President of the Soviet Union
The President of the Soviet Union called President of the USSR or President of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, was the head of state of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics from 15 March 1990 to 25 December 1991. Mikhail Gorbachev was the only person to occupy the office. Gorbachev was General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union between March 1985 and August 1991, he derived an greater share of his power from his position as president until he resigned as General Secretary after the 1991 coup d'état attempt. The presidency was an executive post, based on a mixture of the U. S. and French presidencies. Prior to the creation of the post of president, the de jure head of state of the Soviet Union was the chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, called the "president" by non-Soviet sources. For most of the Soviet Union's existence, all effective executive political power was in the hands of the General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, with the Chairman of the Presidium exercising symbolic and figurehead duties.
Starting with Leonid Brezhnev in 1977, the last four General Secretaries—Brezhnev, Yuri Andropov, Konstantin Chernenko, Gorbachev—simultaneously served as de jure head of state during their time in office. The president was elected by the Congress of People's Deputies and served as ex officio chairman of that body, but all future elections were to have been by popular vote. During the election of the president several candidates were nominated, among leading contenders were KGB persona Vadim Bakatin and Premier Nikolai Ryzhkov; the Vice President of the Soviet Union was the only person to occupy that office. He was the leader of the Gang of Eight which attempted the August coup, declared himself Acting President of the Soviet Union on 19 August 1991. After three days the coup collapsed and Gorbachev was restored, he held the office up to the country's dissolution. Leaders of the Communist party voted on establishing a presidency on February 7th, 1990; the first and only presidential election took place on March 14, 1990.
The Congress of People's Deputies decided that they would elect the first president into a five-year term turn over presidential elections to the public beginning in the planned 1995 presidential election. Soviet Union presidential election, 1990 Index of Soviet Union-related articles List of heads of state of the Soviet Union Premier of the Soviet Union General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union
1977 Soviet Constitution
At the 7th Session of the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union Ninth Convocation on October 7, 1977, the third and last Soviet Constitution known as the Brezhnev Constitution or the constitution of the developed Socialism, was adopted unanimously. The official name was the Constitution of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics; the preamble stated that "the aims of the dictatorship of the proletariat having been fulfilled, the Soviet state has become the state of the whole people." Compared with previous constitutions, the Brezhnev Constitution extended the scope of the constitutional regulation of society. The first chapter defined the leading role of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and established the organizational principles for the state and the government. Article 1 defines the USSR as a socialist state, as did all previous constitutions: The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics is a socialist state of the whole people, expressing the will and interests of the workers and intelligentsia, the working people of all the nations and nationalities of the country.
The difference is that, according to the new Constitution, the government no longer represented the workers and peasants alone. Chapters established principles for economic management and cultural relations; the 1977 Constitution was detailed. It included twenty-eight more articles than the 1936 Soviet Constitution; the Constitution explicitly defined the division of responsibilities between the central and the republic governments. For example, the Constitution placed the regulation of boundaries and administrative divisions within the jurisdiction of the republics; however this power was subject to certain rules. Unlike previous versions of the Soviet Constitution, the 1977 Constitution introduced an amendment making official the right promised in previous constitutions, of the right of constituent Soviet republics to secede from the Union. However, Articles 74 and 75 stated that when a Soviet constituency introduced laws in contradiction to Supreme Soviet, the laws of the Supreme Soviet would supersede any legal difference, but the Union law which regulated the secession was not provided until the last days of the Soviet Union.
Article 74. The laws of the USSR shall have the same force in all Union Republics. In the event of a discrepancy between a Union Republic law and an All-Union law, the law of the USSR shall prevail. Article 75; the territory of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics is a single entity and comprises the territories of the Union Republics. The sovereignty of the USSR extends throughout its territory. Article 72 would play an important role in the dissolution of the Soviet Union despite the lacuna in the Soviet law, filled under the pressure from the Republics in 1990. Since 1977, October 7 was among the public holidays in the USSR Constitution Day; the previous date for Soviet Constitution day had been December 5 from 1936 after the day the 1936 Soviet Constitution had been adopted. Adoption of the Constitution was a legislative act of the Supreme Soviet. Amendments to the Constitution were adopted by legislative act of that body. Amendments required the approval of a two-thirds majority of the deputies of the Congress of People's Deputies and could be initiated by the congress itself.
In addition, the governing bodies of official organizations and the Academy of Sciences could initiate amendments and other legislation. Soviet constitutions were amended and had been changed more than the constitutions of most Western countries; the 1977 Constitution attempted to avoid frequent amendment by establishing regulations for government bodies in separate, but authoritative, enabling legislation, such as the Law on the Council of Ministers of July 5, 1978. Other enabling legislation has included a law on citizenship, a law on elections to the Supreme Soviet, a law on the status of Supreme Soviet deputies, regulations for the Supreme Soviet, a resolution on commissions, regulations on local government, laws on the Supreme Court and the Procuracy; the enabling legislation provided the specific and changing operating rules for these government bodies. In October 1988, draft amendments and additions to the 1977 Constitution were published in the Soviet media for public discussion. Following the public review process, the Supreme Soviet adopted the amendments and additions in December 1988.
The amendments and additions and fundamentally changed the electoral and political systems. Although Soviet officials touted the changes as a return to "Leninist" forms and functions, citing that the Congress of People's Deputies had antecedents in the Congress of Soviets, they were unprecedented in many respects; the position of chairman of the Supreme Soviet was formally designated and given specific powers leadership over the legislative agenda, the ability to issue orders, formal power to conduct negotiations and sign treaties with foreign governments and international organizations. The Constitutional Oversight Committee, composed of people who were not in the Congress of People's Deputies, was established and given formal power to review the constitutionality of laws and normative acts of the central and republican governments and to suggest t
1989 Soviet Union legislative election
In 1989, elections were held for the Congress of People's Deputies of the Soviet Union. The main elections were held on a second round on 9 April, they were the first free nationwide elections held in the Soviet Union, would prove to be the final national elections held as the country ceased to exist in 1991. The elections were followed by regional elections in 1990, the last legislative elections to take place in the country. In January 1987, Mikhail Gorbachev, General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, announced the new policy of demokratizatsiya. Under this concept the electorate would have a choice between multiple candidates per constituency, although all candidates would still have to be members of the CPSU; the concept was introduced by Gorbachev to enable him to circumvent the CPSU hardliners who resisted his perestroika and glasnost reform campaigns, while still maintaining the Soviet Union as a one-party communist state. In December 1988, the 1977 Soviet Constitution was amended to create a new legislative body, the Congress of People's Deputies, to replace the old Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union.
The Congress of People's Deputies consisted of 2,250 deputies. 750 deputies were reserved for the CPSU and its affiliated organizations, the remaining two-thirds would be elected under the principles of demokratizatsiya, with 750 under the system of the old Soviet of the Union and 750 under the system of the old Soviet of Nationalities. Elections for the new legislature were set for March, 1989. While the majority of CPSU-endorsed candidates were elected over 300 candidates won out over the endorsed candidates. Among them were Boris Yeltsin, who won over the CPSU-endorsed candidate to represent Moscow's district with 89% of the vote, it was Yeltsin's first return to political power after resigning from the Politburo in 1987. On a union republic level Yeltsin was later elected to the RSFSR's Congress and indirectly, to its Supreme Soviet. Anti-corruption prosecutor Telman Gdlyan, trapeze artist Valentin Dikul, ethnographer Galina Starovoytova, lawyer Anatoly Sobchak, physicist Andrei Sakharov, weightlifter Yury Vlasov, hockey player Anatoli Firsov were among the other non-endorsed candidates who were elected to the CPD.
All in all, while the majority of seats were won by endorsed candidates, one Politburo member, five Central Committee members, thirty five regional CPSU chiefs lost re-election to non-endorsed candidates. Gorbachev hailed the elections as a victory for perestroika and the election was praised in state media such as TASS and Izvestia, despite the strong opposition of hardliners within the Politburo and Central Committee; the first session of the new Congress of People's Deputies opened in late May, 1989. Although hardliners retained control of the chamber, the reformers used the legislature as a platform to debate and criticize the Soviet system, with the state media broadcasting their comments live and uncensored on television. Yeltsin managed to secure a seat on the reconstituted Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union, in the summer formed the first opposition, the Inter-Regional Deputies Group, formed of Russian nationalists and liberals; as it was the final legislative group in the Soviet Union, those elected in 1989 played a vital part in continuing reforms and the eventual fall of the Soviet Union two years later.
This article incorporates public domain material from the Library of Congress Country Studies website http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/. - Russia White and Gordon Wightman. "Gorbachev's Reforms: The Soviet Elections of 1989." Parliamentary Affairs, 42: 560-581. Tedin, Kent L. "Popular Support for Competitive Elections in the Soviet Union." Comparative Political Studies, 47: 241-271. Remnick, David. 1994. Lenin's Tomb: The Last Days of the Soviet Empire. New York: Vintage Books, pp. 216–223. On This Day: 1989: Millions of Russians go to the polls on BBC Gorbachev on 1989 in The Nation Yeltsin and the Soviet Elections in Workers World
Stalinism is the means of governing and related policies implemented from around 1927 to 1953 by Joseph Stalin. Stalinist policies and ideas as developed in the Soviet Union included rapid industrialization, the theory of socialism in one country, a totalitarian state, collectivization of agriculture, a cult of personality and subordination of the interests of foreign communist parties to those of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, deemed by Stalinism to be the leading vanguard party of communist revolution at the time. Stalinism promoted the escalation of class conflict, utilizing state violence to forcibly purge society of the bourgeoisie, whom Stalinist doctrine regarded as threats to the pursuit of the communist revolution; this policy resulted in persecution of such people. "Enemies" included not only bourgeois people, but working-class people with counter-revolutionary sympathies. Stalinist industrialization was designed to accelerate the development towards communism, stressing the need for such rapid industrialization on the grounds that the Soviet Union was economically backward in comparison with other countries and asserting that socialist society needed industry in order to face the challenges posed by internal and external enemies of communism.
Rapid industrialization was accompanied by mass collectivization of agriculture and by rapid urbanization. Rapid urbanization converted many small villages into industrial cities. To accelerate the development of industrialization, Stalin imported materials, ideas and workers from Western Europe and from the United States and pragmatically set up joint-venture contracts with major American private enterprises, such as the Ford Motor Company, which under state supervision assisted in developing the basis of the industry of the Soviet economy from the late 1920s to the 1930s. After the American private enterprises had completed their tasks, Soviet state enterprises took over; the term came into prominence during the mid-1930s when Lazar Kaganovich, a Soviet politician and associate of Stalin declared: "Let's replace Long Live Leninism with Long Live Stalinism!". Stalin met this usage with hesitancy, dismissing it as excessively praiseful and contributing to a cult of personality. Stalinism is used to describe the period during which Stalin was acting leader of the Soviet Union while serving as General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party from 1922 to his death on 5th of March 1953.
While some historians view Stalinism as a reflection of the ideologies of Leninism and Marxism, some argue that it stands separate from the socialist ideals it stemmed from. After a political struggle that culminated in the defeat of the Bukharinists, Stalinism was free to shape policy without opposition, ushering forth an era of harsh authoritarianism that soldiered toward rapid industrialization regardless of the cost. From 1917 to 1924, Vladimir Lenin, Leon Trotsky and Stalin appeared united, but they had discernible ideological differences. In his dispute with Trotsky, Stalin de-emphasized the role of workers in advanced capitalist countries. Stalin polemicized against Trotsky on the role of peasants as in China whereas Trotsky's position was in favor of urban insurrection over peasant-based guerrilla warfare. Whilst all other October Revolution 1917 Bolshevik leaders regarded their revolution more or less just as the beginning, they saw Russia as the leapboard on the road towards the World Wide Revolution, Stalin introduced the idea of Socialism in One Country by the autumn of 1924.
This did not just stand in sharp contrast to Trotsky's "Permanent Revolution", but in contrast to all earlier Socialistic theses. But by time and through circumstances, the revolution did not spread outside Russia, as Lenin had assumed it soon would. Not within the other former territories of the Russian Empire such as Poland, Lithuania and Estonia had the revolution been a success. On the contrary, all these countries had returned to capitalist bourgeois rule, but still, by the autumn of 1924, Stalin's idea of socialism in Soviet Russia alone was next to blasphemy in the ears of the other Politburo members- Zinoviev and Kamenev to the intellectual left, Rykov and Tomsky to the pragmatic right and the powerful Trotsky, who belonged to no side but his own. None of them had thought of Stalin's concept as a potential addition to Communist ideology. Hence, Stalin's "Socialism in One Country" doctrine couldn't be imposed until he had become close to being the autocratic ruler of the U. S. S. R.. While traditional communist thought holds that the state will "wither away" as the implementation of socialism reduces class distinction, Stalin argued that the proletarian state must become stronger before it can wither away.
In Stalin's view, counter-revolutionary elements will try to derail the transition to full communism, the state must be powerful enough to defeat them. For this reason, Communist regimes influenced by Stalin have been described as totalitarian. Sheng Shicai collaborated with the Soviets, allowing Stalinist rule to be extended to the Xinjiang province in the 1930s. In 1937, Sheng conducted a purge similar to the Great Purge. Stalin blamed the kulaks as the inciters of reactionary violence against the people during the implementation of agricultural collectivisation. In response, the state under Stalin's leadership initiated a violent
Era of Stagnation
The Era of Stagnation was the period in the history of the Soviet Union which began during the rule of Leonid Brezhnev and continued under Yuri Andropov and Konstantin Chernenko. The term "Era of Stagnation" was coined by Mikhail Gorbachev in order to describe the negative way in which he viewed the economic and social policies of the period. During the period of Brezhnev's leadership, the term "Era of Stagnation" was not used. Instead Brezhnev used the term "period of developed socialism" for the period which started in 1971; this term stemmed from Khrushchev's promise in 1961 of reaching communism in 20 years. It was in the 1980s that the Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev coined the term "Era of Stagnation" to describe the economic difficulties that developed when Leonid Brezhnev ruled the Soviet Union from 1964 to 1982. Scholars have subsequently disagreed on the dates and causes of the stagnation. Supporters of Gorbachev have criticised Brezhnev, the Brezhnev administration in general, for being too conservative and failing to change with the times.
Nikita Khrushchev, who preceded Brezhnev as Soviet leader, introduced liberal reforms during the period known as the Khrushchev Thaw. However, Khrushchev's involvement in the Manege Affair of 1962 marked the beginning of the end of the Cultural Thaw; the 1964–82 period in the Soviet Union began but devolved into disillusionment. Social stagnation began following Brezhnev's rise to power, when he revoked several of Khrushchev's reforms and rehabilitated Stalinist policies; some commentators regard the start of social stagnation as being the Sinyavsky–Daniel trial in 1966, which marked the end of the Khrushchev Thaw, while others place it at the suppression of the Prague Spring in 1968. The period's political stagnation is associated with the establishment of gerontocracy, which came into being as part of the policy of stability; the majority of scholars set the starting year for economic stagnation at 1975, although some claim that it began as early as the 1960s. Industrial growth rates declined during the 1970s as heavy industry and the arms industry were prioritized while Soviet consumer goods were neglected.
The value of all consumer goods manufactured in 1972 in retail prices was about 118 billion rubles. Historians and specialists are uncertain what caused the stagnation, with some arguing that the command economy suffered from systemic flaws which inhibited growth. Others have argued that the lack of reform, or the high expenditures on the military, led to stagnation. Brezhnev has been criticised posthumously for doing too little to improve the economic situation. Throughout his rule, no major reforms were initiated and the few proposed reforms were either modest or opposed by the majority of the Soviet leadership; the reform-minded Chairman of the Council of Ministers, Alexei Kosygin, introduced two modest reforms in the 1970s after the failure of his more radical 1965 reform, attempted to reverse the trend of declining growth. By the 1970s, Brezhnev had consolidated enough power to stop any "radical" reform-minded attempts by Kosygin. After the death of Brezhnev in November 1982, Yuri Andropov succeeded him as Soviet leader.
Brezhnev's legacy was a Soviet Union, much less dynamic than it had been when he assumed power in 1964. During Andropov's short rule, modest reforms were introduced. Konstantin Chernenko, his successor, continued much of Andropov's policies; the economic problems that began under Brezhnev persisted into these short administrations and scholars still debate whether the reform policies that were followed improved the economic situation in the country. The Era of Stagnation ended with Gorbachev's rise to power during which political and social life was democratised though the economy was still stagnating. Under Gorbachev's leadership the Communist Party began efforts to accelerate development in 1985 through massive injections of finance into heavy industry; when these failed, the Communist Party restructured the Soviet economy and government by introducing quasi-capitalist and democratic reforms. These were intended to re-energize the Soviet Union but inadvertently led to its dissolution in 1991.
Robert Service, author of the History of Modern Russia: From Tsarism to the Twenty-first Century, claims that with mounting economic problems worker discipline decreased, which the Government could not counter because of the full employment policy. According to Service, this policy led to government industries, such as factories and offices, being staffed by undisciplined and unproductive personnel leading to a "work-shy workforce" among Soviet workers and administrators. While the Soviet Union under Brezhnev had the "second greatest industrial capacity" after the United States, produced more "steel, pig-iron and tractors" than any other country in the world, Service treats the problems of agriculture during the Brezhnev era as proof of the need for decollectivization. In short, Service considers the Soviet economy to have become "static" during this time period, Brezhnev's policy of stability was a "recipe for political disaster". Richard Sakwa, author of the book The Rise and Fall of the Soviet Union: 1917–1991, takes a dimmer view of the Brezhnev era by claiming that growth rates fell "inexorably" from the 1950s until they stopped in the 1980s.
His reasoning for this stagnation was the growing demand for unskilled workers resulted in a decline of productivity and labour discipl
De-Stalinization consisted of a series of political reforms in the Soviet Union after the death of long-time leader Joseph Stalin in 1953, the ascension of Nikita Khrushchev to power. The reforms consisted of changing or removing key institutions that helped Stalin hold power: the cult of personality that surrounded him, the Stalinist political system, the Gulag labour-camp system, all of, created and dominated by him. Stalin was succeeded by a collective leadership after his death in March 1953, consisting of Georgi Malenkov, Premier of the Soviet Union; the term "de-Stalinization" is one which gained currency in both Russia and the Western world following the collapse of the Soviet Union, was never used during the Khrushchev era. However, de-Stalinization efforts were set forth at this time by Nikita Khrushchev and the Government of the Soviet Union under the guise of the "overcoming/exposure of the cult of personality", with a heavy criticism of Joseph Stalin's "era of the cult of personality".
However, prior to Khrushchev's "Secret Speech" to the 20th Party Congress, no direct association between Stalin as a person and "the cult of personality" was made by Khrushchev or others within the party, although archival documents show that strong criticism of Stalin and his ideology featured in private discussions by Khruschchev at the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet. There were dangers in denouncing Stalin as he was placed on a pedestal both at home and among communists abroad. In the years 1953–1955, a period of "silent de-Stalinization" took place, as the revision of Stalin's policies was done in secret, with no explanation; this period saw a number of non-publicised political rehabilitations, the release of "Article 58ers". However, due to the huge influx of prisoners returning from the camps, this could not continue. In December 1955 Khrushchev proposed a commission to be set up in order to investigate Stalin's activities on behalf of the Presidium. De-Stalinization meant an end to the role of large-scale forced labour in the economy.
The process of freeing Gulag prisoners was started by Lavrentiy Beria. He was soon removed from power, arrested on 26 June 1953, executed on 24 December 1953. Nikita Khrushchev emerged as the most powerful Soviet politician. While de-Stalinization had been underway since Stalin's death, the watershed event was Khrushchev's speech entitled "On the Cult of Personality and Its Consequences", concerning Stalin. On 25 February 1956, he spoke to a closed session of the 20th Party Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, delivering an address laying out some of Stalin's crimes and the "conditions of insecurity and desperation" created by Stalin. Khrushchev shocked his listeners by denouncing Stalin's dictatorial rule and his cult of personality as inconsistent with communist and Party ideology. Among other points, he condemned the treatment of the Old Bolsheviks, people who had supported communism before the revolution, many of whom Stalin had executed as traitors. Khrushchev attacked the crimes committed by associates of Beria.
One reason given for Khrushchev's speech was his moral conscience. This, the Communists believed, would prevent a fatal loss of self-belief and restore unity within the Party. Martin McCauley argues that Khrushchev's purpose was to "liberate Party officials from the fear of repression". Khrushchev argued that if the Party were to be an efficient mechanism, stripped from the brutal abuse of power by any individual, it could transform the Soviet Union as well as the entire world. However, others have suggested that the speech was made in order to deflect blame from the Communist Party or the principles of Marxism–Leninism and place the blame squarely on Stalin's shoulders, thus preventing a more radical debate. However, the publication of this speech caused many party members to resign in protest, both abroad and within the Soviet Union. By attacking Stalin, McCauley argues, he was undermining the credibility of Molotov, Malenkov and other political opponents, within "Stalin's inner circle" during the 1930s more than he had been.
If they did not "come over to Khrushchev", they "risk being banished with Stalin" and associated with his dictatorial control. Khrushchev attempted to make the Gulag labour system less harsh, by allowing prisoners to post letters home to their families, by allowing family members to mail clothes to prisoners, not allowed under Stalin; when Stalin died, the Gulag was "radically reduced in size". On 25 October 1956, a resolution of the CPSU declared that the existence of the Gulag labour system was "inexpedient"; the Gulag institution was closed by the MVD order No 020 of 25 January 1960. Khrushchev renamed or reverted the names of many places bearing Stalin's name, including cities, territories and other facilities; the State Anthem of the Soviet Union was purged of references to Stalin. The Stalin-centric and World War II-era lines in the lyrics were excised when an instrumental version replaced it; the Joseph Stalin Palace of Culture and Science in Warsaw, Poland was renamed in 19
First Deputy Premier of the Soviet Union
The First Deputy Premier of the Soviet Union known as First Vice Premier of the Soviet Union, was the deputy head of government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. A total of 26 individuals had held this post; the first officeholder was Valerian Kuibyshev, inaugurated in 1934 as First Deputy Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars. Lavrentiy Beria served for 113 days. At over seventeen years, Vyacheslav Molotov spent the longest time in office, held his position through most of Joseph Stalin's tenure as Premier, as well as through the tenureships of Georgy Malenkov and Nikolai Bulganin. A First Deputy Premier was given responsibility over one specific area. For example, Kirill Mazurov was responsible for industry, Dmitry Polyansky was agriculture. However, after Polyansky's departure in 1973 Mazurov was left the sole First Deputy Premier until Tikhonov was appointed in 1976. An officeholder could be responsible for coordinating the activities of ministries and state committees and other subordinate bodies of the Council of Ministers.
To do this the First Deputy Premier had to give these bodies guidance in an expeditious manner to ensure the implementation of plans for economic and social development and to check if the orders and decisions of the Council of Ministers were being followed. If the Premier could not perform his duties one of the First Deputy Premiers would take on the role of acting Premier until the Premier's return. During the late 1970s, when the health of Premier Alexei Kosygin deteriorated, Nikolai Tikhonov, the First Deputy Premier, acted on his behalf during his absence; when Tikhonov took command of the Soviet economy, Kosygin served in a standby role. At a Central Committee plenum in June 1980, the Soviet economic development plan was outlined by Tikhonov, not Kosygin. Before the transformation of the Council of People's Commissars to the Council of Ministers the post of vice-head of government was given to the Deputy Chairmen of the Sovnarkom. There was no First Deputy Premier from 1935 to 1941. Molotov, one of two First Deputy Premiers under Stalin's tenure, nearly lost his position when Stalin, the Premier, took a vacation.
Stalin's successor, promoted Bulganin and Lazar Kaganovich to the post of First Deputy Chairman of the Council of Ministers. In a Council of Minister resolution it was stated that the Premier, the First Deputy Premiers and the Deputy Premiers made up the Presidium of the Council of Ministers; the Presidium was expanded to include individuals hand-picked by the Premier. A decree had to be signed by the Premier or a First Deputy Premier, in the case of the Premier's absence a First Deputy Premier would assume the duties of the Premier; the First Deputy Prime Ministers were members of the Cabinet of Ministers, the executive and administrative body that replaced the Council of Ministers in 1990. Premier of the Soviet Union Deputy Premier of the Soviet Union List of leaders of the Soviet Union