Terminator 3: Rise of the Machines
Terminator 3: Rise of the Machines is a 2003 American science-fiction action film directed by Jonathan Mostow and starring Arnold Schwarzenegger, Nick Stahl, Claire Danes, Kristanna Loken. It is the third installment in the Terminator film series, following 1991's Terminator 2: Judgment Day, does not involve James Cameron, who directed and wrote the first two films. After Skynet fails to kill Sarah Connor before her son John Connor was born, failed to kill John as a child, Skynet now sends another Terminator back in time known as the T-X in an attempt to wipe out as many human resistance officers as possible, including John's future wife Kate Brewster, but not John himself, as his whereabouts are unknown to Skynet. John's life is placed in danger; the Resistance has sent their own Terminator back to protect the T-X's targets. Terminator 3: Rise of the Machines premiered in West Hollywood on June 30, 2003, was released on July 2, 2003 by Warner Bros. Pictures in North America and by Columbia Pictures internationally.
It grossed over $433.4 million worldwide over its $187.3 million budget and was followed by a sequel, Terminator Salvation in 2009. John Connor has been living off the grid in Los Angeles following the death of his mother, Sarah Connor. Although a war between humans and Skynet's forces did not occur on August 29, 1997, as foretold, John still fears it, he rejects his fate as hides from Skynet. Unable to locate John in the past, Skynet sends a new model of the Terminator called the T-X to July 24, 2004, to kill other members of the Human Resistance instead; the Resistance again sends a reprogrammed Terminator to protect the T-X's targets, including John and his future wife, Kate Brewster. After killing several other targets, the T-X locates Kate and John at an animal hospital, where Kate has caught John stealing drugs, they escape with the Terminator's help. The next day, the Terminator takes them to a mausoleum where John's mother is interred. Inside her vault, they find. Police arrive and a gun battle ensues.
The T-X chases them, but they escape. The Terminator reveals that John and his mother's actions only delayed Judgment Day, that its plan is to drive John and Kate to Mexico to escape the fallout when Skynet begins its nuclear attack at 6:18 p.m. John orders the Terminator to take Kate and him to see Kate's father, a U. S. Air Force general who, in the present, is supervising the building of Skynet after Cyberdyne Systems went defunct. John threatens to kill himself; the Terminator agrees to take them after Kate orders him to. The Terminator reveals that it killed John on July 4, 2032. Meanwhile, at a USAF base, General Brewster faces pressure from the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff to activate Skynet to stop an anomalous computer virus of unknown origin from invading servers worldwide. John and Kate arrive too late to stop Skynet from being activated, its machines begin attacking Brewster's staff. Brewster is mortally wounded by the T-X, which arrived before John and the Terminator. Before dying, he gives Kate and John a code book and the location of what John believes is Skynet's system core.
John and Kate head for the tarmac to take General Brewster's single-engine plane. The T-X and the T-850 fight each other; the T-X damages the T-850 reprograms it to kill John and Kate. The T-X pursues John and Kate through the military base, but it becomes trapped when a particle accelerator is activated and the magnetic field bonds the T-X to the accelerator; the Terminator, unable to control its outer functions but still consciously aware, attacks John and Kate before John convinces it to reject the T-X's control. The Terminator deliberately shuts its corrupted system down, enabling Kate to escape. Shortly after they leave, the Terminator's system reboots. John and Kate reach Crystal Peak and begin entering the access codes to gain entry when the T-X arrives by helicopter. Just as it is about to attack, the rebooted Terminator arrives in a second helicopter and crashes into the T-X, crushing it; the T-X pulls itself from the wreckage and attempts to drag itself inside the bunker to follow John and Kate.
The Terminator holds the bunker open long enough for John and Kate to lock themselves inside uses one of its hydrogen fuel cells to destroy both itself and the T-X. John and Kate discover that the facility is not Skynet's core, but rather a nuclear fallout shelter and command facility for government and military officials. Skynet has no core and it has become a part of cyberspace after its self-awareness. Judgment Day begins as Skynet fires nuclear missiles across the world, starting a nuclear holocaust that kills billions. John and Kate begin receiving radio transmissions on the emergency equipment. Arnold Schwarzenegger as T-850 "Model 101":Reprising his role from the first two films, this was Schwarzenegger's final film role before becoming Governor of California. Nick Stahl as John Connor:Edward Furlong, who played John in Terminator 2: Judgment Day, was not asked to reprise his role in T3 because of a substance abuse problem. Furlong stated "I don't know, it just wasn't the time. I was going through my own thing at t
Warner Bros. Entertainment Inc. referred to as Warner Bros. and abbreviated as WB, is an American entertainment company headquartered in Burbank, California and a subsidiary of AT&T's WarnerMedia. Founded in 1923, it has operations in film and video games and is one of the "Big Five" major American film studios, as well as a member of the Motion Picture Association of America; the company's name originated from the four founding Warner brothers: Harry, Albert and Jack Warner. Harry and Sam emigrated as young children with their parents to Canada from Krasnosielc, Poland. Jack, the youngest brother, was born in Ontario; the three elder brothers began in the movie theater business, having acquired a movie projector with which they showed films in the mining towns of Pennsylvania and Ohio. In the beginning and Albert Warner invested $150 to present Life of an American Fireman and The Great Train Robbery, they opened their first theater, the Cascade, in New Castle, Pennsylvania, in 1903. When the original building was in danger of being demolished, the modern Warner Bros. called the current building owners, arranged to save it.
The owners noted people across the country had asked them to protect it for its historical significance. In 1904, the Warners founded the Pittsburgh-based Duquesne Amusement & Supply Company, to distribute films. In 1912, Harry Warner hired. By the time of World War I they had begun producing films. In 1918 they opened the first Warner Brothers Studio on Sunset Boulevard in Hollywood. Sam and Jack produced the pictures, while Harry and Albert, along with their auditor and now controller Chase, handled finance and distribution in New York City. During World War I their first nationally syndicated film, My Four Years in Germany, based on a popular book by former ambassador James W. Gerard, was released. On April 4, 1923, with help from money loaned to Harry by his banker Motley Flint, they formally incorporated as Warner Bros. Pictures, Incorporated; the first important deal was the acquisition of the rights to Avery Hopwood's 1919 Broadway play, The Gold Diggers, from theatrical impresario David Belasco.
However, Rin Tin Tin, a dog brought from France after World War I by an American soldier, established their reputation. Rin Tin Tin debuted in the feature; the movie was so successful. Rin Tin Tin became the studio's top star. Jack nicknamed him "The Mortgage Lifter" and the success boosted Darryl F. Zanuck's career. Zanuck became a top producer and between 1928 and 1933 served as Jack's right-hand man and executive producer, with responsibilities including day-to-day film production. More success came. Lubitsch's film The Marriage Circle was the studio's most successful film of 1924, was on The New York Times best list for that year. Despite the success of Rin Tin Tin and Lubitsch, Warner's remained a lesser studio. Sam and Jack decided to offer Broadway actor John Barrymore the lead role in Beau Brummel; the film was so successful. By the end of 1924, Warner Bros. was arguably Hollywood's most successful independent studio, where it competed with "The Big Three" Studios. As a result, Harry Warner—while speaking at a convention of 1,500 independent exhibitors in Milwaukee, Wisconsin—was able to convince the filmmakers to spend $500,000 in newspaper advertising, Harry saw this as an opportunity to establish theaters in cities such as New York and Los Angeles.
As the studio prospered, it gained backing from Wall Street, in 1924 Goldman Sachs arranged a major loan. With this new money, the Warners bought the pioneer Vitagraph Company which had a nationwide distribution system. In 1925, Warners' experimented in radio, establishing a successful radio station, KFWB, in Los Angeles. Warner Bros. was a pioneer of films with synchronized sound. In 1925, at Sam's urging, Warner's agreed to add this feature to their productions. By February 1926, the studio reported a net loss of $333,413. After a long period denying Sam's request for sound, Harry agreed to change, as long as the studio's use of synchronized sound was for background music purposes only; the Warners signed a contract with the sound engineer company Western Electric and established Vitaphone. In 1926, Vitaphone began making films with music and effects tracks, most notably, in the feature Don Juan starring John Barrymore; the film was silent. To hype Don Juan's release, Harry acquired the large Piccadilly Theater in Manhattan, New York City, renamed it Warners' Theatre.
Don Juan premiered at the Warners' Theatre in New York on August 6, 1926. Throughout the early history of film distribution, theater owners hired orchestras to attend film showings, where they provided soundtracks. Through Vitaphone, Warner Bros. produced eight shorts in 1926. Many film production companies questioned the necessity. Don Juan did not recoup its production cost and Lubitsch left for MGM. By April 1927, the Big Five studios had ruined Warner's, Western Electric renewed Warner's Vit
Avatar (2009 film)
Avatar is a 2009 American epic science fiction film directed, produced, co-edited by James Cameron, stars Sam Worthington, Zoe Saldana, Stephen Lang, Michelle Rodriguez, Sigourney Weaver. Film's title is based on Sanskrit word Avatar; the film is set in the mid-22nd century, when humans are colonizing Pandora, a lush habitable moon of a gas giant in the Alpha Centauri star system, in order to mine the mineral unobtanium, a room-temperature superconductor. The expansion of the mining colony threatens the continued existence of a local tribe of Na'vi – a humanoid species indigenous to Pandora; the film's title refers to a genetically engineered Na'vi body operated from the brain of a remotely located human, used to interact with the natives of Pandora. Development of Avatar began in 1994. Filming was supposed to take place after the completion of Cameron's 1997 film Titanic, for a planned release in 1999, according to Cameron, the necessary technology was not yet available to achieve his vision of the film.
Work on the language of the film's extraterrestrial beings began in 2005, Cameron began developing the screenplay and fictional universe in early 2006. Avatar was budgeted at $237 million. Other estimates put the cost between $280 million and $310 million for production and at $150 million for promotion; the film made extensive use of new motion capture filming techniques, was released for traditional viewing, 3D viewing, for "4D" experiences in select South Korean theaters. The stereoscopic filmmaking was touted as a breakthrough in cinematic technology. Avatar premiered in London on December 10, 2009, was internationally released on December 16 and in the United States and Canada on December 18, to positive critical reviews, with critics praising its groundbreaking visual effects. During its theatrical run, the film broke several box office records and became the highest-grossing film of all time, as well as in the United States and Canada, surpassing Cameron's Titanic, which had held those records for twelve years.
It became the first film to gross more than $2 billion and the best-selling film of 2010 in the United States. Avatar was nominated for nine Academy Awards, including Best Picture and Best Director, won three, for Best Art Direction, Best Cinematography and Best Visual Effects. Following the film's success, Cameron signed with 20th Century Fox to produce four sequels: Avatar 2 and Avatar 3 are filming, will be released on December 18, 2020, December 17, 2021, respectively. Several cast members are expected to return, including Worthington, Saldana and Weaver. In 2154, humans have depleted Earth's natural resources; the Resources Development Administration mines for a valuable mineral — unobtanium — on Pandora, a densely forested habitable moon orbiting the gas giant Polyphemus in the Alpha Centauri star system. Pandora, whose atmosphere is poisonous to humans, is inhabited by the Na'vi, a species of 10-foot tall, blue-skinned, sapient humanoids that live in harmony with nature and worship a mother goddess named Eywa.
To explore Pandora's biosphere, scientists use Na'vi-human hybrids called "avatars", operated by genetically matched humans. Dr. Grace Augustine, head of the Avatar Program, considers Sully an inadequate replacement but accepts his assignment as a bodyguard. While protecting the avatars of Grace and fellow scientist Dr. Norm Spellman as they collect biological data, Jake's avatar is attacked by a thanator and flees into the forest, where he is rescued by Neytiri, a female Na'vi. Witnessing an auspicious sign, she takes him to her clan, whereupon Neytiri's mother Mo'at, the clan's spiritual leader, orders her daughter to initiate Jake into their society. Colonel Miles Quaritch, head of RDA's private security force, promises Jake that the company will restore his legs if he gathers information about the Na'vi and the clan's gathering place, a giant tree called Hometree, which stands above the richest deposit of unobtanium in the area; when Grace learns of this, she transfers herself and Norm to an outpost.
Over the following three months, Jake grows to sympathize with the natives. After Jake is initiated into the tribe, he and Neytiri choose each other as mates, soon afterward, Jake reveals his change of allegiance when he attempts to disable a bulldozer that threatens to destroy a sacred Na'vi site; when Quaritch shows a video recording of Jake's attack on the bulldozer to Administrator Parker Selfridge, another in which Jake admits that the Na'vi will never abandon Hometree, Selfridge orders Hometree destroyed. Despite Grace's argument that destroying Hometree could damage the biological neural network native to Pandora, Selfridge gives Jake and Grace one hour to convince the Na'vi to evacuate before commencing the attack. While trying to warn the Na'vi, Jake confesses to being a spy, the Na'vi take him and Grace captive. Seeing this, Quaritch's men destroy Hometree. Mo'at frees Jake and Grace, but they are detached from their avatars and imprisoned by Quaritch's forces. Pilot Trudy Chacón, disgusted by Quaritch's brutality, frees Jake and Norm, airlifts them to Grace's outpost, but during the escape Quaritch fires at them, hitting Grace.
To regain the Na'vi's trust, Jake connects his mind to that of Toruk, a dragon-like predator
Spider-Man 2 is a 2004 American superhero film directed by Sam Raimi and written by Alvin Sargent from a story by Alfred Gough, Miles Millar and Michael Chabon. A sequel to the 2002 film Spider-Man, it is the second installment in the Spider-Man trilogy based on the fictional Marvel Comics character of the same name. Tobey Maguire stars as Peter Parker / Spider-Man, alongside Kirsten Dunst, James Franco, Alfred Molina, Rosemary Harris, Donna Murphy. Set two years after the events of Spider-Man, the film finds Peter Parker struggling to manage both his personal life and his duties as Spider-Man, which affects his civilian life dramatically. Meanwhile, Dr. Otto Octavius becomes a diabolical villain after a failed experiment kills his wife and leaves him neurologically fused to mechanical tentacles. Spider-Man must stop him from recreating the experiment, which threatens to destroy the city, while dealing with a subconscious desire to stop being Spider-Man, stripping him of his powers. Principal photography began in April 2003 in New York City and took place in Los Angeles.
Spider-Man 2 was released in both conventional and IMAX theaters on June 30, 2004 and grossed $783 million worldwide, becoming the third highest-grossing film of the year. It won the Academy Award for Best Visual Effects and was nominated for Best Sound Mixing and Best Sound Editing, it is considered as one of the best superhero films of all-time. Its success led to Spider-Man 3. Two years have passed since Norman Osborn's death. Peter Parker, secretly the superhero Spider-Man, is estranged from both love interest Mary Jane Watson and best friend Harry Osborn, discovers his aunt May is facing eviction. Harry, now head of Oscorp's genetic and scientific research division, is sponsoring a fusion power project by nuclear scientist Otto Octavius, who befriends and mentors Peter. While handling hazardous materials, Octavius wears a harness of powerful robotic tentacle arms with artificial intelligence. During a public demonstration that Peter and Harry attend, a power spike causes the fusion reactor to destabilize.
Octavius refuses to shut down the reactor, which goes critical – killing his wife and burning the inhibitor chip blocking the arms from his nervous system. Spider-Man shuts the experiment down, destroying it in the process. At a hospital, doctors prepare to surgically remove Octavius' harness. Without the inhibitor chip the arms have developed sentience and brutally kill them. Upon regaining consciousness and seeing the carnage, Octavius takes refuge at a harbor. Becoming influenced by the arms' AI, he robs a bank to fund a second experiment. Peter and May coincidentally are there, Octavius takes May hostage. Spider-Man rescues her; the Daily Bugle subsequently dubs the scientist Doctor Octopus. Mary Jane becomes engaged to astronaut John Jameson, son of Bugle publisher J. Jonah Jameson. Peter loses his powers, he abandons his Spider-Man identity, returns to his normal life, attempts to reconcile with Mary Jane. A garbageman brings Peter's Spider-Man costume to Jameson, who takes credit for driving Spider-Man into hiding.
Peter tells May the truth behind his uncle Ben's death. May forgives him. Requiring the isotope tritium to fuel his reactor, Octavius visits Harry to demand it. Harry agrees in exchange for Spider-Man, he tells Octavius to seek Peter, who Harry believes is friends with Spider-Man, but tells Octavius not to harm him. Octavius locates Peter, tells him to find Spider-Man, captures Mary Jane, her endangerment leads to Peter's powers resurfacing. As Jameson admits he was wrong about Spider-Man, Peter steals his costume back from the Bugle and goes after Octavius; as Spider-Man battles Octavius, they fall onto a New York City Subway train. Octavius sabotages the controls and leaves Spider-Man to save the passengers, which he does at a great physical toll; when he faints from exhaustion, the grateful passengers save him from falling and bring him into the train, seeing his unmasked face but promising to keep their knowledge hidden. In vain, they try to protect him when Octavius returns to capture Spider-Man, whom Octavius delivers to Harry.
After giving Octavius the tritium, Harry prepares to kill Spider-Man, only to be shocked to see Peter under the mask. Peter convinces Harry to direct him to Octavius' lair; as Spider-Man arrives at the doctor's waterfront laboratory and attempts to rescue Mary Jane discreetly. Octavius discovers they fight as the nuclear reaction swells. Spider-Man subdues Octavius, reveals his identity, persuades Octavius to let his dream go for the greater good. Octavius commands the tentacles to obey him, gives his life to destroy the experiment. Mary Jane sees Spider-Man's true identity and feelings, which he says is why they cannot be together. Spider-Man returns Mary Jane to John, leaves. Harry is visited by a vision of his father in a mirror. Refusing to hurt Peter, Harry shatters the mirror, inadvertently revealing a secret room containing prototypes of the Green Goblin's equipment. On her wedding day, Mary Jane runs to Peter's apartment, she tells Peter she wants to be in spite of the danger their relationship will put her in.
After they kiss, they hear police sirens, Mary Jane encourages him to go help as Spider-Man. Tobey Maguire as Peter Parker / Spider-Man:A superhe
Varieties of Chinese
Chinese known as Sinitic, is a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family consisting of hundreds of local language varieties, many of which are not mutually intelligible. The differences are similar to those within the Romance languages, with variation strong in the more mountainous southeast. A quoted classification divides these varieties into seven groups: Mandarin, Wu, Xiang, Gan and Yue, though a more recent classification splits some of these to obtain ten groups, some varieties remain unclassified. Chinese varieties differ most in their phonology, to a lesser extent in vocabulary and syntax. Southern varieties tend to have fewer initial consonants than northern and central varieties, but more preserve the Middle Chinese final consonants. All have phonemic tones, with northern varieties tending to have fewer distinctions than southern ones. Many have tone sandhi, with the most complex patterns in the coastal area from Zhejiang to eastern Guangdong. Standard Chinese takes its phonology from the Beijing dialect, with vocabulary from the Mandarin group and grammar based on literature in the modern written vernacular.
It is the sole official language of China and the de facto official language of Taiwan, one of the four official languages of Singapore, one of the six official languages of the United Nations. At the end of the 2nd millennium BC, a form of Chinese was spoken in a compact area around the lower Wei River and middle Yellow River. From there it expanded eastwards across the North China Plain to Shandong and south into the valley of the Yangtze River and beyond to the hills of south China; as the language spread, it replaced dominant languages in those areas, regional differences grew. In periods of political unity, there was a tendency to promote a central standard to facilitate communication between people from different regions; the first evidence of dialectal variation is found in texts from the Autumn period. At that time, the Zhou royal domain, though no longer politically powerful, still defined standard speech; the Fangyan is devoted to differences in vocabulary between regions. Commentaries from the Eastern Han period contain much discussion of local variations in pronunciation.
The Qieyun rhyme book noted wide variation in pronunciation between regions, set out to define a standard pronunciation for reading the classics. This standard, known as Middle Chinese, is believed to be a diasystem based on the reading traditions of northern and southern capitals; the North China Plain provided few barriers to migration, leading to relative linguistic homogeneity over a wide area in northern China. In contrast, the mountains and rivers of southern China have spawned the other six major groups of Chinese languages, with great internal diversity in Fujian; until the mid-20th century, most Chinese people spoke only their local language. As a practical measure, officials of the Ming and Qing dynasties carried out the administration of the empire using a common language based on Mandarin varieties, known as Guānhuà. Knowledge of this language was thus essential for an official career, but it was never formally defined. In the early years of the Republic of China, Literary Chinese was replaced as the written standard by written vernacular Chinese, based on northern dialects.
In the 1930s a standard national language was adopted, with its pronunciation based on the Beijing dialect, but with vocabulary drawn from other Mandarin varieties. It is the official spoken language of the People's Republic of China and of the Republic of China governing Taiwan, one of the official languages of Singapore. Standard Mandarin Chinese now dominates public life in mainland China, is much more studied than any other variety of Chinese. Outside China and Taiwan, the only varieties of Chinese taught in university courses are Standard Mandarin and Cantonese. Chinese has been likened to the Romance languages of the modern descendants of Latin. In both cases, the ancestral language was spread by imperial expansion over substrate languages 2000 years ago, by the Qin–Han empire in China and the Roman Empire in Europe. In Western Europe, Medieval Latin remained the standard for scholarly and administrative writing for centuries, influenced local varieties, as did Literary Chinese in China.
In both Europe and China, local forms of speech diverged from the written standard and from each other, producing extensive dialect continua, with separated varieties being mutually unintelligible. On the other hand, there are major differences. In China, political unity was restored in the late 6th century and has persisted until the present day. Meanwhile, Europe remained developed numerous independent states. Vernacular writing, facilitated by the alphabet, supplanted Latin, these states developed their own standard languages. In China, Literary Chinese maintained its monopoly on formal writing until the start of the 20th century; the logographic writing, read with varying local pronunciations, continued to serve as a source of vocabulary and idioms for the local varieties. The new national standard, Vernacular Chinese, the written counterpart of spoken Standard Chinese, is used as a literary form by literate speakers of all varieties. Dialectologist Jerry Norman estimated that there are hundreds of mutually unintelligible varieties of Chinese.
These varieties form a dialect continuum, in which differences in speech become more pronounced as distances increase, although there are some sharp boundar
Avengers: Infinity War
Avengers: Infinity War is a 2018 American superhero film based on the Marvel Comics superhero team the Avengers, produced by Marvel Studios and distributed by Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures. It is the sequel to 2012's The Avengers and 2015's Avengers: Age of Ultron, the nineteenth film in the Marvel Cinematic Universe; the film is directed by Anthony and Joe Russo, written by Christopher Markus and Stephen McFeely, features an ensemble cast including Robert Downey Jr. Chris Hemsworth, Mark Ruffalo, Chris Evans, Scarlett Johansson, Benedict Cumberbatch, Don Cheadle, Tom Holland, Chadwick Boseman, Paul Bettany, Elizabeth Olsen, Anthony Mackie, Sebastian Stan, Danai Gurira, Letitia Wright, Dave Bautista, Zoe Saldana, Josh Brolin, Chris Pratt. In the film, the Avengers and the Guardians of the Galaxy attempt to stop Thanos from amassing the all-powerful Infinity Stones; the film was announced in October 2014 as Avengers: Infinity War – Part 1. The Russo brothers came on board to direct in April 2015 and by May, Markus and McFeely had signed on to write the script for the film, which drew inspiration from Jim Starlin's 1991 The Infinity Gauntlet comic and Jonathan Hickman's 2013 Infinity comic.
In 2016, Marvel shortened the title to Avengers: Infinity War. Filming began in January 2017 at Pinewood Atlanta Studios in Fayette County, with a large cast consisting of actors reprising their roles from previous MCU films, including Brolin as Thanos; the production lasted until July 2017, shooting back-to-back with a direct sequel, Avengers: Endgame. Additional filming took place in Scotland, the Downtown Atlanta area, New York City. With an estimated budget in the range of $316–400 million, it is one of the most expensive films made. Avengers: Infinity War held its world premiere on April 23, 2018 in Los Angeles and was released in the United States on April 27, 2018, in IMAX and 3D; the film received praise for the performances of the cast and the emotional weight of the story, as well as the visual effects and action sequences. It was the fourth film and the first superhero film to gross over $2 billion worldwide, breaking numerous box office records and becoming the highest-grossing film of 2018, as well as the fourth-highest-grossing film of all time and in the United States and Canada.
The film received Academy Award and BAFTA nominations for achievements in visual effects. The sequel, Avengers: Endgame, is set to be released on April 26, 2019. Having acquired the Power Stone, one of the six Infinity Stones, from the planet Xandar and his lieutenants—Ebony Maw, Cull Obsidian, Proxima Midnight, Corvus Glaive—intercept the spaceship carrying the surviving Asgardians; as they extract the Space Stone from the Tesseract, Thanos subdues Thor, overpowers Hulk, kills Loki. Heimdall sends Hulk to Earth using the Bifröst before being killed. Thanos obliterates the ship. Hulk crash-lands at the Sanctum Sanctorum in New York City, reverting to Bruce Banner, he warns Stephen Wong about Thanos' plan to kill half of all life in the universe. Maw and Obsidian arrive to retrieve the Time Stone from Strange, drawing the attention of Peter Parker. Maw fails to take the Time Stone due to an enchantment. Stark and Parker pursue Maw's spaceship, Banner contacts Steve Rogers, Wong stays behind to guard the Sanctum.
In Edinburgh and Glaive ambush Wanda Maximoff and Vision in order to retrieve the Mind Stone in Vision's forehead. Rogers, Natasha Romanoff, Sam Wilson rescue them and take shelter with James Rhodes and Banner at the Avengers Facility. Vision offers to sacrifice himself by having Maximoff destroy the Mind Stone to keep Thanos from retrieving it. Rogers suggests they travel to Wakanda, which he believes has the resources to remove the stone without destroying Vision; the Guardians of the Galaxy respond to a distress call from the Asgardian ship and rescue Thor, who surmises that Thanos seeks the Reality Stone, in the possession of the Collector on Knowhere. Rocket and Groot accompany Thor to Nidavellir, where they and Eitri create Stormbreaker, a battle-axe capable of killing Thanos. On Knowhere, Peter Quill, Gamora and Mantis find Thanos with the Reality Stone in his possession. Thanos kidnaps Gamora, his adopted daughter, who reveals the location of the Soul Stone to save her captive adopted sister Nebula from torture.
Thanos and Gamora travel to Vormir, where Red Skull, keeper of the Soul Stone, informs him the stone can only be retrieved by sacrificing someone he loves. Thanos reluctantly kills Gamora. Nebula escapes captivity and asks the remaining Guardians to meet her on Thanos' destroyed homeworld, Titan. Stark and Parker kill rescue Strange. Landing on Titan, they meet Quill and Mantis; the group forms a plan to remove Thanos' Infinity Gauntlet after Strange uses the Time Stone to view millions of possible futures, seeing only one in which Thanos loses. Thanos arrives, justifying his plans as necessary to ensure the survival of a universe threatened by overpopulation; the group subdues him. Enraged, Quill attacks him, allowing Thanos to overpower them. Stark is wounded by Thanos, but is spared after Strange surrenders the Time Stone to Thanos. In Wakanda, Rogers reunites with Bucky Barnes before Thanos' army invades; the Avengers, alongside T'Challa and the Wakandan forces, mount a defense while Shuri works to extract the Mind Stone from Vision.
Banner, unable to transform into the Hulk, fights in Stark's Hulkbuster armor. Thor and Groot arrive to reinforce the Avengers.
A box office or ticket office is a place where tickets are sold to the public for admission to an event. Patrons may perform the transaction at a countertop, through a hole in a wall or window, or at a wicket. By extension, the term is used in the context of the film industry, as a synonym for the amount of business a particular production, such as a film or theatre show, receives. Box office business can be measured in the terms of the number of tickets sold or the amount of money raised by ticket sales; the projection and analysis of these earnings is important for the creative industries and a source of interest for fans. This is predominant in the Hollywood movie industry; the term is attested since 1786 from sales of boxes. The sense of "total sales" is attested from 1904. A folk etymology is that this derives from Elizabethan theatre, where theatre admission was collected in a box attached to a long stick, passed around the audience. However, first attestation is about 200 years making this unlikely.
There are numerous websites that monitor box-office receipts, such as BoxOffice, Box Office India, Box Office Mojo, ShowBIZ Data and The Numbers which provide detailed information for many movies but have less and incomplete data for older movies due to the history of how box office reporting evolved in the U. S. and the availability of this information prior to the introduction of the internet. Although other publications have published box office data over the years, the longevity and regular reporting of Variety makes it a significant source for older box office reporting for the US market and US films. During the 1920s, Variety reported box office grosses for films by theatre for certain U. S. cities. In 1946, they started to publish a weekly National Box Office survey on page 3 indicating the performance of the week's hits and flops based on the box office results of 25 key U. S. cities. During the 1930s, Variety published charts of the top performing films of the year and has maintained this tradition annually since.
In 1946, they published a list of All-Time Top Grossers with a list of films that had achieved or gave promise of earning $4,000,000 or more in domestic rentals. They would publish an updated all-time list annually for over 50 years in their anniversary edition each January; the anniversary edition would normally contain the list of the top performing films of the year. Some publications such as BoxOffice magazine published box office performance expressed as a percentage compared to regular films Some of the early annual reports from Variety used this format. From the 1930s, BoxOffice magazine published a Barometer issue in January giving the performance of movies for the year expressed as percentages; the first issue of The Motion Picture Almanac in 1929 used this format to rank money makers. In the late 1960s, Variety used an IBM 360 computer to collate the grosses from their weekly reports of 22 to 24 U. S. cities from January 1, 1968. The data came from up to 800 theatres which represented around 5% of the U.
S. cinema population at the time but around one-third of the total U. S. box office grosses. In 1969, they started to publish the computerized box office compilation of the top 50 grossing films of the week based on this data. "The Love Bug" was the number one in the first chart published for the week ending April 16, 1969. The chart was discontinued in 1990. In 1976, Marcy Polier, an employee of the Mann theater chain, set up Centralized Grosses to collate U. S. daily box office data on a centralized basis rather than each theater chain collating their own numbers from other theater chains. The company became National Gross Service Entertainment Data, Inc.. Except for disclosures by the studios on successful films, total domestic box office gross information for films was not available until National Gross Service started to collate this data around 1981; the collation of grosses led to wider reporting of domestic box office grosses for films. Arthur D. Murphy at Variety was one of the first to organize and chart that information and report it in a meaningful form.
During the 1980s, Daily Variety started to publish a weekly chart of the domestic box office grosses of films as compared to the Top 50 chart in Variety, based on a sample of key markets. The focus of a film's performance became its box office gross rather than the rentals that Variety continued to report annually. Prior to the tracking of these grosses, domestic or worldwide box office grosses is not available for many earlier films so the only domestic or worldwide data available is still the rental figures. In 1984, EDI started to report Canadian grosses as well and by 1985 was reporting data for 15,000 screens. In 1987, EDI set up a database of box office information which included data on certain films back to 1970. By 1991, all U. S. studios had agreed to share their complete data reports with EDI. In 1990, EDI opened an office in the UK, moved into Germany in 1993 and Spain in 1995 reporting box office data for those markets. EDI were acquired by ACNielsen Corporation in 1997 for $26 million and became Nielsen EDI.
In December 2009, with its acquisition of Nielsen EDI for $15 million, measurement company Rentrak became the sole provider of worldwide box office ticket sales revenue and attendance information, used by many of the websites noted above. For a list of films which are major box-office hits, see List of highest-grossing films. Films that are considered to have been unsuccessful at the box office are called box office bombs or box off