Shah Tahmasp.jpg 1514–1576 23 May 1524 14 May 1576 Safavi
Regency:
3 Shah Ismail II Shah Ismayil II.jpg 1537–1577 23 May 1576 24 November 1577 Safavi
.
4 Shah Mohammad Khodabanda Shah Mohammad Khodabanda- Sahand Ace.jpg 1532–1595/96 11 February 1578 1 October 1588 Safavi
.
5 Shah Abbas I Portraits du schah de Perse Abbas Ier (1571-1629).JPG 1571–1629 1 October 1588 19 January 1629 Safavi
.
6 Shah Safi Shah Safi I of Persia on Horseback Carrying a Mace- Sahand Ace.png 1611–1642 28 January 1629 12 May 1642 Safavi
.
7 Shah Abbas II Abbas II of Persia.jpg 1632–1666 12 May 1642 25 September 1666 Safavi
.
8 Shah Suleiman I Shah Suleiman.jpg 1648–1694 1 November 1666 29 July 1694 Safavi
.
9 Shah Sultan Husayn Sultan Husayn by Bruyn.jpg 1668–1726 6 August 1694 23 October 1722  Surrendered Safavi
.

Ghilji rebellion[edit]

10 Mahmud Shah SHAH-MAHMUD-HOTAK.jpg 1699–1725 23 October 1722 25 April 1725 Hotak
.
11 Ashraf Shah Ashraf Shah Hotaki 1725-1729.jpg 1700–1730 26 April 1725 13 November 1729 Hotak
.

Safavid restoration[edit]

12 Shah Tahmasp II Shah Tahmasp II.jpg 1704–1740 10 November 1722 2 September 1732 Safavi
He was crowned on 9 December 1729 after liberation of the Safavid Capital.
Reigned at exile:
13 Shah Abbas III Shah Abbas III Sahand Ace.jpg 1732–1740 2 September 1732 8 March 1736 Safavi
Regency:

Realm of Iran (1736–1796)[edit]

Afsharid dynasty[edit]

14 Nader Shah NaderShahPainting.png 1688–1747 8 March 1736 20 June 1747 Afshar
.
15 Adil Shah No portrait.svg 1719–1749 6 July 1747 29 September 1748 Afshar
.
16 Ebrahim Shah No portrait.svg 1724–1749 29 September 1748 May 1749 Afshar
.
17 Shahrokh Shah No portrait.svg 1734–1796 May 1749 30 December 1749 Afshar
Proclaimed as Shah at 30 September 1748 and one day later crowned at Mashhad.

Second Safavid restoration[edit]

18 Suleiman II No portrait.svg 1714–1763 13 January 1750 20 March 1750 Safavi
Proclaimed after deposing and blinding of Shahrokh Shah and crowned at 14 January 1750.
19 Ismail III No portrait.svg 1733–1773 29 June 1750 1773 Safavi
He was a Puppet ruler who raised to the throne by Ali Mardan Khan Bakhtiari and Karim Khan Zand as a front to legitimize their rule.[7]
Regency:

Afsharid restoration[edit]

(17) Shahrokh Shah No portrait.svg 1734–1796 9 May 1755 14 May 1796 Afshar
.

Zand dynasty[edit]

Wakil-al Raʿāyā
20 Karim Khan Karim Khan painting by Muhammad Sadiq.jpg 1705–1779 1773 1 March 1779 Zand
.
21 Abol-Fath Khan No portrait.svg 1755–1787 6 March 1779 May/June 1779 Zand
He and his younger brother Mohammad Ali Khan were Co-rulers.
22 Mohammad Ali Khan No portrait.svg 1760–1779 6 March 1779 19 June 1779 Zand
He and his elder brother Abol-Fath Khan were Co-rulers until May/June 1779.
(21) Abol-Fath Khan No portrait.svg 1755–1787 19 June 1779 22 August 1779 Zand
.
23 Sadeq Khan Image of sadiq khan zand.png ?–1781 22 August 1779 14 March 1781 Zand
.
24 Ali-Morad Khan Ali Murad Khan Zand.png ?–1785 15 March 1781 11 February 1785 Zand
.
Bagher Shah No portrait.svg ?–1786 12 February 1785 17 February 1785  Surrendered N/A
After the death of Ali-Morad Khan, Bagher Khan Khorasgani Governor of Isfahan proclaimed himself as Shah and mentioned himself in the Khutbah and on coins. He was defeated from the corps of Jafar Khan.[9]
25 Jafar Khan Ja`far Khan.png 1766–1794 18 February 1785 23 January 1789 Zand
.
26 Seyd Morad Khan Sayed Murad Zand.png 1766–1794 23 January 1789 10 May 1789 Zand
.
27 Lotf Ali Khan Lotf Ali Khan Zand.jpg 1766–1794 10 May 1789 20 March 1794 Zand
.
Shah of Iran
(27) Lotf Ali Shah Lotf Ali Khan Zand.jpg 1766–1794 21 March 1794 30 October 1794 Zand
.

Sublime State of Persia (1796–1925)[edit]

28 Agha Mohammad Shah MohammadKhanQajari.jpg 1742–1797 14 May 1796 17 June 1797 Qajar
Agha Mohammad decided to move his capital to the small town of Tehran on 1786.[10] He was formally crowned as Shah on spring 1796 at the Mugan plain, on his return after the conquest of Tbilisi.[11][12]
29 Fath-Ali Shah Fath-Ali Shah Qajar.jpg 1772–1834 17 June 1797 23 October 1834 Qajar
.
30 Mohammad Shah Possibly Abu'l Hasan Ghaffari, Sani' al-Mulk (active, 1814-1866). Portrait of a Nobleman or Royal Figure (Possibly Muhammad Shah Qajar), first half 19th century.jpg 1808–1848 9 November 1834 5 September 1848 Qajar
.
31 Naser al-Din Shah Naser al-Din Shah Qajar.JPG 1831–1896 13 September 1848 1 May 1896 Qajar
.
32 Mozaffar ad-Din Shah Persia past and present; a book of travel and research, with more than two hundred illustrations and a map (1906) (14763794285).jpg 1853–1907 2 May 1896 8 January 1907 Qajar
.
33 Mohammad Ali Shah Mohammad ali shah 210873.jpg 1872–1925 8 January 1907 16 July 1909  Surrendered Qajar
.
34 Ahmad Shah AhmadShahQajar2.jpg 1898–1930 16 July 1909 31 October 1925 Qajar
Reigned in exile: from 2 December 1923
Regency:

Imperial State of Iran (1925–1979)[edit]

No. Name Birth–Death Took office Left office Political Affiliation
Provisional Head of State
35 Reza Khan Reza shah uniform.jpg 1878–1944 31 October 1925 15 December 1925 Military
.
No. Name Birth–Death Took office Left office Dynasty
Shah of Iran
(35) Reza Shah Reza Shah Pahlavi after abdication in South Africa.jpg 1878–1944 15 December 1925 16 September 1941  Surrendered Pahlavi
.
36 Mohammad Reza Shah Shahanshah Aryamehr 2.jpg 1919–1980 16 September 1941 11 February 1979 Pahlavi
Reigned in exile:
No. Name Birth–Death Took office Left office Political Affiliation
President of the Regency Council of Iran
Jalaleddin Tehrani Jalal tehrani.jpg 1893–1987 16 January 1979 21 January 1979 Independent
He was elected on 14 January. He had resigned from his office as a condition to meet Ayatollah Khomeini on 22 January 1979[15][16]
Mohammad Ali Varasteh Mohammad Ali Varasteh.jpg 1895–1989 21 January 1979 11 February 1979 Independent
Vice President of the Council, Ruled as Acting President after the resignation of Tehrani.

Islamic Republic of Iran (1979–present)[edit]

Leader of the Revolution
37 Ruhollah Khomeini عکسی از خمینی.JPG 1902–1989 5 February 1979 3 December 1979 Independent
.
Supreme Leader of Iran
(37) Ruhollah Khomeini Portrait of Ruhollah Khomeini.jpg 1902–1989 3 December 1979 3 June 1989 Independent
.
38 Ali Khamenei Ali Khamenei crop.jpg 1939– 4 June 1989 Incumbent Independent[b]
.

Graphical timeline of overlaps[edit]

1722
1727
1732
1737
1742
1747
1752
1757
1762
1767
1772
1777
1782
1787
1792
1797
1802

Timeline of heads of state of Iran at 75 years of unstable governments (17221796)

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Is equivalent to Muharram 907 AH.
  2. ^ Resigned from Combatant Clergy Association after selection as Supreme Leader.[17]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Mikaberidze 2011, p. 432.
  2. ^ a b c Potts 2014, p. 230: "During the first nine years of his reign Shah Tahmasp was advised, in succession, by a Rumlu regent (Div Sultan Rumlu); a Triumvirate including a Takkalu (Chuha Soltan Takkalu) and an Ustajlu (Köpek Sultan Ustajlu) chief; a Takkalu (Chuha Sultan) who distributed land widely to members of his own tribe during his four years in office and was ruler of Iran in all but name; and a Shamlu (Husayn Khan Shamlu) who held his post for three years before being put to death in 1533 in alleged complicity with the Ottoman regime."
  3. ^ Mitchell 2009: "Ṭahmāsp's puppet status continued with his accession to the throne on 23 May 1524, and the self-appointed status of Div Solṭān Rumlu as the Shah's Vicegerent and the Empire's De facto ruler.."
  4. ^ Savory 1995: "Dīv Solṭān, by virtue of a testamentory disposition of the late Shah, retained the office of Amīr al-Omarā and was made Atābeg (Guardian) of the young prince Ṭahmāsb, who succeeded his father at the age of ten and a half. Dīv Solṭān thus became the De Facto ruler of the state... After a period of negotiation, a Triumvirate was formed consisting of Dīv Solṭān Rūmlū, Čūha Solṭān Takkalū, and Kopek Ostājlū, but civil war broke out between rival Qezelbāš factions in 932 AH / 1526 AD. Kopek Solṭān was killed in 933 AH / 1526–27 AD, and Čūha Solṭān succeeded in persuading Shah Ṭahmāsb that Dīv Solṭān was the cause of the discord."
  5. ^ Savory 2004: "Ḥosayn Khan, however, did not draw the obvious conclusions from the fate of Čuha Sultan, but proceeded to repeat the latter's mistakes, appointing members of the Šāmlu tribe to provincial governorships and fatally underestimating the Shah's new determination to rule De facto as well as De jure."
  6. ^ Savory 1982: "After the deposition of his father by Nāder Khan Afšār in Rabīʿ I 1145 AH / August 1732 AD, the eight-month-old Abbas was invested as ʿAbbās III on 7 September 1732. Nader Khan, who was the real ruler of the country, dropped his own now obviously inappropriate style of Ṭahmāsp-qolī Khan and assumed the titles of Vakīl-Al-dawla (Deputy of the state) and Nāʾeb-al-salṭana (Viceroy)."
  7. ^ a b Perry 1998.
  8. ^ Perry 1991, pp. 68: "The early months of 1751 thus mark the beginning of Karim Khan's rule as Viceroy of the nominal King Ismaʿil III, a position to be hotly disputed for twelve more years but never wrested from him."
  9. ^ Bamdad 2005, p. 177.
  10. ^ Gharipour 2012, p. 204.
  11. ^ Axworthy 2008, p. 192.
  12. ^ Hambly 1963, p. 169.
  13. ^ Mahbubi Ardakani 1988: "After the deposition of Mohammad Ali Shah on 16 July 1909, a regent had to be appointed because Ahmad Shah was a Minor. The choice fell on ʿAżod-al-molk. As a senior dignitary and the chief of the Qajar tribe, he enjoyed the respect of the constitutionalists and was in good relationship with the olamā. He served as regent for one year and three months until his death."
  14. ^ Bakhash 2015: "Citing the disordered state of affairs in Iran, the divisions in parliament, the lack of parliamentary unanimity over his own election, he left France for Iran only in December, arriving home two months later. He did not take the Oath of office until March 1911."
  15. ^ Zabir 2011, p. 59.
  16. ^ Ronald Koven (23 January 1979). "Head of Iranian Regency Council Resigns in Paris". Washington Post. Retrieved 1 January 2018. 
  17. ^ "جامعه روحانيت مبارز جوان مي‌شود" [Combatant Clergy Association gets younger] (in Persian). Fararu. 8 July 2012. 118101. Archived from the original on 2 September 2016. Retrieved 25 June 2016. 

Sources[edit]

External links[edit]